Gene Symbol: VEGFR-2
Description: kinase insert domain receptor
Alias: CD309, FLK1, VEGFR, VEGFR2, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, fetal liver kinase-1, kinase insert domain receptor (a type III receptor tyrosine kinase), protein-tyrosine kinase receptor Flk-1, soluble VEGFR2, tyrosine kinase growth factor receptor
Species: human
Products:     VEGFR-2

Top Publications

  1. Yao J, Zhai W, Young W, Yang G. Interleukin-6 triggers human cerebral endothelial cells proliferation and migration: the role for KDR and MMP-9. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;342:1396-404 pubmed
    ..We conclude that IL-6 triggers VEGF-induced angiogenic activity through increasing VEGF release, up-regulates KDR expression and phosphorylation through activating ERK1/2 signaling, and stimulates MMP-9 overexpression. ..
  2. Singh A, Meyer R, Band H, Rahimi N. The carboxyl terminus of VEGFR-2 is required for PKC-mediated down-regulation. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:2106-18 pubmed
    Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2/Flk-1) is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) whose activation regulates angiogenesis. The regulatory mechanisms that attenuate VEGFR-2 signal relay are largely unknown...
  3. Zietsch J, Ziegenhagen N, Heppner F, Reuss D, von Deimling A, Holtkamp N. The 4q12 amplicon in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors: consequences on gene expression and implications for sunitinib treatment. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11858 pubmed publisher
    ..Sunitinib is a drug targeting receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) like PDGFRalpha, c-Kit and VEGFR-2. These genes are structurally related and cluster on chromosomal segment 4q12.
  4. Ulyatt C, Walker J, Ponnambalam S. Hypoxia differentially regulates VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 levels and alters intracellular signaling and cell migration in endothelial cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;404:774-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Hypoxia stimulated VEGF-A and VEGFR1 expression but decreased VEGFR2 levels in endothelial cells...
  5. Hanevik H, Hilmarsen H, Skjelbred C, Tanbo T, Kahn J. Increased risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome following controlled ovarian hyperstimulation in patients with vascular endothelial growth factor +405 cc genotype. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2012;28:845-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor VEGFR2 have been identified as an important signaling system in mediating this increase...
  6. Capp C, Wajner S, Siqueira D, Brasil B, Meurer L, Maia A. Increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptors, VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2, in medullary thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid. 2010;20:863-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The aims of this study were to evaluate VEGF-A, VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-1, VEGFR-2, and microvessel density (MVD) expression in MTC samples and correlate it with clinical parameters...
  7. Pander J, Wessels J, Gelderblom H, van der Straaten T, Punt C, Guchelaar H. Pharmacogenetic interaction analysis for the efficacy of systemic treatment in metastatic colorectal cancer. Ann Oncol. 2011;22:1147-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results support a genetic interaction between the TYMS enhancer region and VEGF +405G>C polymorphisms as a predictor of the efficacy of CAPOX-B in mCRC patients. ..
  8. Tvorogov D, Anisimov A, Zheng W, Leppänen V, Tammela T, Laurinavicius S, et al. Effective suppression of vascular network formation by combination of antibodies blocking VEGFR ligand binding and receptor dimerization. Cancer Cell. 2010;18:630-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Typically receptor-blocking antibodies are targeted to the VEGFR ligand-binding site...
  9. Koukourakis M, Limberis V, Tentes I, Kontomanolis E, Kortsaris A, Sivridis E, et al. Serum VEGF levels and tissue activation of VEGFR2/KDR receptors in patients with breast and gynecologic cancer. Cytokine. 2011;53:370-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the activation status of VEGFR2/KDR receptors was investigated in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissues and related to VEGF...

More Information

Publications125 found, 100 shown here

  1. Herzog B, Pellet Many C, Britton G, Hartzoulakis B, Zachary I. VEGF binding to NRP1 is essential for VEGF stimulation of endothelial cell migration, complex formation between NRP1 and VEGFR2, and signaling via FAK Tyr407 phosphorylation. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:2766-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Identification of key residues essential for VEGF binding and biological functions provides the basis for a rational design of antagonists of VEGF binding to NRP1. ..
  2. Oh S, Min K, Jeon Y, Kim M, Moon J, Kim H, et al. Association between kinase insert domain-containing receptor gene polymorphism and haplotypes and ischemic stroke. J Neurol Sci. 2011;308:62-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The KDR +1719A>T polymorphism and its haplotypes are possible genetic determinants for the risk of ischemic stroke. ..
  3. Waldner M, Wirtz S, Jefremow A, Warntjen M, Neufert C, Atreya R, et al. VEGF receptor signaling links inflammation and tumorigenesis in colitis-associated cancer. J Exp Med. 2010;207:2855-68 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that, unlike sporadic colorectal cancer and control patients, patients with CAC show activated VEGFR2 on intestinal epithelial cells (IECs)...
  4. Jopling H, Howell G, Gamper N, Ponnambalam S. The VEGFR2 receptor tyrosine kinase undergoes constitutive endosome-to-plasma membrane recycling. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;410:170-6 pubmed publisher
    The VEGFR2 receptor tyrosine kinase regulates vascular physiology and animal development. The mechanism underlying VEGFR2 membrane trafficking is not well understood...
  5. Markowska A, Jefferies K, Panjwani N. Galectin-3 protein modulates cell surface expression and activation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 in human endothelial cells. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:29913-21 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that, like its role with the EGF and TGF? receptors, galectin-3 contributes to the plasma membrane retention and proangiogenic function of VEGF-R2. ..
  6. Francescone R, Scully S, Bentley B, Yan W, Taylor S, Oh D, et al. Glioblastoma-derived tumor cells induce vasculogenic mimicry through Flk-1 protein activation. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:24821-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, all the data demonstrate a central role of Flk-1 in the formation of VM in GBM. This study has shed light on molecular mechanisms mediating tumor aggressiveness and also provided a therapeutic target for patient treatment. ..
  7. Cudmore M, Hewett P, Ahmad S, Wang K, Cai M, Al Ani B, et al. The role of heterodimerization between VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 in the regulation of endothelial cell homeostasis. Nat Commun. 2012;3:972 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we investigate the physiological function of heterodimers between VEGF receptor-1 (VEGFR-1; Flt-1) and VEGFR-2 (KDR; Flk-1) (VEGFR(1-2)) in endothelial cells with a synthetic ligand that binds ..
  8. Gourlaouen M, Welti J, Vasudev N, Reynolds A. Essential role for endocytosis in the growth factor-stimulated activation of ERK1/2 in endothelial cells. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:7467-80 pubmed publisher
    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) stimulates angiogenesis by binding to VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) on endothelial cells (ECs)...
  9. Burford A, Little S, Jury A, Popov S, Laxton R, Doey L, et al. Distinct phenotypic differences associated with differential amplification of receptor tyrosine kinase genes at 4q12 in glioblastoma. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e71777 pubmed publisher
    ..This locus harbours the known oncogenes encoding the receptor tyrosine kinases PDGFRA, KIT, and VEGFR2. These receptors are potential targets for novel therapeutic intervention in these diseases, with expression noted ..
  10. Liu J, Agarwal S. Mechanical signals activate vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 to upregulate endothelial cell proliferation during inflammation. J Immunol. 2010;185:1215-21 pubmed publisher
    ..article, we demonstrate that the mechanosignaling cascade is initiated by vascular endothelial growth receptor-2 (VEGFR2) activation...
  11. Nobusawa S, Stawski R, Kim Y, Nakazato Y, Ohgaki H. Amplification of the PDGFRA, KIT and KDR genes in glioblastoma: a population-based study. Neuropathology. 2011;31:583-8 pubmed publisher
    ..this study was to establish the frequency of amplification of tyrosine kinase receptor genes PDGFRA, KIT and KDR (VEGFR2) at 4q12 in glioblastomas at a population level, and to assess whether such alterations have any clinical impact...
  12. Meyer R, Srinivasan S, Singh A, Mahoney J, Gharahassanlou K, Rahimi N. PEST motif serine and tyrosine phosphorylation controls vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 stability and downregulation. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:2010-25 pubmed publisher
    The internalization and degradation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2), a potent angiogenic receptor tyrosine kinase, is a central mechanism for the regulation of the coordinated action of VEGF in angiogenesis...
  13. Ballmer Hofer K, Andersson A, Ratcliffe L, Berger P. Neuropilin-1 promotes VEGFR-2 trafficking through Rab11 vesicles thereby specifying signal output. Blood. 2011;118:816-26 pubmed publisher
    ..factors (VEGFs) regulate blood and lymph vessel development by activating 3 receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), VEGFR-1, -2, and -3, and by binding to coreceptors such as neuropilin-1 (NRP-1)...
  14. Kim J, Vaziri S, Rini B, Elson P, Garcia J, Wirka R, et al. Association of VEGF and VEGFR2 single nucleotide polymorphisms with hypertension and clinical outcome in metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma patients treated with sunitinib. Cancer. 2012;118:1946-54 pubmed publisher
    ..This study evaluated the association of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) genetic polymorphisms with the development of hypertension (HTN) and clinical outcome in metastatic clear cell ..
  15. Pietrowski D, Szabo L, Sator M, Just A, Egarter C. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome is correlated with a reduction of soluble VEGF receptor protein level and a higher amount of VEGF-A. Hum Reprod. 2012;27:196-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, a number of soluble receptors for the VEGFs have been detected (sVEGF-Rs) and it has been shown that these sVEGF-Rs compete with the membrane-standing VEGF-R to bind VEGFs...
  16. Johansson I, Aaltonen K, Ebbesson A, Grabau D, Wigerup C, Hedenfalk I, et al. Increased gene copy number of KIT and VEGFR2 at 4q12 in primary breast cancer is related to an aggressive phenotype and impaired prognosis. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2012;51:375-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Drugs inhibiting tyrosine kinases, such as vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and KIT, have shown some promising results for patients with TNBC...
  17. Anselmi F, Orlandini M, Rocchigiani M, De Clemente C, Salameh A, Lentucci C, et al. c-ABL modulates MAP kinases activation downstream of VEGFR-2 signaling by direct phosphorylation of the adaptor proteins GRB2 and NCK1. Angiogenesis. 2012;15:187-97 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that c-ABL function is to establish a correct and tightly controlled response of endothelial cells to VEGF-A during the angiogenic process. ..
  18. Hamerlik P, Lathia J, Rasmussen R, Wu Q, Bartkova J, Lee M, et al. Autocrine VEGF-VEGFR2-Neuropilin-1 signaling promotes glioma stem-like cell viability and tumor growth. J Exp Med. 2012;209:507-20 pubmed publisher
    Although vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 2 (VEGFR2) is traditionally regarded as an endothelial cell protein, evidence suggests that VEGFRs may be expressed by cancer cells...
  19. Dhakal H, Naume B, Synnestvedt M, Borgen E, Kaaresen R, Schlichting E, et al. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1 and 2 in invasive breast carcinoma: prognostic significance and relationship with markers for aggressiveness. Histopathology. 2012;61:350-64 pubmed publisher
    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR-1) and VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) play a role in breast cancer growth and angiogenesis...
  20. Shibuya M. Vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor system: physiological functions in angiogenesis and pathological roles in various diseases. J Biochem. 2013;153:13-9 pubmed publisher
    ..VEGF-A, the major factor for angiogenesis, binds to two tyrosine kinase (TK) receptors, VEGFR-1 (Flt-1) and VEGFR-2 (KDR/Flk-1), and regulates endothelial cell proliferation, migration, vascular permeability, ..
  21. Leppänen V, Prota A, Jeltsch M, Anisimov A, Kalkkinen N, Strandin T, et al. Structural determinants of growth factor binding and specificity by VEGF receptor 2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:2425-30 pubmed publisher
    ..factors (VEGFs) regulate blood and lymph vessel formation through activation of three receptor tyrosine kinases, VEGFR-1, -2, and -3...
  22. Matsumoto T, Bohman S, Dixelius J, Berge T, Dimberg A, Magnusson P, et al. VEGF receptor-2 Y951 signaling and a role for the adapter molecule TSAd in tumor angiogenesis. EMBO J. 2005;24:2342-53 pubmed
    Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) activation by VEGF-A is essential in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis...
  23. Murdaca J, Treins C, Monthouël Kartmann M, Pontier Bres R, Kumar S, Van Obberghen E, et al. Grb10 prevents Nedd4-mediated vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 degradation. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:26754-61 pubmed
    ..In this study, we show that Grb10 acts as a positive regulator in VEGF-R2 signaling and protects VEGF-R2 from degradation by interacting with Nedd4, a component of the endocytic machinery. ..
  24. Wang Y, Zheng Y, Zhang W, Yu H, Lou K, Zhang Y, et al. Polymorphisms of KDR gene are associated with coronary heart disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007;50:760-7 pubmed
    ..factor (VEGF) and its receptor KDR (kinase insert domain-containing receptor/fetal liver kinase-1, also called VEGFR2) play critical roles in angiogenesis and vascular repair, which are involved in the progress of coronary heart ..
  25. Schimanski C, Zimmermann T, Schmidtmann I, Gockel I, Lang H, Galle P, et al. K-ras mutation status correlates with the expression of VEGFR1, VEGFR2, and PDGFRalpha in colorectal cancer. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2010;25:181-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression pattern of VEGFR1, VEGFR2, VEGFR3, PDGFRalpha, PDGFRbeta, and EGFR1 was analyzed in 93 samples of human colorectal carcinoma samples and ..
  26. Olszewska Pazdrak B, Hein T, Olszewska P, Carney D. Chronic hypoxia attenuates VEGF signaling and angiogenic responses by downregulation of KDR in human endothelial cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2009;296:C1162-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide a novel explanation for the impaired angiogenic responses to VEGF in endothelial cells exposed to chronic hypoxia. ..
  27. Tas F, Duranyildiz D, Oguz H, Camlica H, Yasasever V, Topuz E. Circulating serum levels of angiogenic factors and vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1 and 2 in melanoma patients. Melanoma Res. 2006;16:405-11 pubmed
    ..endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiogenin, transforming growth factor-beta1 and VEGF receptors, VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, in human melanoma patients...
  28. Achen M, Jeltsch M, Kukk E, Makinen T, Vitali A, Wilks A, et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor D (VEGF-D) is a ligand for the tyrosine kinases VEGF receptor 2 (Flk1) and VEGF receptor 3 (Flt4). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:548-53 pubmed
    ..Analyses of VEGF-D receptor specificity revealed that VEGF-D is a ligand for both VEGF receptors (VEGFRs) VEGFR-2 (Flk1) and VEGFR-3 (Flt4) and can activate these receptors. However. VEGF-D does not bind to VEGFR-1...
  29. Kroll J, Waltenberger J. A novel function of VEGF receptor-2 (KDR): rapid release of nitric oxide in response to VEGF-A stimulation in endothelial cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999;265:636-9 pubmed
    ..These data show that the VEGF receptor KDR is responsible for NO release in endothelial cells, highlighting a new function of KDR and further supporting the importance of KDR in the regulation of the vasculature. ..
  30. Robinson S, Reynolds L, Kostourou V, Reynolds A, da Silva R, Tavora B, et al. Alphav beta3 integrin limits the contribution of neuropilin-1 to vascular endothelial growth factor-induced angiogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:33966-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous work has shown that beta3 integrin can regulate negatively VEGFR2 expression...
  31. Urbich C, Stein M, Reisinger K, Kaufmann R, Dimmeler S, Gille J. Fluid shear stress-induced transcriptional activation of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 gene requires Sp1-dependent DNA binding. FEBS Lett. 2003;535:87-93 pubmed
    ..Together, these results suggest that biomechanical stimulation may lead to endothelial cell survival by upregulating VEGF receptor-2 expression. ..
  32. Gavin T, Robinson C, Yeager R, England J, Nifong L, Hickner R. Angiogenic growth factor response to acute systemic exercise in human skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2004;96:19-24 pubmed
    ..Acta Physiol Scand 175: 201-209, 2002); and 3) VEGF protein is decreased immediately after exercise. ..
  33. Matsumoto T, Mugishima H. Signal transduction via vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors and their roles in atherogenesis. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2006;13:130-5 pubmed
    ..a critical role in vascular development and angiogenesis through its binding and activation of VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2)...
  34. Lampugnani M, Orsenigo F, Gagliani M, Tacchetti C, Dejana E. Vascular endothelial cadherin controls VEGFR-2 internalization and signaling from intracellular compartments. J Cell Biol. 2006;174:593-604 pubmed
    ..In a previous study, we found that the association of vascular endothelial cadherin (VEC) with VEGF receptor (VEGFR) type 2 contributes to density-dependent growth inhibition (Lampugnani, G.M., A. Zanetti, M. Corada, T...
  35. Zhang W, Sun K, Zhen Y, Wang D, Wang Y, Chen J, et al. VEGF receptor-2 variants are associated with susceptibility to stroke and recurrence. Stroke. 2009;40:2720-6 pubmed publisher
    ..71; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.89; P=0.002) than their wild-type carriers. The vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 gene variants may serve as novel genetic markers for the risk of stroke and its recurrence. ..
  36. Wu L, Mayo L, Dunbar J, Kessler K, Ozes O, Warren R, et al. VRAP is an adaptor protein that binds KDR, a receptor for vascular endothelial cell growth factor. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:6059-62 pubmed
    ..These observations identify VRAP as an adaptor that recruits cytoplasmic signaling proteins to KDR, which plays an important role in normal and pathological angiogenesis. ..
  37. Autiero M, Waltenberger J, Communi D, Kranz A, Moons L, Lambrechts D, et al. Role of PlGF in the intra- and intermolecular cross talk between the VEGF receptors Flt1 and Flk1. Nat Med. 2003;9:936-43 pubmed
    ..Activation of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) Flk1 by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is crucial, but molecular interactions of other factors with VEGF and ..
  38. Warner A, Lopez Dee J, Knight E, Feramisco J, Prigent S. The Shc-related adaptor protein, Sck, forms a complex with the vascular-endothelial-growth-factor receptor KDR in transfected cells. Biochem J. 2000;347:501-9 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we demonstrate that in the two-hybrid assay, both Shc and Sck SH2 domains can associate with the related receptor Flt1. ..
  39. Kariyazono H, Ohno T, Khajoee V, Ihara K, Kusuhara K, Kinukawa N, et al. Association of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor gene polymorphisms with coronary artery lesions of Kawasaki disease. Pediatr Res. 2004;56:953-9 pubmed
    ..4422(AC)11 repeats showed a weaker silencer function than the A2 allele with 12 AC repeats. These findings suggested that VEGF and its receptor, KDR, genes contributed to the development of CAL in KD patients. ..
  40. Lee S, Gharavi N, Honda H, Chang I, Kim B, Jen N, et al. A role for NADPH oxidase 4 in the activation of vascular endothelial cells by oxidized phospholipids. Free Radic Biol Med. 2009;47:145-51 pubmed publisher
    ..We present evidence that vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) activation is responsible for rac1 recruitment to the membrane...
  41. Patterson C, Perrella M, Hsieh C, Yoshizumi M, Lee M, Haber E. Cloning and functional analysis of the promoter for KDR/flk-1, a receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:23111-8 pubmed
    ..Understanding the KDR/flk-1 promoter will allow us to investigate endothelial cell-specific gene regulation and to uncover methods for targeting gene delivery specifically to endothelial cells. ..
  42. Bhattacharya R, Kang Decker N, Hughes D, Mukherjee P, Shah V, McNiven M, et al. Regulatory role of dynamin-2 in VEGFR-2/KDR-mediated endothelial signaling. FASEB J. 2005;19:1692-4 pubmed
    Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2, also known as KDR) is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) regulating mitogenic, chemotactic, permeability, and survival signals in vascular endothelial cells (EC) in response to its ..
  43. Albini A, Soldi R, Giunciuglio D, Giraudo E, Benelli R, Primo L, et al. The angiogenesis induced by HIV-1 tat protein is mediated by the Flk-1/KDR receptor on vascular endothelial cells. Nat Med. 1996;2:1371-5 pubmed
    ..13), and that Tat-induced angiogenesis is blocked by agents blocking the Flk-1/KDR receptor. Endothelial cell stimulation by Tat occurs in the absence of activation of FLT-1, another VEGF-A tyrosine kinase receptor. ..
  44. Kranz A, Mattfeldt T, Waltenberger J. Molecular mediators of tumor angiogenesis: enhanced expression and activation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor KDR in primary breast cancer. Int J Cancer. 1999;84:293-8 pubmed
    ..Our data demonstrate that KDR activation is enhanced in breast cancer in vivo and emphasize the functional role of VEGF and KDR in the development of malignant breast disease. ..
  45. Terman B, Dougher Vermazen M, Carrion M, Dimitrov D, Armellino D, Gospodarowicz D, et al. Identification of the KDR tyrosine kinase as a receptor for vascular endothelial cell growth factor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1992;187:1579-86 pubmed
    ..The KDR receptor tyrosine kinase shares structural similarities with a recently reported receptor for VEGF, flt, in a manner reminiscent of the similarities between the alpha and beta forms of the PDGF receptors. ..
  46. Ganju R, Munshi N, Nair B, Liu Z, Gill P, Groopman J. Human immunodeficiency virus tat modulates the Flk-1/KDR receptor, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and components of focal adhesion in Kaposi's sarcoma cells. J Virol. 1998;72:6131-7 pubmed
    ..These studies reveal that Tat stimulation activates a number of signal transduction pathways that are associated with cell growth and migration. ..
  47. Park H, Lee J, Shin E, Lee J, Bahn J, Oh H, et al. Association between genetic variations of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and atopy in the Korean population. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006;117:774-9 pubmed
    ..The VEGFR2 gene, including the promoter area, was sequenced on 24 healthy subjects to discover informative single nucleotide ..
  48. Higgins K, Abdelrahim M, Liu S, Yoon K, Safe S. Regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 expression in pancreatic cancer cells by Sp proteins. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;345:292-301 pubmed
    Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2/KDR) is an important mediator of angiogenesis, and VEGFR2 mRNA is expressed in several pancreatic cancer cell lines...
  49. Hsieh S, Ying N, Wu M, Chiang W, Hsu C, Wong T, et al. Galectin-1, a novel ligand of neuropilin-1, activates VEGFR-2 signaling and modulates the migration of vascular endothelial cells. Oncogene. 2008;27:3746-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Surprisingly, Gal-1 selectively bound NRP1 via the carbohydrate-recognition domain, but did not bind VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2 or VEGFR-3. The Gal-1-NRP1 interaction mediated the migration and adhesion of endothelial cells...
  50. Vieira J, Santos S, Espadinha C, Correia I, Vag T, Casalou C, et al. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors in thyroid carcinomas of follicular origin: a potential autocrine loop. Eur J Endocrinol. 2005;153:701-9 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to clarify the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor (VEGFR) pathways in thyroid tumourigenesis...
  51. Sassa Y, Hata Y, Aiello L, Taniguchi Y, Kohno K, Ishibashi T. Bifunctional properties of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma1 in KDR gene regulation mediated via interaction with both Sp1 and Sp3. Diabetes. 2004;53:1222-9 pubmed
    b>Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (KDR) plays a critical role in mediating a variety of vasculogenic and angiogenic processes, including diabetic retinopathy...
  52. Mitola S, Brenchio B, Piccinini M, Tertoolen L, Zammataro L, Breier G, et al. Type I collagen limits VEGFR-2 signaling by a SHP2 protein-tyrosine phosphatase-dependent mechanism 1. Circ Res. 2006;98:45-54 pubmed
    ..For instance, vitronectin has been reported to positively regulate VEGFR-2. Here, we show that collagen I downregulates VEGF-A-mediated VEGFR-2 activation...
  53. Waltenberger J, Claesson Welsh L, Siegbahn A, Shibuya M, Heldin C. Different signal transduction properties of KDR and Flt1, two receptors for vascular endothelial growth factor. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:26988-95 pubmed
    ..e. in the presence of Flt1. This difference could possibly be explained by the formation of heterodimeric complexes between KDR and Flt1, or other molecules, in HUVE cells. ..
  54. Graells J, Vinyals A, Figueras A, Llorens A, Moreno A, Marcoval J, et al. Overproduction of VEGF concomitantly expressed with its receptors promotes growth and survival of melanoma cells through MAPK and PI3K signaling. J Invest Dermatol. 2004;123:1151-61 pubmed
    ..In addition, VEGF receptors (VEGFR)1, VEGFR2 and neurophilin-1 are expressed in A375 melanoma cells...
  55. Pan Q, Chathery Y, Wu Y, Rathore N, Tong R, Peale F, et al. Neuropilin-1 binds to VEGF121 and regulates endothelial cell migration and sprouting. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:24049-56 pubmed
    ..b>VEGFR2 complex. Additionally, we show that VEGFR2 enhances VEGF(165), but not VEGF(121) binding to NRP1...
  56. Knizetova P, Ehrmann J, Hlobilkova A, Vancova I, Kalita O, Kolar Z, et al. Autocrine regulation of glioblastoma cell cycle progression, viability and radioresistance through the VEGF-VEGFR2 (KDR) interplay. Cell Cycle. 2008;7:2553-61 pubmed
    ..Morevover, we demonstrated that the autocrine VEGF signaling is mediated via VEGFR2 (KDR), and involves co-activation of the c-Raf/MAPK, PI3K/Akt and PLC/PKC pathways...
  57. Matthews W, Jordan C, Gavin M, Jenkins N, Copeland N, Lemischka I. A receptor tyrosine kinase cDNA isolated from a population of enriched primitive hematopoietic cells and exhibiting close genetic linkage to c-kit. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991;88:9026-30 pubmed
    We have cloned a receptor tyrosine kinase cDNA, designated fetal liver kinase 1 (Flk-1), from mouse cell populations enriched for hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells...
  58. Arese M, Ferrandi C, Primo L, Camussi G, Bussolino F. HIV-1 Tat protein stimulates in vivo vascular permeability and lymphomononuclear cell recruitment. J Immunol. 2001;166:1380-8 pubmed
    ..These results highlighted the role of PAF and MCP-1 as secondary mediators in the onset of lymphomononuclear cell recruitment in tissues triggered by Tat. ..
  59. Zhang H, Wu J, Meng L, Shou C. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptors KDR and Flt-1 in gastric cancer cells. World J Gastroenterol. 2002;8:994-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that VEGF may play a role in promoting tumor growth and metastasis by participating in both paracrine and autocrine pathways. ..
  60. Jia H, Bagherzadeh A, Bicknell R, Duchen M, Liu D, Zachary I. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-D and VEGF-A differentially regulate KDR-mediated signaling and biological function in vascular endothelial cells. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:36148-57 pubmed
    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-D binds to VEGF receptors (VEGFR) VEGFR2/KDR and VEGFR3/Flt4, but the signaling mechanisms mediating its biological activities in endothelial cells are poorly understood...
  61. Neagoe P, Lemieux C, Sirois M. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A165-induced prostacyclin synthesis requires the activation of VEGF receptor-1 and -2 heterodimer. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:9904-12 pubmed acute platelet-activating factor synthesis from endothelial cells upon the activation of VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and its coreceptor, neuropilin-1 (NRP-1)...
  62. Blazquez C, Cook N, Micklem K, Harris A, Gatter K, Pezzella F. Phosphorylated KDR can be located in the nucleus of neoplastic cells. Cell Res. 2006;16:93-8 pubmed
    ..We conclude that neoplastic cells show a variable expression of total and phosphorylated KDR in the nucleus. The precise functional meaning of nuclear location remains to be established. ..
  63. Rydén L, Jirstrom K, Haglund M, Stal O, Fernö M. Epidermal growth factor receptor and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 are specific biomarkers in triple-negative breast cancer. Results from a controlled randomized trial with long-term follow-up. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010;120:491-8 pubmed publisher
    ..epidermal receptor growth factor (EGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2)...
  64. Meyer R, Latz C, Rahimi N. Recruitment and activation of phospholipase Cgamma1 by vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 are required for tubulogenesis and differentiation of endothelial cells. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:16347-55 pubmed
    ..Here, we investigated the contribution of tyrosine-phosphorylated residues of VEGFR-2/fetal liver kinase-1 to endothelial cell proliferation and differentiation and activation of signaling proteins...
  65. Zhang Z, Neiva K, Lingen M, Ellis L, Nor J. VEGF-dependent tumor angiogenesis requires inverse and reciprocal regulation of VEGFR1 and VEGFR2. Cell Death Differ. 2010;17:499-512 pubmed publisher
    ..Surprisingly little is known about mechanisms underlying the regulation of VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 expression, the main targets of these drugs...
  66. Bruns A, Herbert S, Odell A, Jopling H, Hooper N, Zachary I, et al. Ligand-stimulated VEGFR2 signaling is regulated by co-ordinated trafficking and proteolysis. Traffic. 2010;11:161-74 pubmed publisher
    ..A soluble VEGFR2 cytoplasmic domain fragment displayed tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of downstream intracellular ..
  67. Hansen T, Sørensen F, Spindler K, Olsen D, Andersen R, Lindebjerg J, et al. Microvessel density and the association with single nucleotide polymorphisms of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 in patients with colorectal cancer. Virchows Arch. 2010;456:251-60 pubmed publisher
    ..was to compare MVD with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-1 and VEGFR-2 genes and, furthermore, with quantitative measurements of the receptors in colorectal cancer (CRC) ..
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    ..In order to define signaling pathways downstream of VEGF receptors (VEGFR), the kinase domain of VEGFR2 (Flk-1) was used as a bait to screen a human fetal heart library in the yeast two-hybrid system...
  69. Takahashi T, Yamaguchi S, Chida K, Shibuya M. A single autophosphorylation site on KDR/Flk-1 is essential for VEGF-A-dependent activation of PLC-gamma and DNA synthesis in vascular endothelial cells. EMBO J. 2001;20:2768-78 pubmed
    ..These findings strongly suggest that autophosphorylation of Y1175 on KDR is crucial for endothelial cell proliferation, and that this region is a new target for anti-angiogenic reagents. ..
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    ..were found in two of the 15 hemangioma specimens: a missense mutation (P1147S) in the kinase domain of the VEGFR2 (FLK1/KDR) gene in one specimen and a missense mutation (P954S) in the kinase insert of the VEGFR3 (FLT4) gene in ..
  71. Giatromanolaki A, Koukourakis M, Turley H, Sivridis E, Harris A, Gatter K. Phosphorylated KDR expression in endometrial cancer cells relates to HIF1alpha/VEGF pathway and unfavourable prognosis. Mod Pathol. 2006;19:701-7 pubmed
    ..The unfavourable prognosis that VEGF confers to endometrial adenocarcinomas could be attributed to its angiogenic activity, but also to a direct effect on cancer cells through an autocrine VEGF/KDR loop. ..
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    Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) signaling is an obligate requirement for normal development and pathological angiogenesis such as cancer and age-related macular degeneration...
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    ..Silencing of VE-PTP expression was accompanied by increased VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR2) tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of downstream signaling pathways...
  74. Zachary I, Gliki G. Signaling transduction mechanisms mediating biological actions of the vascular endothelial growth factor family. Cardiovasc Res. 2001;49:568-81 pubmed
    ..While VEGF binds to two receptor protein tyrosine kinases, VEGFR1 (Flt-1) and VEGFR2 (KDR), most biological functions of VEGF are mediated via VEGFR2, and the role of VEGFR1 is currently unknown...
  75. Santos S, Dias S. Internal and external autocrine VEGF/KDR loops regulate survival of subsets of acute leukemia through distinct signaling pathways. Blood. 2004;103:3883-9 pubmed
    ..hematopoietic stem cell survival via an internal loop, the molecular mechanisms whereby autocrine stimulation of VEGFR-2 (KDR) promotes leukemia growth are not well understood...
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    ..The potent induction of angiogenesis by Fkn can be used as a therapeutic strategy for alleviating peripheral ischaemia. ..
  77. Chaiworapongsa T, Romero R, Gotsch F, Espinoza J, Nien J, Goncalves L, et al. Low maternal concentrations of soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 in preeclampsia and small for gestational age. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2008;21:41-52 pubmed publisher
    ..9). Preeclampsia and SGA are associated with low plasma concentrations of sVEGFR-2. One interpretation of the findings is that plasma sVEGFR-2 concentration could reflect endothelial cell function. ..
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    ..and prognostic significance of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) -A, -C, and -D, and their receptors, VEGFR-1 and -2 in gastric adenocarcinomas...
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    ..On the other hand, the PTB domain of Sck does not bind to KDR and Flt-1. These results indicate that Sck binds to KDR and Flt-1 via its SH2 domain and might play an important role in VEGF signal transduction. ..
  81. Masson Gadais B, Houle F, Laferriere J, Huot J. Integrin alphavbeta3, requirement for VEGFR2-mediated activation of SAPK2/p38 and for Hsp90-dependent phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase in endothelial cells activated by VEGF. Cell Stress Chaperones. 2003;8:37-52 pubmed
    ..vein endothelial cells cultivated on vitronectin triggers a synergistic interaction between the VEGF receptor VEGFR2 and the clustered integrin receptor alphavbeta3...
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    ..Taken together, our results substantially broaden the spectrum of KDR-associating molecules, indicating that endothelial function and angiogenesis are regulated by a diverse network of signal transduction cascades. ..
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    ..growth factor (VEGF) stimulation using porcine aortic endothelial cells expressing the human VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) (KDR)...
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    ..vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated endothelial responses mainly through the VEGF type2 receptor (VEGFR2). Little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms...
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    ..of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) on site Tyr(407), an effect that required the association of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) with HSP90...
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    ..cells, NRP-1 serves as a co-receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and regulates VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR-2)-dependent angiogenesis...
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    ..Binding to either semaphorins or VEGF, NRP1 acts with plexins to regulate neuronal guidance, or with VEGFR2 to mediate vascular development...
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    ..Here we show that the monomeric extracellular domain of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) has a flexible structure...
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    Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2, KDR), a receptor tyrosine kinase, regulates mitogenic, chemotactic, hyperpermeability, and survival signals in vascular endothelial cells in response to its ligand vascular ..