Gene Symbol: VEGFD
Description: vascular endothelial growth factor D
Alias: FIGF, VEGF-D, vascular endothelial growth factor D, c-fos induced growth factor (vascular endothelial growth factor D)
Species: human
Products:     VEGFD

Top Publications

  1. Stacker S, Stenvers K, Caesar C, Vitali A, Domagala T, Nice E, et al. Biosynthesis of vascular endothelial growth factor-D involves proteolytic processing which generates non-covalent homodimers. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:32127-36 pubmed
    ..In situ hybridization demonstrated that embryonic lung is a major site of expression of the VEGF-D gene. Processed forms of VEGF-D were detected in embryonic lung indicating that VEGF-D is proteolytically processed in vivo. ..
  2. Rissanen T, Markkanen J, Gruchala M, Heikura T, Puranen A, Kettunen M, et al. VEGF-D is the strongest angiogenic and lymphangiogenic effector among VEGFs delivered into skeletal muscle via adenoviruses. Circ Res. 2003;92:1098-106 pubmed
    ..This study compares, for the first time, angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis induced by gene transfer of different human VEGFs, and shows that VEGF-D is the most potent member when delivered via an adenoviral vector into skeletal muscle. ..
  3. Vlahakis N, Young B, Atakilit A, Sheppard D. The lymphangiogenic vascular endothelial growth factors VEGF-C and -D are ligands for the integrin alpha9beta1. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:4544-52 pubmed
    ..The interaction between alpha9beta1 and VEGF-C and/or -D may begin to explain the abnormal lymphatic phenotype of the alpha9 knock-out mice. ..
  4. Yasuoka H, Nakamura Y, Zuo H, Tang W, Takamura Y, Miyauchi A, et al. VEGF-D expression and lymph vessels play an important role for lymph node metastasis in papillary thyroid carcinoma. Mod Pathol. 2005;18:1127-33 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, our findings indicate that VEGF-D expression and increased lymph vessel density may have an important role for lymph node metastasis in papillary thyroid carcinoma. ..
  5. Akahane M, Akahane T, Matheny S, Shah A, Okajima E, Thorgeirsson U. Vascular endothelial growth factor-D is a survival factor for human breast carcinoma cells. Int J Cancer. 2006;118:841-9 pubmed
    ..Our findings indicate that VEGF-D has a novel function as a survival factor of breast carcinoma cells in addition to its established functions as an angiogenic and lymphangiogenic factor. ..
  6. Timoshenko A, Chakraborty C, Wagner G, Lala P. COX-2-mediated stimulation of the lymphangiogenic factor VEGF-C in human breast cancer. Br J Cancer. 2006;94:1154-63 pubmed
    ..These results, for the first time, demonstrate a regulatory role of COX-2 in VEGF-C synthesis (and thereby lymphangiogenesis) in human breast cancer, which is mediated at least in part by EP1/EP4 receptors. ..
  7. McColl B, Paavonen K, Karnezis T, Harris N, Davydova N, Rothacker J, et al. Proprotein convertases promote processing of VEGF-D, a critical step for binding the angiogenic receptor VEGFR-2. FASEB J. 2007;21:1088-98 pubmed
    ..The finding that PCs promote activation of VEGF-D and other proteins with roles in cancer such as matrix metalloproteinases, emphasizes the importance of these enzymes as potential regulators of tumor progression and metastasis...
  8. Issaka R, Oommen S, Gupta S, Liu G, Myers J, Ryu J, et al. Vascular endothelial growth factors C and D induces proliferation of lymphangioleiomyomatosis cells through autocrine crosstalk with endothelium. Am J Pathol. 2009;175:1410-20 pubmed publisher
  9. Harris N, Paavonen K, Davydova N, Roufail S, Sato T, Zhang Y, et al. Proteolytic processing of vascular endothelial growth factor-D is essential for its capacity to promote the growth and spread of cancer. FASEB J. 2011;25:2615-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that proteolytic processing is necessary for VEGF-D to promote the growth and spread of cancer, and suggest that enzymes catalyzing this processing could be targets for antimetastatic therapeutics. ..

More Information

Publications101 found, 100 shown here

  1. Achen M, Jeltsch M, Kukk E, Makinen T, Vitali A, Wilks A, et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor D (VEGF-D) is a ligand for the tyrosine kinases VEGF receptor 2 (Flk1) and VEGF receptor 3 (Flt4). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:548-53 pubmed
    ..In addition, VEGF-D is a mitogen for endothelial cells. The structural and functional similarities between VEGF-D and VEGF-C define a subfamily of the VEGFs. ..
  2. Baldwin M, Catimel B, Nice E, Roufail S, Hall N, Stenvers K, et al. The specificity of receptor binding by vascular endothelial growth factor-d is different in mouse and man. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:19166-71 pubmed
    ..This suggests that VEGF-D and VEGFR-3 may play a role in establishing vessels of the skin by a paracrine mechanism. Our study of receptor specificity suggests that VEGF-D may have different biological functions in mouse and man. ..
  3. Nakamura Y, Yasuoka H, Tsujimoto M, Yang Q, Imabun S, Nakahara M, et al. Prognostic significance of vascular endothelial growth factor D in breast carcinoma with long-term follow-up. Clin Cancer Res. 2003;9:716-21 pubmed
    ..VEGF-D may be useful in the treatment of breast cancer as a decision-making biomarker for aggressive treatment after operation. ..
  4. Yokoyama Y, Charnock Jones D, Licence D, Yanaihara A, Hastings J, Holland C, et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor-D is an independent prognostic factor in epithelial ovarian carcinoma. Br J Cancer. 2003;88:237-44 pubmed
    ..Since VEGF-D was found to be an independent predictor of poor outcome, its measurement, together with other prognostic markers may improve prospective identification of patients with a poor prognosis. ..
  5. McColl B, Baldwin M, Roufail S, Freeman C, Moritz R, Simpson R, et al. Plasmin activates the lymphangiogenic growth factors VEGF-C and VEGF-D. J Exp Med. 2003;198:863-8 pubmed
    ..Identification of an enzyme that activates the lymphangiogenic growth factors will facilitate development of inhibitors of metastasis. ..
  6. Kurahara H, Takao S, Maemura K, Shinchi H, Natsugoe S, Aikou T. Impact of vascular endothelial growth factor-C and -D expression in human pancreatic cancer: its relationship to lymph node metastasis. Clin Cancer Res. 2004;10:8413-20 pubmed
    ..017). VEGF-C and -D expression in tumor cells in the marginal portion of the tumor significantly associated with lymphatic metastasis and prognosis in patients with pancreatic head cancer. ..
  7. Karpanen T, Heckman C, Keskitalo S, Jeltsch M, Ollila H, Neufeld G, et al. Functional interaction of VEGF-C and VEGF-D with neuropilin receptors. FASEB J. 2006;20:1462-72 pubmed
    ..Our results show that NP2 is directly involved in an active signaling complex with the key regulators of lymphangiogenesis and thus suggest a mechanism by which NP2 functions in the development of the lymphatic vasculature...
  8. Seyama K, Kumasaka T, Souma S, Sato T, Kurihara M, Mitani K, et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor-D is increased in serum of patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis. Lymphat Res Biol. 2006;4:143-52 pubmed
    ..Immunohistochemical examination of lung specimens demonstrated the positive immunoreactivity of LAM cells for VEGF-D. Serum VEGF-D levels may be a valuable surrogate marker for evaluating the disease severity in LAM. ..
  9. van der Schaft D, Pauwels P, Hulsmans S, Zimmermann M, van de Poll Franse L, Griffioen A. Absence of lymphangiogenesis in ductal breast cancer at the primary tumor site. Cancer Lett. 2007;254:128-36 pubmed
    ..This parameter did predict survival in patients with an age below 63 only. Interestingly, expression of VEGF-D was found to be related to the presence of intralymphatic tumor cells. ..
  10. Gu Y, Qi X, Guo S. Lymphangiogenesis induced by VEGF-C and VEGF-D promotes metastasis and a poor outcome in breast carcinoma: a retrospective study of 61 cases. Clin Exp Metastasis. 2008;25:717-25 pubmed publisher
    ..LVD may serve as a predictor of lymph node metastasis and a prognostic factor in breast carcinoma. VEGF-C and VEGF-D play an important role in lymphangiogenesis making the carcinoma more aggressive and leading to a poor prognosis. ..
  11. Li L, Liu B, Li X, Yang S, Xiao J, Chen M, et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor D and intratumoral lymphatics as independent prognostic factors in epithelial ovarian carcinoma. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2009;292:562-9 pubmed publisher
  12. Kozlowski M, Naumnik W, Niklinski J, Milewski R, Dziegielewski P, Laudanski J. Vascular endothelial growth factor C and D expression correlates with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis in patients with resected esophageal cancer. Neoplasma. 2011;58:311-9 pubmed
    ..In locally advanced disease, overexpression of VEGF-C and VEGF-D may be useful in identifying patients who are more likely to have a poor prognosis even after curative resection. ..
  13. Lin W, Jiang L, Chen Y, She F, Han S, Zhu J, et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor-D promotes growth, lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis in gallbladder cancer. Cancer Lett. 2012;314:127-36 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, VEGF-D is involved and plays an important role in GBC progression, suggesting that VEGF-D may be a potential molecular target in the treatment of GBC. ..
  14. Wong L, Lee N, Amarnani D, Choi C, Bielenberg D, Freitag S, et al. Orbital Angiogenesis and Lymphangiogenesis in Thyroid Eye Disease: An Analysis of Vascular Growth Factors with Clinical Correlation. Ophthalmology. 2016;123:2028-36 pubmed publisher
  15. Bastos D, Paupert J, Maillard C, Seguin F, Carvalho M, Agostini M, et al. Effects of fatty acid synthase inhibitors on lymphatic vessels: an in vitro and in vivo study in a melanoma model. Lab Invest. 2017;97:194-206 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, our results show that FASN inhibitors have anti-metastatic effects by acting on lymphatic endothelium and melanoma cells regardless the increase of lymphatic permeability promoted by orlistat. ..
  16. Marone G, Varricchi G, Loffredo S, Granata F. Mast cells and basophils in inflammatory and tumor angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. Eur J Pharmacol. 2016;778:146-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these findings indicate that human mast cells and basophils might participate in the complex network involving inflammatory and tumor angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. ..
  17. Nwogu C, Yendamuri S, Tan W, Kannisto E, Bogner P, Morrison C, et al. Lung cancer lymph node micrometastasis detection using real-time polymerase chain reaction: correlation with vascular endothelial growth factor expression. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2013;145:702-7; discussion 707-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Micrometastases correlate with the expression of VEGF in lymph nodes in patients with NSCLC. This may reflect the role of lymphangiogenesis in promoting metastases. ..
  18. Lee A, Lee J, Jung Y, Kim D, Kang K, Lee S, et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor-C and -D are involved in lymphangiogenesis in mouse unilateral ureteral obstruction. Kidney Int. 2013;83:50-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, the blockade of VEGF-C and VEGF-D signaling decreased obstruction-induced lymphangiogenesis. Thus, VEGF-C and VEGF-D are associated with lymphangiogenesis in the fibrotic kidney in a mouse model of ureteral obstruction. ..
  19. Kinashi H, Ito Y, Sun T, Katsuno T, Takei Y. Roles of the TGF-β⁻VEGF-C Pathway in Fibrosis-Related Lymphangiogenesis. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19: pubmed publisher
    ..Further clarification of the mechanism might lead to the development of new therapeutic strategies to treat fibrotic diseases. ..
  20. Song H, Park S, Ko J, Park J, Yoon C, Kim D, et al. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Inhibit Inflammatory Lymphangiogenesis in the Cornea by Suppressing Macrophage in a TSG-6-Dependent Manner. Mol Ther. 2018;26:162-172 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, the results suggest that MSCs inhibit inflammatory neovascularization in the cornea by suppressing pro-angiogenic monocyte/macrophage recruitment in a TSG-6-dependent manner. ..
  21. Antila S, Karaman S, Nurmi H, Airavaara M, Voutilainen M, Mathivet T, et al. Development and plasticity of meningeal lymphatic vessels. J Exp Med. 2017;214:3645-3667 pubmed publisher
    ..Conversely, an excess of VEGF-C induced meningeal lymphangiogenesis. The plasticity and regenerative potential of meningeal LVs should allow manipulation of cerebrospinal fluid drainage and neuropathological processes in the CNS. ..
  22. Roskoski R. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor inhibitors in the treatment of renal cell carcinomas. Pharmacol Res. 2017;120:116-132 pubmed publisher
    ..Owing to the resistance of renal cell carcinomas to cytotoxic drugs and radiation therapy, the development of these agents has greatly improved the therapeutic options in the treatment of these malignancies. ..
  23. Tawada M, Hayashi S, Ikegame Y, Nakashima S, Yoshida K. Possible involvement of tumor-producing VEGF-A in the recruitment of lymphatic endothelial progenitor cells from bone marrow. Oncol Rep. 2014;32:2359-64 pubmed publisher
    ..These data collectively suggest the possibility that VEGF-A-rich human adenocarcinomas induce tumor lymphangiogenesis via recruitment of lymphangiogenic endothelial progenitor cells from bone marrow. ..
  24. Baluk P, Hogmalm A, Bry M, Alitalo K, Bry K, McDonald D. Transgenic overexpression of interleukin-1? induces persistent lymphangiogenesis but not angiogenesis in mouse airways. Am J Pathol. 2013;182:1434-47 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that lymphangiogenesis triggered by IL-1? overexpression in mouse airways is driven by VEGF-C/D from macrophages, but not neutrophils, recruited by chemokines from epithelial cells that express IL1R1...
  25. Okizaki S, Ito Y, Hosono K, Oba K, Ohkubo H, Kojo K, et al. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor Type 1 Signaling Prevents Delayed Wound Healing in Diabetes by Attenuating the Production of IL-1? by Recruited Macrophages. Am J Pathol. 2016;186:1481-98 pubmed publisher
  26. Kowalczuk L, Matet A, Dirani A, Daruich A, Ambresin A, Mantel I, et al. EFFICACY OF INTRAVITREAL AFLIBERCEPT IN MACULAR TELANGIECTASIA TYPE 1 IS LINKED TO THE OCULAR ANGIOGENIC PROFILE. Retina. 2017;37:2226-2237 pubmed publisher
    ..03). The clinical response to aflibercept coupled to the angiogenic profile of MacTel 1 eyes support the implication of the placental growth factor/Flt-1 pathway in MacTel 1. ..
  27. Chang J, Wei Y, Liu Y, Zhang H, Wang D, Chen X. [Correlation of vascular endothelial growth factor D, microlymphatic density and microvessel density with development and metastasis of rectal cancer]. Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2008;11:367-70 pubmed
    To investigate the correlation of vascular endothelial growth factor D (VEGF-D) expression, microlymphatic density (MLD) and microvessel density (MVD) levels with the development and metastasis of rectal cancer...
  28. Jiang L, Chen Y, She F, Tang N, Li X, Wang X. [Expressions of VEGF-C and VEGF-D and their correlation with lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis in gallbladder carcinoma]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi. 2010;32:190-5 pubmed
    ..VEGF-C and VEGF-D are of clinical significance in evaluating lymph node metastatic potency and estimation of prognosis in gallbladder carcinoma. ..
  29. Benoit T, Keller E, Wolfsgruber P, Hermanns T, Günthart M, Banzola I, et al. High VEGF-D and Low MMP-2 Serum Levels Predict Nodal-Positive Disease in Invasive Bladder Cancer. Med Sci Monit. 2015;21:2266-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinical implementation of these marker serum measurements may be valuable to select high-risk patients with more invasive or nodal-positive disease. ..
  30. Goldberg A, Joung K, Mansuri A, Kang Y, Echavarria R, Nikolajev L, et al. Oncogenic effects of urotensin-II in cells lacking tuberous sclerosis complex-2. Oncotarget. 2016;7:61152-61165 pubmed publisher
    ..Urotensin receptor antagonists may be selective therapeutic agents for the treatment of LAM or other neural crest-derived neoplasms featuring loss of TSC2 or increased expression of the urotensin receptor. ..
  31. Bower N, Vogrin A, Le Guen L, Chen H, Stacker S, Achen M, et al. Vegfd modulates both angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis during zebrafish embryonic development. Development. 2017;144:507-518 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Vegfd has been largely thought of as dispensable for vascular development in vertebrates...
  32. Dai Y, Tong R, Guo H, Yu T, Wang C. Association of CXCR4, CCR7, VEGF-C and VEGF-D expression with lymph node metastasis in patients with cervical cancer. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2017;214:178-183 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggested that CXCR4, CCR7, VEGF-C and VEGF-D expression might have synergistic effects on the lymph node metastasis in patients with cervical cancer. ..
  33. Becker J, Pavlakovic H, Ludewig F, Wilting F, Weich H, Albuquerque R, et al. Neuroblastoma progression correlates with downregulation of the lymphangiogenesis inhibitor sVEGFR-2. Clin Cancer Res. 2010;16:1431-41 pubmed publisher
  34. Wang W, Wu R, Sun G, Li X, Yuan W, Tang L. [Expression of VEGF-C and VEGF-D in gastric carcinoma and its relationship with lymph node metastases]. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2010;35:335-40 pubmed publisher
    ..05). The non-intake high expression of VEGF-C and VEGF-D in gastric cancer cells is closely related to lymph node metastasis. They serve as the important reference indicator to assess the prognosis in gastric cancer patients. ..
  35. Bender R, Mac Gabhann F. Dysregulation of the vascular endothelial growth factor and semaphorin ligand-receptor families in prostate cancer metastasis. BMC Syst Biol. 2015;9:55 pubmed publisher
    ..We found pro-lymphangiogenic signatures, including the genes encoding VEGFC and VEGFD, associated with primary tumors that ultimately became aggressive...
  36. Budde K, Zonnenberg B, Frost M, Cheung W, Urva S, Brechenmacher T, et al. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of everolimus in patients with renal angiomyolipoma and tuberous sclerosis complex or lymphangioleiomyomatosis. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2016;81:958-70 pubmed publisher
    ..everolimus, but not placebo, arm for three biomarkers: After 24 weeks of treatment, reduction of vascular endothelial growth factor D (VEGF-D) and collagen type IV (COL-IV) (mean fold-changes with 95% confidence intervals [CI] were 0...
  37. Blakeley J, Ye X, Duda D, Halpin C, Bergner A, Muzikansky A, et al. Efficacy and Biomarker Study of Bevacizumab for Hearing Loss Resulting From Neurofibromatosis Type 2-Associated Vestibular Schwannomas. J Clin Oncol. 2016;34:1669-75 pubmed publisher
    ..responses were associated with high baseline tumor vessel permeability and elevated blood levels of vascular endothelial growth factor D and stromal cell-derived factor 1? (P = .037 and .025, respectively)...
  38. Lammoglia G, Van Zandt C, Galvan D, Orozco J, Dellinger M, Rutkowski J. Hyperplasia, de novo lymphangiogenesis, and lymphatic regression in mice with tissue-specific, inducible overexpression of murine VEGF-D. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2016;311:H384-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The inducible TRE-VEGF-D mouse thus provides a novel murine platform to study the adult mechanisms and therapies of an array of disease- and tissue-specific models of lymphangiogenesis. ..
  39. Moldobaeva A, Jenkins J, Zhong Q, Wagner E. Lymphangiogenesis in rat asthma model. Angiogenesis. 2017;20:73-84 pubmed publisher
    ..1 μM) blocked proliferation and chemotaxis. Results suggest that in vivo sensitization causes fundamental changes to lymphatic endothelium, which are retained in vitro, and may relate to VEGFR downstream signaling. ..
  40. Bailey E, Cui Y, Casey A, Stoler J, Ai X, Ma D, et al. Pulmonary Vasculopathy Associated with FIGF Gene Mutation. Am J Pathol. 2017;187:25-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations in the FIGF (c-fos-induced growth factor) gene encoding VEGF-D have not been reported previously...
  41. Szajewski M, Kruszewski W, Lakomy J, Ciesielski M, Kawecki K, Jankun J, et al. VEGF-C and VEGF-D overexpression is more common in left-sided and well-differentiated colon adenocarcinoma. Oncol Rep. 2014;31:125-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The study results indicate that the overexpression of lymphangiogenic factors tends to be associated with tumours of favourable prognosis, i.e. well-differentiated and those localized in the left-side of the colon. ..
  42. Nieminen T, Toivanen P, Laakkonen J, Heikura T, Kaikkonen M, Airenne K, et al. Slit2 modifies VEGF-induced angiogenic responses in rabbit skeletal muscle via reduced eNOS activity. Cardiovasc Res. 2015;107:267-76 pubmed publisher
    ..This possibly allows the use of higher VEGF vector doses to achieve a more widespread vector and VEGF distribution in the target tissues leading to a better therapeutic outcome while reducing excess vascular permeability. ..
  43. Stárek I, Salzman R, Kučerová L, Skálová A, Hauer L. Expression of VEGF-C/-D and lymphangiogenesis in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma. Pathol Res Pract. 2015;211:759-65 pubmed publisher
    ..The VEGF-C/D score correlated neither with pLVD nor with iLVD. High iLVD values were associated with poor survival. The authors present the first study demonstrating the existence of lymphatic vessels in SACC. ..
  44. Kalitin N, Karamysheva A. RARα mediates all-trans-retinoic acid-induced VEGF-C, VEGF-D, and VEGFR3 expression in lung cancer cells. Cell Biol Int. 2016;40:456-64 pubmed publisher
    ..On the contrary, the nuclear quantity of another possible RARα counterpart, transcription factor Sp1, was increased after atRA treatment. ..
  45. Schimanski C, Schlaegel F, Jordan M, Moehler M, Sgourakis G, Drescher D, et al. VEGF-D correlates with metastatic disease in gastric cancer patients undergoing surgery. World J Surg. 2011;35:1010-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The VEGF-D ligand might be a helpful marker indicating disseminated disease, and targeting VEGF-D may be a potential therapeutic strategy, although limitations imposed by the selected sample population have to be considered critically. ..
  46. Riwaldt S, Bauer J, Wehland M, Slumstrup L, Kopp S, Warnke E, et al. Pathways Regulating Spheroid Formation of Human Follicular Thyroid Cancer Cells under Simulated Microgravity Conditions: A Genetic Approach. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17:528 pubmed publisher
    ..qPCR indicated more changes in gene expression in MCS than in AD cells. Of the 24 genes analyzed VEGFA, VEGFD, MSN, and MMP3 were upregulated in MCS compared to 1g-controls, whereas ACTB, ACTA2, KRT8, TUBB, EZR, RDX, PRKCA, ..
  47. Papiewska Pajak I, Balcerczyk A, Stec Martyna E, Koziołkiewicz W, Boncela J. Vascular endothelial growth factor-D modulates oxidant-antioxidant balance of human vascular endothelial cells. J Cell Mol Med. 2017;21:1139-1149 pubmed publisher
  48. Chang W, Cane J, Blakey J, Kumaran M, Pointon K, Johnson S. Clinical utility of diagnostic guidelines and putative biomarkers in lymphangioleiomyomatosis. Respir Res. 2012;13:34 pubmed publisher
    ..017) but not the presence of angiomyolipomas. Combining ERS criteria and serum VEGF-D reduces the need for lung biopsy in LAM. VEGF-D was associated with lymphatic disease but not lung function. ..
  49. Weickhardt A, Williams D, Lee C, Chionh F, Simes J, Murone C, et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor D expression is a potential biomarker of bevacizumab benefit in colorectal cancer. Br J Cancer. 2015;113:37-45 pubmed
    ..The predictive value of VEGF-D expression for bevacizumab may depend on the chemotherapy backbone used. Further evaluation is required before clinical utilisation. ..
  50. Li X, Jing W, Sun J, Liu Z, Zhang J, Sun W, et al. A potential small-molecule synthetic antilymphangiogenic agent norcantharidin inhibits tumor growth and lymphangiogenesis of human colonic adenocarcinomas through blocking VEGF-A,-C,-D/VEGFR-2,-3 "multi-points priming" mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. BMC Cancer. 2015;15:527 pubmed publisher
    ..The present finding strongly suggests that NCTD could serve as a potential antilymphangiogenic agent for tumor lymphangiogenesis and is of importance to explore NCTD is used for antitumor metastatic comprehensive therapy for HCACs. ..
  51. Hosono K, Isonaka R, Kawakami T, Narumiya S, Majima M. Signaling of Prostaglandin E Receptors, EP3 and EP4 Facilitates Wound Healing and Lymphangiogenesis with Enhanced Recruitment of M2 Macrophages in Mice. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0162532 pubmed publisher
    ..COX-2 and EP3/EP4 signaling may be novel targets to control lymphangiogenesis in vivo. ..
  52. Vähätupa M, Cordova Z, Barker H, Aittomaki S, Uusitalo H, Järvinen T, et al. Furin deficiency in myeloid cells leads to attenuated revascularization in a mouse-model of oxygen-induced retinopathy. Exp Eye Res. 2018;166:160-167 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that furin expression in myeloid cells plays a significant role in hypoxia-induced angiogenesis in retina. ..
  53. Schwartz C, Tavakoli T, Jamias C, Park S, Maudsley S, Martin B, et al. Stromal factors SDF1α, sFRP1, and VEGFD induce dopaminergic neuron differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells. J Neurosci Res. 2012;90:1367-81 pubmed publisher
    ..stromal cell-derived factor-1 α (SDF1α), secreted frizzled-related protein 1 (sFRP1), and vascular endothelial growth factor D (VEGFD) were identified, and their concentrations in PA6 CM were established by immunoaffinity ..
  54. Zhao Y, Ni X, Li Y, Dai M, Yuan Z, Zhu Y, et al. Peritumoral lymphangiogenesis induced by vascular endothelial growth factor C and D promotes lymph node metastasis in breast cancer patients. World J Surg Oncol. 2012;10:165 pubmed publisher
  55. Rossi A, Gauvrit S, Marass M, Pan L, Moens C, Stainier D. Regulation of Vegf signaling by natural and synthetic ligands. Blood. 2016;128:2359-2366 pubmed publisher
    ..Using vegfaa mutants as an in vivo test tube, we found that zebrafish Vegfbb, Vegfd, and Pgfb can also rescue these animals to viability...
  56. Xu H, Shi B, Lu X, Liang F, Jin X, Wu T, et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor attenuates hepatic sinusoidal capillarization in thioacetamide-induced cirrhotic rats. World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14:2349-57 pubmed
    ..To investigate the effect of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) transfection on hepatic sinusoidal capillarization...
  57. Kärkkäinen A, Kotimaa A, Huusko J, Kholova I, Heinonen S, Stefanska A, et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor-D transgenic mice show enhanced blood capillary density, improved postischemic muscle regeneration, and increased susceptibility to tumor formation. Blood. 2009;113:4468-75 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that in mice hVEGF-D is an angiogenic factor associated with improved muscle regeneration after ischemic injury but also with increased incidence of tumor formation with a preference for mammary gland tumors. ..
  58. Goodyear S, Kheyfets S, Garcia F, Stearns M. Role of the VEGFR3/VEGFD receptor axis in TGFbeta1 activation of primary prostate cell lines. Prostate. 2009;69:982-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The goal of this study was to evaluate whether TGFbeta1 in combination with VEGFD can promote pre-malignant invasive activities of intermediate basal cells (IBC-10a) isolated from human prostate ..
  59. Deng J, Liang H, Sun D, Pan Y, Wang B, Guo Y. Vascular endothelial growth factor-D is correlated with hepatic metastasis from gastric cancer after radical gastrectomy. Surgery. 2009;146:896-905 pubmed publisher
    ..VEGF-D, which can induce lymphangiogenesis specifically in many kinds of malignant diseases, is an important factor for predicting HM from GC following radical gastrectomy. ..
  60. Glasgow C, Taveira Dasilva A, Pacheco Rodriguez G, Steagall W, Tsukada K, Cai X, et al. Involvement of lymphatics in lymphangioleiomyomatosis. Lymphat Res Biol. 2009;7:221-8 pubmed publisher
    ..e., lymphangioleiomyoma, adenopathy) than in healthy volunteers or LAM patients with cystic disease limited to the lung. These findings are consistent with an important function for lymphangiogenesis in LAM. ..
  61. Du L, Chen X, Wang D, Wen Y, Wang C, Wang X, et al. VEGF-D-induced draining lymphatic enlargement and tumor lymphangiogenesis promote lymph node metastasis in a xenograft model of ovarian carcinoma. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2014;12:14 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings show that VEGF-D can be a promising therapeutic target for ovarian cancer. ..
  62. Wang P, Chen S, Hung W, Paul C, Zhu F, Guan P, et al. Fluid shear promotes chondrosarcoma cell invasion by activating matrix metalloproteinase 12 via IGF-2 and VEGF signaling pathways. Oncogene. 2015;34:4558-69 pubmed publisher
    ..By reconstructing and delineating the signaling pathway regulating MMP-12 activation, potential therapeutic strategies that interfere with chondrosarcoma cell invasion may be identified. ..
  63. Yang Z, Wang Y, Su K. VEGF-C and VEGF-D expression and its correlation with lymph node metastasis in esophageal squamous cell cancer tissue. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015;16:271-4 pubmed
    ..Hence, VEGF-C and VEGF-D can be clinically considered as important reference indexes of lymph node metastasis in esophageal cancer. ..
  64. Liu M, Jiang L, Hong H, Meng Z, Du Q, Zhou L, et al. Serum vascular endothelial growth factors C and D as forecast tools for patients with gallbladder carcinoma. Tumour Biol. 2015;36:6305-12 pubmed publisher
    ..032). The preoperative sVEGF-C/D levels might be reliable biomarkers for the presence of disease and LNM in patients with GBC. The sVEGF-C/D levels may be prognosis factors that can predict a poor outcome for GBC patients. ..
  65. Hoza J, Salzman R, Bakaj T, Kucerova L, Starek I. Comparison of lymphatic vessel density and expression of VEGF-C and VEGF-D lymphangiogenic factors in Warthin's tumours and oncocytic adenomas. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..To compare the density of lymphatic vessels and VEGF-C and VEGF-D expression in Warthin's tumours (WTs) and oncocytic adenomas (OCAs)...
  66. Man S, Chai H, Cui J, Yao J, Ma L, Gao W. Antitumor and anti-metastatic mechanisms of Rhizoma paridis saponins in Lewis mice. Environ Toxicol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..As a result, RPS inhibited levels of cytokines or receptors such as VEGFD, VEGFR3, RAGE, IL6R, IL17BR, and CXCL16 which were regarded as the initiators induced tumor cell proliferation, ..
  67. Nijmeh J, El Chemaly S, Henske E. Emerging biomarkers of lymphangioleiomyomatosis. Expert Rev Respir Med. 2018;12:95-102 pubmed publisher
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    ..15). These results suggest that the expression of VEGF-D protein could be useful in predicting the nodal status of colorectal carcinoma patients. ..
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    ..Our findings indicate the importance of lymphangiogenic factors in the pathogenesis of DLBCL and suggest a potential therapeutic role for antilymphangiogenesis agents. ..
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    ..No relationship was identified between LVD and clinicopathological variables. ..
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    ..The simultaneous measurement of VEGF receptors levels in sera may overcome the limitations of a single biomarker assay. ..
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    ..An association between expression of HIF-1alpha and VEGF-D suggests that these two angiogenic factors are essential in progression of ESCC. ..
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    ..Thus, levels of VEGF-C and -D expression might be useful for predicting micrometastasis in patients with early gastric cancer. ..
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    ..Serum VEGF-D level that was correlated with the presence of cervical lymph node metastases in PTC patients might be a useful prognostic indicator. ..
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    ..Our meta-analysis demonstrated that LVD, VEGF-C and VEGF-D could predict poor prognosis in patients with breast cancer. However, standardization of the assessment of LVD and for the expression of lymphangiogenesis factors is needed. ..
  78. Harris N, Davydova N, Roufail S, Paquet Fifield S, Paavonen K, Karnezis T, et al. The propeptides of VEGF-D determine heparin binding, receptor heterodimerization, and effects on tumor biology. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:8176-86 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings reported here show that the propeptides profoundly influence molecular interactions of VEGF-D with VEGF receptors, co-receptors, and heparin, and its effects on tumor biology. ..
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    ..VEGF-D may play an important role in the process of lymphatic metastasis of epithelial ovarian cancer. ..
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    ..We investigated tumor lymphatic metastasis-related protein (VEGFC, VEGFD and VEGFR3) expressions change on SCC-4 and SCC-9 cells subjected to increased extracellular pressure in vitro and ..
  81. Sun L, Zhang Q, Li Y, Tang N, Qiu X. CCL21/CCR7 up-regulate vascular endothelial growth factor-D expression via ERK pathway in human non-small cell lung cancer cells. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015;8:15729-38 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results provide evidence that CCL21/CCR7 induce VEGF-D up-regulation and promote lymphangiogenesis via ERK/Akt pathway in lung cancer. ..
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    ..To address these issues, we exposed Vegfd-deficient mice to hyperoxia...
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    ..AKT1 was also shown to be upregulated and activated by Sulf2. Our results confirmed that Sulf2 facilitated lymphangiogenesis in breast cancer cells by regulating VEGF-D and that the AKT1?related signaling pathway was involved. ..
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    ..Taken together, our results identify VEGF-A as a multifunctional factor involved in angiogenesis, tumor progression, immunosuppression and immune tolerance. ..
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    ..VEGF-C and VEGF-D expression may be clinically useful indicators for prognostic evaluation in patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma. ..
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    ..VEGF-C/D and Flt-4 may play an important role in the process of lymphatic metastasis of early-stage invasive cervical carcinoma through paracrine and autocrine mechanisms. ..
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    ..The cells responsible for the strong expression of VEGF-C, VEGF-D and flt-4 in PAs are myoepithelial cells. Coexpression of flt-4 and its ligands in all PAs suggests the presence of a dominant VEGF-C/VEGF-D/flt-4 axis in this tumor. ..
  91. Donoghue J, McGavigan C, Lederman F, Cann L, Fu L, Dimitriadis E, et al. Dilated thin-walled blood and lymphatic vessels in human endometrium: a potential role for VEGF-D in progestin-induced break-through bleeding. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30916 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results lead to a novel hypothesis to explain BTB, with stromal cell decidualisation rather than progestin treatment per se being the proposed causative event, and VEGF-D being the proposed effector agent. ..
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    ..001 for OS and DFS). VEGF-D, SMAD4, and SMAD7 were involved in lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis. VEGF-D and SMAD7 can serve as predictors of prognosis and chemotherapeutic outcome in colon cancer. ..