Gene Symbol: VAMP2
Description: vesicle associated membrane protein 2
Alias: SYB2, VAMP-2, vesicle-associated membrane protein 2, synaptobrevin 2
Species: human
Products:     VAMP2

Top Publications

  1. Kutay U, Ahnert Hilger G, Hartmann E, Wiedenmann B, Rapoport T. Transport route for synaptobrevin via a novel pathway of insertion into the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. EMBO J. 1995;14:217-23 pubmed
    ..Membrane integration requires ER protein(s) different from the translocation components needed for proteins with signal sequences, thus suggesting a novel mechanism of insertion. ..
  2. Prekeris R, Klumperman J, Chen Y, Scheller R. Syntaxin 13 mediates cycling of plasma membrane proteins via tubulovesicular recycling endosomes. J Cell Biol. 1998;143:957-71 pubmed
    ..13 revealed that, in Triton X-100 extracts, syntaxin 13 is present in a complex(es) comprised of betaSNAP, VAMP 2/3, and SNAP-25...
  3. Dulubova I, Sugita S, Hill S, Hosaka M, Fernandez I, Sudhof T, et al. A conformational switch in syntaxin during exocytosis: role of munc18. EMBO J. 1999;18:4372-82 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest a model whereby, during exocytosis, syntaxin undergoes a large conformational switch that mediates the transition between the syntaxin-munc18-1 complex and the core complex. ..
  4. Antonin W, Fasshauer D, Becker S, Jahn R, Schneider T. Crystal structure of the endosomal SNARE complex reveals common structural principles of all SNAREs. Nat Struct Biol. 2002;9:107-11 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the structure of the SNARE core complex is an evolutionarily conserved hallmark of all SNARE complexes and is intimately associated with the general role of SNAREs in membrane fusion. ..
  5. Martinez Arca S, Rudge R, Vacca M, Raposo G, Camonis J, Proux Gillardeaux V, et al. A dual mechanism controlling the localization and function of exocytic v-SNAREs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:9011-6 pubmed
    ..Moreover, they point to the amino-terminal domains of SNARE proteins as multifunctional modules responsible for the fine tuning of SNARE function. ..
  6. Harel A, Wu F, Mattson M, Morris C, Yao P. Evidence for CALM in directing VAMP2 trafficking. Traffic. 2008;9:417-29 pubmed publisher report that CALM has a neuron-related function: it facilitates the endocytosis of the synaptic vesicle protein VAMP2 from the plasma membrane...
  7. Hamdan F, Piton A, Gauthier J, Lortie A, Dubeau F, Dobrzeniecka S, et al. De novo STXBP1 mutations in mental retardation and nonsyndromic epilepsy. Ann Neurol. 2009;65:748-53 pubmed publisher
    We sequenced genes coding for components of the SNARE complex (STX1A, VAMP2, SNAP25) and their regulatory proteins (STXBP1/Munc18-1, SYT1), which are essential for neurotransmission, in 95 patients with idiopathic mental retardation...
  8. Koo S, Markovic S, Puchkov D, Mahrenholz C, Beceren Braun F, Maritzen T, et al. SNARE motif-mediated sorting of synaptobrevin by the endocytic adaptors clathrin assembly lymphoid myeloid leukemia (CALM) and AP180 at synapses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:13540-5 pubmed publisher
    Neurotransmission depends on the exo-endocytosis of synaptic vesicles at active zones. Synaptobrevin 2 [also known as vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP2)], the most abundant synaptic vesicle protein and a major soluble NSF ..
  9. Chapman E, An S, Barton N, Jahn R. SNAP-25, a t-SNARE which binds to both syntaxin and synaptobrevin via domains that may form coiled coils. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:27427-32 pubmed
    ..We conclude that SNAP-25 can interact with both syntaxin and synaptobrevin and that binding may be mediated by alpha-helical domains that form intermolecular coiled-coil structures. ..

More Information

Publications131 found, 100 shown here

  1. Vashi N, Andrabi S, Ghanwat S, Suar M, Kumar D. Ca2+-dependent Focal Exocytosis of Golgi-derived Vesicles Helps Phagocytic Uptake in Macrophages. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:5144-5165 pubmed publisher
    ..vesicles recruited during phagocytosis were secretory vesicles as their recruitment was sensitive to depletion of VAMP2 or NCS1, whereas recruitment of the recycling endosome marker VAMP3 was unaffected...
  2. Lorza Gil E, Salerno A, Wanschel A, Vettorazzi J, Ferreira M, Rentz T, et al. Chronic use of pravastatin reduces insulin exocytosis and increases β-cell death in hypercholesterolemic mice. Toxicology. 2016;344-346:42-52 pubmed publisher
    ..islet dysfunction was associated with marked reductions of exocytosis-related SNARE proteins (SNAP25, Syntaxin 1A, VAMP2) and increased apoptosis markers (Bax/Bcl2 protein ratio, cleaved caspase-3 and lower NAD(P)H production rates) ..
  3. Chu K, Li H, Wada K, Johnson J. Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 is required for pancreatic beta cell survival and function in lipotoxic conditions. Diabetologia. 2012;55:128-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Palmitate-stimulated vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP2) ubiquitination was modulated by a chemical UCHL1 inhibitor...
  4. Barile M, Pisitkun T, Yu M, Chou C, Verbalis M, Shen R, et al. Large scale protein identification in intracellular aquaporin-2 vesicles from renal inner medullary collecting duct. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2005;4:1095-106 pubmed
    ..These results show that AQP2-containing vesicles are heterogeneous and that intracellular AQP2 resides chiefly in endosomes, trans-Golgi network, and rough endoplasmic reticulum. ..
  5. Schlattner U, Klaus A, Ramírez Ríos S, Guzun R, Kay L, Tokarska Schlattner M. Cellular compartmentation of energy metabolism: creatine kinase microcompartments and recruitment of B-type creatine kinase to specific subcellular sites. Amino Acids. 2016;48:1751-74 pubmed publisher
    ..2) yeast-two-hybrid analysis using cytosolic split-protein assays and the identifying membrane proteins VAMP2, VAMP3 and JWA as putative BCK interaction partners; and (3) phosphorylation experiments, showing that the ..
  6. Guo L, Fang P, Yu M, Shi M, Bo P, Zhang Z. Central alarin ameliorated insulin resistance of adipocytes in type 2 diabetic rats. J Endocrinol. 2014;223:217-25 pubmed publisher
  7. Ha B, Park J, Shon Y. Stimulatory Effect of Balanced Deep-Sea Water Containing Chitosan Oligosaccharides on Glucose Uptake in C2C12 Myotubes. Mar Biotechnol (NY). 2016;18:475-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, this effect is mediated by the stimulation of diverse signaling pathways via the activation of main signaling molecules related to GSV trafficking. ..
  8. Sidhu V, Huang B, Desai A, Kevala K, Kim H. Role of DHA in aging-related changes in mouse brain synaptic plasma membrane proteome. Neurobiol Aging. 2016;41:73-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest a potential role of DHA in alleviating aging-associated cognitive decline by offsetting the loss of neurotransmission-regulating synaptic proteins involved in synaptic function. ..
  9. Louessard M, Lacroix A, Martineau M, Mondielli G, Montagne A, Lesept F, et al. Tissue Plasminogen Activator Expression Is Restricted to Subsets of Excitatory Pyramidal Glutamatergic Neurons. Mol Neurobiol. 2016;53:5000-12 pubmed publisher
    ..We further evidenced that tPA is stored in synaptobrevin-2-positive glutamatergic synaptic vesicles. Based on all these data, we propose the existence of tPA-ergic neurons in the mature brain. ..
  10. Cheng K, Lam K, Wu D, Wang Y, Sweeney G, Hoo R, et al. APPL1 potentiates insulin secretion in pancreatic β cells by enhancing protein kinase Akt-dependent expression of SNARE proteins in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:8919-24 pubmed publisher
  11. Zhang S, Lebreton F, Mansfield M, Miyashita S, Zhang J, Schwartzman J, et al. Identification of a Botulinum Neurotoxin-like Toxin in a Commensal Strain of Enterococcus faecium. Cell Host Microbe. 2018;23:169-176.e6 pubmed publisher
    ..It cleaves both VAMP2 and SNAP-25, proteins that mediate synaptic vesicle exocytosis in neurons, at sites distinct from known BoNT ..
  12. Fan L, Chen Z, Fu W, Xu N, Liu J, Lu A, et al. Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive Factor Attachment Receptor (SNARE) Protein Involved in the Remission of Depression by Acupuncture in Rats. J Acupunct Meridian Stud. 2016;9:242-249 pubmed publisher
    ..polymerase chain reactions were employed to detect protein and mRNA expressions of VGLUT2, SNAP25, VAMP1, VAMP2, VAMP7, and syntaxin1; no obvious differences among the riluzole+BTX-A, acupuncture+BTX-A and model groups were ..
  13. Urbina F, Gomez S, Gupton S. Spatiotemporal organization of exocytosis emerges during neuronal shape change. J Cell Biol. 2018;217:1113-1128 pubmed publisher
    ..Experiment-based mathematical calculations indicated that VAMP2-mediated vesicle fusion supplied excess material for the plasma membrane expansion that occurred early in neuronal ..
  14. Zhang Z, Fang P, Guo L, He B, Shi M, Zhu Y, et al. Akt2-Dependent Beneficial Effect of Galanin on Insulin-Induced Glucose Uptake in Adipocytes of Diabetic Rats. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017;41:1777-1787 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this study suggest that phosphorylation of Akt2 mediates the beneficial effects of galanin on insulin-induced glucose uptake in the adipocytes of diabetic rats. ..
  15. Villarreal S, Lee S, Wu L. Measuring Synaptic Vesicle Endocytosis in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons. J Vis Exp. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..synaptic vesicle protein endocytosis by fusing a synaptic vesicular membrane protein, including synaptophysin and VAMP2/synaptobrevin, at the vesicular lumenal side, with pHluorin, a pH-sensitive green fluorescent protein that ..
  16. Del Prete D, Lombino F, Liu X, D ADAMIO L. APP is cleaved by Bace1 in pre-synaptic vesicles and establishes a pre-synaptic interactome, via its intracellular domain, with molecular complexes that regulate pre-synaptic vesicles functions. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e108576 pubmed publisher
    ..of the APP intracellular domain includes proteins expressed on pre-synaptic vesicles such as the vesicular SNARE Vamp2/Vamp1 and the Ca2+ sensors Synaptotagmin-1/Synaptotagmin-2, and non-vesicular pre-synaptic proteins that regulate ..
  17. Su Z, Lin R, Chen Y, Shu X, Zhang H, Liang S, et al. Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein-Induced Cyclophilin A Secretion Requires ROCK-Dependent Diphosphorylation of Myosin Light Chain. J Vasc Res. 2016;53:206-215 pubmed
    ..VSMC-derived CyPA induced by ox-LDL may be associated with increased CyPA expression in atherosclerotic lesions. ..
  18. Wiseman D, Kalwat M, Thurmond D. Stimulus-induced S-nitrosylation of Syntaxin 4 impacts insulin granule exocytosis. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:16344-54 pubmed publisher
    ..vitro by the nitric oxide donor compound S-nitroso-L-glutathione, failed to exhibit glucose-induced activation and VAMP2 binding, and failed to potentiate insulin release akin to that of wild-type Syntaxin 4...
  19. Strodthoff D, Ma Z, Wirström T, Strawbridge R, Ketelhuth D, Engel D, et al. Toll-Like Receptor 3 Influences Glucose Homeostasis and β-Cell Insulin Secretion. Diabetes. 2015;64:3425-38 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our results increase the understanding of the function of innate receptors in metabolic disorders and implicate TLR3 as a key control system in metabolic regulation. ..
  20. Cupertino R, Kappel D, Bandeira C, Schuch J, da Silva B, Müller D, et al. SNARE complex in developmental psychiatry: neurotransmitter exocytosis and beyond. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2016;123:867-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Genes encoding these proteins (SNAP25, VAMP1, VAMP2, STX1A, SYT1 and SYT2) have been studied in relation to psychiatric disorders susceptibility...
  21. Mansfield M, Doxey A. Genomic insights into the evolution and ecology of botulinum neurotoxins. Pathog Dis. 2018;76: pubmed publisher produce the existing serotypes, including TeNT, and underwent repeated substrate shifts from ancestral VAMP2 specificity to SNAP25 specificity at least three times in their history...
  22. Betzer C, Movius A, Shi M, Gai W, Zhang J, Jensen P. Identification of synaptosomal proteins binding to monomeric and oligomeric α-synuclein. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0116473 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate the existence of αSN conformation selective ligands and present lists of proteins, whose identity and functions will be useful for modeling normal and pathological αSN dependent processes. ..
  23. Actis Dato V, Grosso R, Sanchez M, Fader C, Chiabrando G. Insulin-induced exocytosis regulates the cell surface level of low-density lipoprotein-related protein-1 in Müller Glial cells. Biochem J. 2018;475:1669-1685 pubmed publisher approximate size of 100 nm (mean diameter range of 100-120 nm), which were positive for sortilin and VAMP2, and also incorporated GLUT4 when it was transiently transfected...
  24. Lasič E, Stenovec M, Kreft M, Robinson P, Zorec R. Dynamin regulates the fusion pore of endo- and exocytotic vesicles as revealed by membrane capacitance measurements. Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj. 2017;1861:2293-2303 pubmed publisher
    ..staining revealed dextran uptake into dynamin-positive vesicles and increased dextran uptake into Syt4- and VAMP2-positive vesicles after dynamin inhibition, indicating prolonged retention of these vesicles at the plasmalemma...
  25. Zhou J, Liu Z, Yu J, Han X, Fan S, Shao W, et al. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis Reveals Molecular Adaptations in the Hippocampal Synaptic Active Zone of Chronic Mild Stress-Unsusceptible Rats. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2015;19: pubmed publisher
    ..immunoblotting analysis, membrane-associated GTP-bound Rab3a and Munc18-1 appear to coregulate syntaxin-1/SNAP25/VAMP2 assembly at the hippocampal presynaptic active zone of unsusceptible rats, facilitating SNARE-mediated membrane ..
  26. Mo J, Wang B, Zhu X, Wu X, Liu Y. PRRT2 deficiency induces paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia by influencing synaptic function in the primary motor cortex of rats. Neurobiol Dis. 2019;121:274-285 pubmed publisher
    ..PRRT2 negatively regulates SNARE complex assembly through interaction with SNAP25, STX1A, and VAMP2. In the M1 cortex of the rat model, release of amino acid neurotransmitters is increased...
  27. Santana M, Rosmaninho Salgado J, Cortez V, Pereira F, Kaster M, Aveleira C, et al. Impaired adrenal medullary function in a mouse model of depression induced by unpredictable chronic stress. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2015;25:1753-66 pubmed publisher
    ..enzymes (TH, DβH, PNMT), catecholamine transporters (NET, VMAT1), SNARE proteins (synthaxin1A, SNAP25, VAMP2), catecholamine content (EP, NE), and lower EP serum levels, indicating a reduction in catecholamine synthesis, re-..
  28. Ferreira S, Santos G, Rezende L, Gonçalves L, Santos Silva J, Bigarella C, et al. ARHGAP21 prevents abnormal insulin release through actin rearrangement in pancreatic islets from neonatal mice. Life Sci. 2015;127:53-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In these islets, the pERK1/2 was increased, as well as the gene expressions of VAMP2 and SNAP25, proteins that are present in the secretory machinery...
  29. Ninkina N, Peters O, Connor Robson N, Lytkina O, Sharfeddin E, Buchman V. Contrasting effects of α-synuclein and γ-synuclein on the phenotype of cysteine string protein α (CSPα) null mutant mice suggest distinct function of these proteins in neuronal synapses. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:44471-7 pubmed publisher
    ..purified synaptic vesicles, the C-terminal domain of γ-synuclein was not able to interact with synaptobrevin-2/VAMP2. Consequently, overexpression of γ-synuclein did not have any noticeable effect on the phenotype of CSPα ..
  30. Xie L, Zhu D, Dolai S, Liang T, Qin T, Kang Y, et al. Syntaxin-4 mediates exocytosis of pre-docked and newcomer insulin granules underlying biphasic glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in human pancreatic beta cells. Diabetologia. 2015;58:1250-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Second-phase inhibition was attributed to reduction in newcomer SGs. Stx-4 co-immunoprecipitated Munc18c, VAMP2 and VAMP8, suggesting that these exocytotic complexes may be involved in exocytosis of pre-docked and newcomer SGs...
  31. Riganti L, Antonucci F, Gabrielli M, Prada I, Giussani P, Viani P, et al. Sphingosine-1-Phosphate (S1P) Impacts Presynaptic Functions by Regulating Synapsin I Localization in the Presynaptic Compartment. J Neurosci. 2016;36:4624-34 pubmed publisher
    ..clarified that sphingosine influences directly the exocytotic machinery by activating the synaptic vesicle protein VAMP2 to form SNARE fusion complexes, the molecular mechanism by which S1P promotes neurotransmission remained largely ..
  32. Schindler R, Scotton C, French V, Ferlini A, Brand T. The Popeye Domain Containing Genes and Their Function in Striated Muscle. J Cardiovasc Dev Dis. 2016;3: pubmed publisher mechanical stability (dystrophin), compartmentalization (caveolin 3), scaffolding (ZO-1), trafficking (NDRG4, VAMP2/3) and repair (dysferlin) or acting as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rho-family GTPases (GEFT)...
  33. Barrecheguren P, Ros O, Cotrufo T, Kunz B, Soriano E, Ulloa F, et al. SNARE proteins play a role in motor axon guidance in vertebrates and invertebrates. Dev Neurobiol. 2017;77:963-974 pubmed publisher
    ..2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 77: 963-974, 2017. ..
  34. Pellett S, Tepp W, Scherf J, Pier C, Johnson E. Activity of botulinum neurotoxin type D (strain 1873) in human neurons. Toxicon. 2015;101:63-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that BoNT/D can enter and cleave VAMP 2 in human neurons, but at significantly lower efficiency than other BoNT serotypes...
  35. Dias A, Batista T, Roma L, Módulo C, Malki L, Dias L, et al. Insulin replacement restores the vesicular secretory apparatus in the diabetic rat lacrimal gland. Arq Bras Oftalmol. 2015;78:158-63 pubmed publisher
    ..restored the SV density and the Rab 27b and syntaxin expression to their control protein levels, whereas the Vamp 2 mRNA expression increased above the control levels...
  36. Meijer M, Dörr B, Lammertse H, Blithikioti C, van Weering J, Toonen R, et al. Tyrosine phosphorylation of Munc18-1 inhibits synaptic transmission by preventing SNARE assembly. EMBO J. 2018;37:300-320 pubmed publisher
    ..a potent, previously unknown mechanism to shut down synaptic transmission, via direct occlusion of a Synaptobrevin/VAMP2 binding groove and subsequent hindrance of conformational changes in domain 3a responsible for vesicle priming...
  37. Carlson S, Henchir J, Dixon C. Lateral Fluid Percussion Injury Impairs Hippocampal Synaptic Soluble N-Ethylmaleimide Sensitive Factor Attachment Protein Receptor Complex Formation. Front Neurol. 2017;8:532 pubmed publisher
    ..lFPI resulted in a significant reduction in multiple monomeric SNARE proteins, including VAMP2, and ?-synuclein, and SNARE complex abundance...
  38. Alberts P, Rudge R, Hinners I, Muzerelle A, Martinez Arca S, Irinopoulou T, et al. Cross talk between tetanus neurotoxin-insensitive vesicle-associated membrane protein-mediated transport and L1-mediated adhesion. Mol Biol Cell. 2003;14:4207-20 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, TI-VAMP- but not synaptobrevin 2-containing vesicles accumulated at the site of the L1 bead-cell junction...
  39. Riemann D, Wallrafen R, Dresbach T. The Kohlschütter-Tönz syndrome associated gene Rogdi encodes a novel presynaptic protein. Sci Rep. 2017;7:15791 pubmed publisher
    ..with the presynaptic scaffolding protein Bassoon and the synaptic vesicle markers Synaptophysin, Synapsin-1, VAMP2/Synaptobrevin and Mover...
  40. Zoraqi G, Paradisi S, Falbo V, Taruscio D. Genomic organization and assignment of VAMP2 to 17p12 by FISH. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 2000;89:199-203 pubmed
    We describe the complete sequence, genomic organization, and FISH chromosome mapping of the human VAMP2. We identified a 7-kb clone, pISSHG2b3A, containing the entire structure of VAMP2...
  41. Antonin W, Holroyd C, Fasshauer D, Pabst S, von Mollard G, Jahn R. A SNARE complex mediating fusion of late endosomes defines conserved properties of SNARE structure and function. EMBO J. 2000;19:6453-64 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the structure of core complexes and their molecular mechanism in membrane fusion is highly conserved between distant SNAREs...
  42. Widberg C, Bryant N, Girotti M, Rea S, James D. Tomosyn interacts with the t-SNAREs syntaxin4 and SNAP23 and plays a role in insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:35093-101 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that Tomosyn and Munc18c operate at a similar stage of the Syntaxin4 SNARE assembly cycle, which likely primes Syntaxin4 for entry into the ternary SNARE complex. ..
  43. Liu Y, Li H, Sugiura Y, Han W, Gallardo G, Khvotchev M, et al. Ubiquitin-Synaptobrevin Fusion Protein Causes Degeneration of Presynaptic Motor Terminals in Mice. J Neurosci. 2015;35:11514-31 pubmed publisher
    ..consisting of the following: (1) Ub(G76V), GFP, and a synaptic vesicle protein synaptobrevin-2 (Ub(G76V)-GFP-Syb2); (2) GFP-Syb2; or (3) Ub(G76V)-GFP-Syntaxin1, all under the control of a neuron-specific Thy-1 promoter...
  44. Rau A, Hentges S. The Relevance of AgRP Neuron-Derived GABA Inputs to POMC Neurons Differs for Spontaneous and Evoked Release. J Neurosci. 2017;37:7362-7372 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that the relevance of AgRP to POMC neuron GABA connectivity depends on the state of AgRP neuron activity and suggest that different types of transmitter release should be considered when circuit mapping. ..
  45. Elliott M, Maignel J, Liu S, Favre Guilmard C, Mir I, Farrow P, et al. Augmentation of VAMP-catalytic activity of botulinum neurotoxin serotype B does not result in increased potency in physiological systems. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0185628 pubmed publisher
    ..In order to augment the efficacy of BoNT/B in humans, strategies other than enhancing light chain activity may need to be considered...
  46. Guo J, Chan E, Chen S. Comparative characterization of botulinum neurotoxin subtypes F1 and F7 featuring differential substrate recognition and cleavage mechanisms. Toxicon. 2016;111:77-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Substrate mapping and saturation mutagenesis analysis revealed that VAMP2 (20-65) was likely a minimally effective substrate for LC/F7 (light chain of BoNT/F7), and in addition, LC/F7 ..
  47. Horvath P, Kavalali E, Monteggia L. CRISPR/Cas9 system-mediated impairment of synaptobrevin/VAMP function in postmitotic hippocampal neurons. J Neurosci Methods. 2017;278:57-64 pubmed publisher
    ..single CRISPR/Cas9 lentivirus was used to transfect a high percentage of primary cultured neurons and target synaptobrevin 2 (Syb2, also called VAMP2)...
  48. Ghiani C, Starcevic M, Rodriguez Fernandez I, Nazarian R, Cheli V, Chan L, et al. The dysbindin-containing complex (BLOC-1) in brain: developmental regulation, interaction with SNARE proteins and role in neurite outgrowth. Mol Psychiatry. 2010;15:115, 204-15 pubmed publisher
  49. Gao Q, Liu L, Chen Y, Li H, Yang L, Wang Y, et al. Synaptosome-related (SNARE) genes and their interactions contribute to the susceptibility and working memory of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in males. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2015;57:132-9 pubmed publisher
    ..eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of Syntaxin 1A (STX1A), vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP2) and synaptosomal-associated protein 25 kDa (SNAP25) and conducted case-control studies in 1404 male ADHD and 617 ..
  50. Renard H, Garcia Castillo M, Chambon V, Lamaze C, Johannes L. Shiga toxin stimulates clathrin-independent endocytosis of the VAMP2, VAMP3 and VAMP8 SNARE proteins. J Cell Sci. 2015;128:2891-902 pubmed publisher
    ..The SNARE proteins VAMP2, VAMP3 and VAMP8 are internalized in a clathrin-dependent manner...
  51. Xu S, Kim J, Hwang K, Das R, Quan X, Nguyen T, et al. Autocrine insulin increases plasma membrane K(ATP) channel via PI3K-VAMP2 pathway in MIN6 cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015;468:752-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Pretreatment with brefeldin A or silencing of vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP2) abolished insulin-mediated upregulation of surface SUR1...
  52. Hastoy B, Scotti P, Milochau A, Fezoua Boubegtiten Z, Rodas J, Mégret R, et al. A Central Small Amino Acid in the VAMP2 Transmembrane Domain Regulates the Fusion Pore in Exocytosis. Sci Rep. 2017;7:2835 pubmed publisher
    ..The TMD of the SNARE protein synaptobrevin2/VAMP2 contains two highly conserved small amino acids, G100 and C103, in its central portion...
  53. Vicogne J, Vollenweider D, Smith J, Huang P, Frohman M, Pessin J. Asymmetric phospholipid distribution drives in vitro reconstituted SNARE-dependent membrane fusion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:14761-6 pubmed
    ..process that depends on the SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion factor attachment receptor) proteins VAMP2 (vesicle-associated membrane protein 2) and syntaxin 4 (Stx4)/SNAP23 (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion ..
  54. Kabachinski G, Kielar Grevstad D, Zhang X, James D, Martin T. Resident CAPS on dense-core vesicles docks and primes vesicles for fusion. Mol Biol Cell. 2016;27:654-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that dense-core vesicles carry CAPS to sites of exocytosis, where CAPS promotes vesicle docking and fusion competence, probably by initiating SNARE complex assembly. ..
  55. Windoffer R, Borchert Stuhlträger M, Haass N, Thomas S, Hergt M, Bulitta C, et al. Tissue expression of the vesicle protein pantophysin. Cell Tissue Res. 1999;296:499-510 pubmed
    ..Remarkably, pantophysin staining in liver is restricted to cells surrounding sinusoids and is not detectable in hepatocytes, similar to that of the SCAMP and VAMP isoforms as detected by our reagents in tissue sections. ..
  56. Banerjee A, Li G, Alexander E, Schwartz J. Role of SNAP-23 in trafficking of H+-ATPase in cultured inner medullary collecting duct cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2001;280:C775-81 pubmed
    ..We conclude that SNAP-23 is a substrate for botulinum toxin proteolysis and has a critical role in the regulation of H+-ATPase exocytosis and H+ secretion in these renal epithelial cells...
  57. Xu H, Arnold M, Kumar S. Differential Effects of Munc18s on Multiple Degranulation-Relevant Trans-SNARE Complexes. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0138683 pubmed publisher
    ..and syntaxin4/SNAP-23) to form fusogenic trans-SNARE complexes with each of the four granule-borne R-SNAREs (VAMP2, 3, 7, 8)...
  58. Munch A, Kedar G, van Weering J, Vazquez Sanchez S, He E, André T, et al. Extension of Helix 12 in Munc18-1 Induces Vesicle Priming. J Neurosci. 2016;36:6881-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Munc18-1 domain 3a within the Munc18-1:syntaxin complex result in an additional interaction with synaptobrevin-2/VAMP2 (vesicle-associated membrane protein 2), leading to SNARE complex formation...
  59. Zdanowicz R, Kreutzberger A, Liang B, Kiessling V, Tamm L, Cafiso D. Complexin Binding to Membranes and Acceptor t-SNAREs Explains Its Clamping Effect on Fusion. Biophys J. 2017;113:1235-1250 pubmed publisher
  60. Brasher M, Martynowicz D, Grafinger O, Hucik A, Shanks Skinner E, Uniacke J, et al. Interaction of Munc18c and syntaxin4 facilitates invadopodium formation and extracellular matrix invasion of tumor cells. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:16199-16210 pubmed publisher
    ..interactions of Stx4 with synaptosome-associated protein 23 (SNAP23) and vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP2)...
  61. Yilmaz M, Edgünlü T, Yilmaz N, Cetin E, Çelik S, Emir G, et al. Genetic variants of synaptic vesicle and presynaptic plasma membrane proteins in idiopathic generalized epilepsy. J Recept Signal Transduct Res. 2014;34:38-43 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to analyze the role of the genetic variants of two synaptic vesicle proteins (VAMP2 and Synaptotagmin XI) and two presynaptic plasma membrane proteins (Syntaxin 1A and SNAP-25) in patients with idiopathic ..
  62. Koo S, Kochlamazashvili G, Rost B, Puchkov D, Gimber N, Lehmann M, et al. Vesicular Synaptobrevin/VAMP2 Levels Guarded by AP180 Control Efficient Neurotransmission. Neuron. 2015;88:330-44 pubmed publisher
    ..N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complex formation of vesicular synaptobrevin/VAMP2 (Syb2). Exocytic fusion is followed by endocytic SV membrane retrieval and the high-fidelity reformation of SVs...
  63. Singh B, Lockwich T, Bandyopadhyay B, Liu X, Bollimuntha S, Brazer S, et al. VAMP2-dependent exocytosis regulates plasma membrane insertion of TRPC3 channels and contributes to agonist-stimulated Ca2+ influx. Mol Cell. 2004;15:635-46 pubmed
    ..Here we demonstrate that TRPC3-N terminus interacts with VAMP2 and alphaSNAP...
  64. Baptista F, Castilho Ã, Gaspar J, Liberal J, Aveleira C, Ambrósio A. Long-term exposure to high glucose increases the content of several exocytotic proteins and of vesicular GABA transporter in cultured retinal neural cells. Neurosci Lett. 2015;602:56-61 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, prolonged exposure to elevated glucose alters the total content of several proteins involved in exocytosis, suggesting that hyperglycemia per se is a fundamental factor for neuronal changes caused by diabetes. ..
  65. Perez Branguli F, Muhaisen A, Blasi J. Munc 18a binding to syntaxin 1A and 1B isoforms defines its localization at the plasma membrane and blocks SNARE assembly in a three-hybrid system assay. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2002;20:169-80 pubmed
    ..Since Munc-18a can bind both isoforms of syntaxin 1, the present data suggest that this protein is a general modulator of the formation of different SNARE complexes in the nerve endings. ..
  66. Oishi Y, Arakawa T, Tanimura A, Itakura M, Takahashi M, Tajima Y, et al. Role of VAMP-2, VAMP-7, and VAMP-8 in constitutive exocytosis from HSY cells. Histochem Cell Biol. 2006;125:273-81 pubmed
  67. Marcet Palacios M, Odemuyiwa S, Coughlin J, Garofoli D, Ewen C, Davidson C, et al. Vesicle-associated membrane protein 7 (VAMP-7) is essential for target cell killing in a natural killer cell line. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;366:617-23 pubmed
    ..Thus, targeting VAMP-7 expression specifically with siRNA, following transplantation, may be a viable strategy for preventing NK cell-mediated transplant rejection, in vivo. ..
  68. Vassilopoulos S, Esk C, Hoshino S, Funke B, Chen C, Plocik A, et al. A role for the CHC22 clathrin heavy-chain isoform in human glucose metabolism. Science. 2009;324:1192-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, CHC22-dependent membrane trafficking constitutes a species-restricted pathway in human muscle and fat with potential implications for type 2 diabetes. ..
  69. Guček A, Jorgacevski J, Singh P, Geisler C, Lisjak M, Vardjan N, et al. Dominant negative SNARE peptides stabilize the fusion pore in a narrow, release-unproductive state. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2016;73:3719-31 pubmed publisher
    ..comes from studies of transgenic mice with astrocyte-specific expression of a dominant-negative domain of synaptobrevin 2 protein (dnSNARE)...
  70. Polgar J, Chung S, Reed G. Vesicle-associated membrane protein 3 (VAMP-3) and VAMP-8 are present in human platelets and are required for granule secretion. Blood. 2002;100:1081-3 pubmed
    ..In contrast, rVAMP-2, which formed SNARE complexes in vitro, had no effect on platelet exocytosis. We conclude that VAMP-3 and VAMP-8 form SNARE complexes with platelet syntaxin 4 and are required for platelet granule secretion. ..
  71. Sander L, Frank S, Bolat S, Blank U, Galli T, Bigalke H, et al. Vesicle associated membrane protein (VAMP)-7 and VAMP-8, but not VAMP-2 or VAMP-3, are required for activation-induced degranulation of mature human mast cells. Eur J Immunol. 2008;38:855-63 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, our data show that mature human MC express a specific pattern of SNARE and that VAMP-7 and VAMP-8, but not VAMP-2, are required for rapid degranulation...
  72. Daraio T, Valladolid Acebes I, Brismar K, Bark C. SNAP-25a and SNAP-25b differently mediate interactions with Munc18-1 and Gβγ subunits. Neurosci Lett. 2018;674:75-80 pubmed publisher
    ..These results implicate that the two SNAP-25 isoforms could differently mediate protein interactions outside the ternary SNARE core complex and thereby contribute to modulate neurotransmission. ..
  73. Brumell J, Volchuk A, Sengelov H, Borregaard N, Cieutat A, Bainton D, et al. Subcellular distribution of docking/fusion proteins in neutrophils, secretory cells with multiple exocytic compartments. J Immunol. 1995;155:5750-9 pubmed
    ..Syntaxin 4 was found almost exclusively in the plasma membrane, and it accumulated in lamellipodia of migrating cells. This regional accumulation may contribute to localized secretion into the phagosomal lumen. ..
  74. Jagadish M, Fernandez C, Hewish D, Macaulay S, Gough K, Grusovin J, et al. Insulin-responsive tissues contain the core complex protein SNAP-25 (synaptosomal-associated protein 25) A and B isoforms in addition to syntaxin 4 and synaptobrevins 1 and 2. Biochem J. 1996;317 ( Pt 3):945-54 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we have confirmed the presence of syntaxin 4 in fat and of synaptobrevin 2 in skeletal muscle by PCR amplification and Southern hybridization analysis...
  75. Timmers K, Clark A, Omatsu Kanbe M, Whiteheart S, Bennett M, Holman G, et al. Identification of SNAP receptors in rat adipose cell membrane fractions and in SNARE complexes co-immunoprecipitated with epitope-tagged N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein. Biochem J. 1996;320 ( Pt 2):429-36 pubmed
    ..Biol. Chem. 267, 11681-11684] have been identified as synaptobrevin 2 (VAMP 2) and cellubrevin (VAMP 3) by using isoform-specific antisera...
  76. Lacy P, Logan M, Bablitz B, Moqbel R. Fusion protein vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 is implicated in IFN-gamma-induced piecemeal degranulation in human eosinophils from atopic individuals. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2001;107:671-8 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that exocytosis in human eosinophils is regulated by SNAREs, with a specific role indicated for VAMP-2 in piecemeal degranulation. ..
  77. Pennuto M, Dunlap D, Contestabile A, Benfenati F, Valtorta F. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer detection of synaptophysin I and vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 interactions during exocytosis from single live synapses. Mol Biol Cell. 2002;13:2706-17 pubmed
    To investigate the molecular interactions of synaptophysin I and vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP2)/synaptobrevin II during exocytosis, we have used time-lapse videomicroscopy to measure fluorescence resonance energy transfer ..
  78. Schraw T, Lemons P, Dean W, Whiteheart S. A role for Sec1/Munc18 proteins in platelet exocytosis. Biochem J. 2003;374:207-17 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies demonstrate a clear role for SM proteins in platelet exocytosis and aggregation and suggest a dominant role for Munc18c in all three granule-release events...
  79. Kalb S, Baudys J, Webb R, Wright P, Smith T, Smith L, et al. Discovery of a novel enzymatic cleavage site for botulinum neurotoxin F5. FEBS Lett. 2012;586:109-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that BoNT/F5 cleaves substrate synaptobrevin-2 in a different location than the other BoNT/F subtypes, between (54)L and (55)E. This is the first report of cleavage of synaptobrevin-2 in this location. ..
  80. Kuhlmann J, Junius M, Diederichsen U, Steinem C. SNARE-Mediated Single-Vesicle Fusion Events with Supported and Freestanding Lipid Membranes. Biophys J. 2017;112:2348-2356 pubmed publisher investigate the dynamics and fusogenicity of single large unilamellar vesicles doped with the v-SNARE synaptobrevin 2 by means of spinning-disc confocal microscopy with a time resolution of 10 ms...
  81. Hunt J, Bommert K, Charlton M, Kistner A, Habermann E, Augustine G, et al. A post-docking role for synaptobrevin in synaptic vesicle fusion. Neuron. 1994;12:1269-79 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that synaptobrevin participates in neurotransmitter release at a step between vesicle docking and fusion. ..
  82. Fasshauer D, Antonin W, Margittai M, Pabst S, Jahn R. Mixed and non-cognate SNARE complexes. Characterization of assembly and biophysical properties. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:15440-6 pubmed
    ..whether other SNAREs can form complexes with components of the synaptic SNARE complex including synaptobrevin/VAMP 2, SNAP-25, and syntaxin 1...
  83. Wade N, Bryant N, Connolly L, Simpson R, Luzio J, Piper R, et al. Syntaxin 7 complexes with mouse Vps10p tail interactor 1b, syntaxin 6, vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP)8, and VAMP7 in b16 melanoma cells. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:19820-7 pubmed
  84. Takuma T, Arakawa T, Okayama M, Mizoguchi I, Tanimura A, Tajima Y. Trafficking of green fluorescent protein-tagged SNARE proteins in HSY cells. J Biochem. 2002;132:729-35 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that munc18c plays an important role in the trafficking of syntaxin-4 to its proper destination by preventing premature interactions with other proteins, including SNARE proteins. ..
  85. Shen D, Yuan H, Hutagalung A, Verma A, Kümmel D, Wu X, et al. The synaptobrevin homologue Snc2p recruits the exocyst to secretory vesicles by binding to Sec6p. J Cell Biol. 2013;202:509-26 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the exocyst is recruited to secretory vesicles by the combinatorial signals of Sec4-GTP and the Snc proteins. This could help to confer both specificity and directionality to vesicular traffic. ..
  86. Eno C, SOLANKI B, Pelegri F. aura (mid1ip1l) regulates the cytoskeleton at the zebrafish egg-to-embryo transition. Development. 2016;143:1585-99 pubmed publisher
    ..In mutants, components of exocytic and endocytic vesicles, such as Vamp2, Clathrin and Dynamin, are sequestered in unreleased CGs, indicating a need for CG recycling in the normal ..
  87. Nakaya N, Sultana A, Tomarev S. Impaired AMPA receptor trafficking by a double knockout of zebrafish olfactomedin1a/b. J Neurochem. 2017;143:635-644 pubmed publisher
    ..The levels of GluR2, SNAP25, flotillin1, and VAMP2 were markedly reduced in the synaptic microdomain of olfm1 null brain compared with wt...
  88. Annaert W, Becker B, Kistner U, Reth M, Jahn R. Export of cellubrevin from the endoplasmic reticulum is controlled by BAP31. J Cell Biol. 1997;139:1397-410 pubmed
    ..We conclude that BAP31 represents a novel class of sorting proteins that controls anterograde transport of certain membrane proteins from the ER to the Golgi complex. ..
  89. Valdez A, Cabaniols J, Brown M, Roche P. Syntaxin 11 is associated with SNAP-23 on late endosomes and the trans-Golgi network. J Cell Sci. 1999;112 ( Pt 6):845-54 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that syntaxin 11 is a SNARE that acts to regulate protein transport between late endosomes and the trans-Golgi network in mammalian cells. ..
  90. Hazzard J, Sudhof T, Rizo J. NMR analysis of the structure of synaptobrevin and of its interaction with syntaxin. J Biomol NMR. 1999;14:203-7 pubmed
    ..This result suggests an interaction between the N- and C-terminal regions of syntaxin that competes with core complex assembly. ..
  91. Cousin P, Billotte J, Chaubert P, Shaw P. Physical map of 17p13 and the genes adjacent to p53. Genomics. 2000;63:60-8 pubmed
    ..Twenty-seven transcription units were identified, including 18 characterized genes. Limited analysis of primary human colon tumors, hemizygous for the p53 gene, indicates loss of the entire 1.1-Mb region upon deletion of wildtype p53. ..
  92. Logan M, Lacy P, Bablitz B, Moqbel R. Expression of eosinophil target SNAREs as potential cognate receptors for vesicle-associated membrane protein-2 in exocytosis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2002;109:299-306 pubmed
    ..These findings support a role for SNARE molecules in eosinophil mediator release. ..