uracil DNA glycosylase


Gene Symbol: uracil DNA glycosylase
Description: uracil DNA glycosylase
Alias: DGU, HIGM4, HIGM5, UDG, UNG1, UNG15, UNG2, uracil-DNA glycosylase, uracil-DNA glycosylase 1, uracil-DNA glycosylase 2
Species: human
Products:     uracil DNA glycosylase

Top Publications

  1. Doseth B, Ekre C, Slupphaug G, Krokan H, Kavli B. Strikingly different properties of uracil-DNA glycosylases UNG2 and SMUG1 may explain divergent roles in processing of genomic uracil. DNA Repair (Amst). 2012;11:587-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Uracil N-glycosylases UNG2 and SMUG1 (single strand-selective monofunctional uracil-DNA glycosylase 1) initiate error-free BER in most DNA ..
  2. Schröfelbauer B, Yu Q, Zeitlin S, Landau N. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr induces the degradation of the UNG and SMUG uracil-DNA glycosylases. J Virol. 2005;79:10978-87 pubmed
    ..virus type 1 (HIV-1) accessory protein Vpr has previously been shown to bind to the cellular uracil DNA glycosylase UNG...
  3. Studebaker A, Ariza M, Williams M. Depletion of uracil-DNA glycosylase activity is associated with decreased cell proliferation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;334:509-15 pubmed
    ..The results of this study support the premise that UNG can be used as a potential therapeutic target and also demonstrate that protein transduction can be used to modulate UNG activity. ..
  4. Bouhamdan M, Benichou S, Rey F, Navarro J, Agostini I, Spire B, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr protein binds to the uracil DNA glycosylase DNA repair enzyme. J Virol. 1996;70:697-704 pubmed
    ..A cDNA clone which encodes the human uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG), a DNA repair enzyme involved in removal of uracil in DNA, has been isolated...
  5. Yang B, Chen K, Zhang C, Huang S, Zhang H. Virion-associated uracil DNA glycosylase-2 and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease are involved in the degradation of APOBEC3G-edited nascent HIV-1 DNA. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:11667-75 pubmed
    ..virus type 1 (HIV-1) could trigger a degradation of nascent viral DNA mediated by uracil DNA glycosylases-2 (UNG2) and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE)...
  6. Wen X, Casey Klockow L, Nekorchuk M, Sharifi H, de Noronha C. The HIV1 protein Vpr acts to enhance constitutive DCAF1-dependent UNG2 turnover. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30939 pubmed publisher
    ..that includes DDB1 and cullin 4 (CRL4) to cause G2 cell cycle arrest and to promote degradation of both uracil DNA glycosylase 2 (UNG2) and single-strand selective mono-functional uracil DNA glycosylase 1 (SMUG1)...
  7. Lu X, Bocangel D, Nannenga B, Yamaguchi H, Appella E, Donehower L. The p53-induced oncogenic phosphatase PPM1D interacts with uracil DNA glycosylase and suppresses base excision repair. Mol Cell. 2004;15:621-34 pubmed
    ..Here, we demonstrate that PPM1D interacts with the nuclear isoform of uracil DNA glycosylase, UNG2, and suppresses base excision repair (BER)...
  8. Mansky L, Le Rouzic E, Benichou S, Gajary L. Influence of reverse transcriptase variants, drugs, and Vpr on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 mutant frequencies. J Virol. 2003;77:2071-80 pubmed
    ..Similarly, Vpr variants deficient for binding to the uracil DNA glycosylase repair enzyme were observed to influence HIV-1 virus mutant frequencies when tested alone or in ..
  9. Willetts K, Rey F, Agostini I, Navarro J, Baudat Y, Vigne R, et al. DNA repair enzyme uracil DNA glycosylase is specifically incorporated into human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral particles through a Vpr-independent mechanism. J Virol. 1999;73:1682-8 pubmed
    ..We have previously reported that Vpr associates with the DNA repair enzyme uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG)...

More Information


  1. Bianchet M, Seiple L, Jiang Y, Ichikawa Y, Amzel L, Stivers J. Electrostatic guidance of glycosyl cation migration along the reaction coordinate of uracil DNA glycosylase. Biochemistry. 2003;42:12455-60 pubmed
    The DNA repair enzyme uracil DNA glycosylase has been crystallized with a cationic 1-aza-2'-deoxyribose-containing DNA that mimics the ultimate transition state of the reaction in which the water nucleophile attacks the anomeric center of ..
  2. Parikh S, Mol C, Slupphaug G, Bharati S, Krokan H, Tainer J. Base excision repair initiation revealed by crystal structures and binding kinetics of human uracil-DNA glycosylase with DNA. EMBO J. 1998;17:5214-26 pubmed
    Three high-resolution crystal structures of DNA complexes with wild-type and mutant human uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG), coupled kinetic characterizations and comparisons with the refined unbound UDG structure help resolve fundamental ..
  3. Mer G, Bochkarev A, Gupta R, Bochkareva E, Frappier L, Ingles C, et al. Structural basis for the recognition of DNA repair proteins UNG2, XPA, and RAD52 by replication factor RPA. Cell. 2000;103:449-56 pubmed
    ..terminus of subunit RPA32 contains a specific surface that interacts in a similar manner with the DNA repair enzyme UNG2 and repair factors XPA and RAD52, each of which functions in a different repair pathway...
  4. Norman J, Mashiba M, McNamara L, Onafuwa Nuga A, Chiari Fort E, Shen W, et al. The antiviral factor APOBEC3G enhances the recognition of HIV-infected primary T cells by natural killer cells. Nat Immunol. 2011;12:975-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that pathogen-induced deamination of cytidine and the DNA-damage response to virus-mediated repair of the incorporation of uridine enhance the recognition of HIV-infected cells by NK cells. ..
  5. Langevin C, Maidou Peindara P, Aas P, Jacquot G, Otterlei M, Slupphaug G, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr modulates cellular expression of UNG2 via a negative transcriptional effect. J Virol. 2009;83:10256-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that Vpr influences the UNG2 promoter without affecting UNG1 gene expression...
  6. Andersen J, Le Rouzic E, Planelles V. HIV-1 Vpr: mechanisms of G2 arrest and apoptosis. Exp Mol Pathol. 2008;85:2-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of Vpr, in particular, leads to cell cycle arrest in G(2), followed by apoptosis. Here we summarize our current understanding of Vpr biology with a focus on Vpr-induced G(2) arrest and apoptosis. ..
  7. Hagen L, Kavli B, Sousa M, Torseth K, Liabakk N, Sundheim O, et al. Cell cycle-specific UNG2 phosphorylations regulate protein turnover, activity and association with RPA. EMBO J. 2008;27:51-61 pubmed
    Human UNG2 is a multifunctional glycosylase that removes uracil near replication forks and in non-replicating DNA, and is important for affinity maturation of antibodies in B cells...
  8. Fischer J, Muller Weeks S, Caradonna S. Proteolytic degradation of the nuclear isoform of uracil-DNA glycosylase occurs during the S phase of the cell cycle. DNA Repair (Amst). 2004;3:505-13 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that protein phosphorylation and/or nuclear export participate in the post-translational regulation of UDG1A protein levels. ..
  9. Chen R, Le Rouzic E, Kearney J, Mansky L, Benichou S. Vpr-mediated incorporation of UNG2 into HIV-1 particles is required to modulate the virus mutation rate and for replication in macrophages. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:28419-25 pubmed
    ..Here, we investigated the impact of the recruitment into virus particles of the nuclear form of uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG2), a cellular DNA repair enzyme, on the virus mutation rate and on replication in macrophages...
  10. Bell C, Connell B, Capovilla A, Venter W, Stevens W, Papathanasopoulos M. Molecular characterization of the HIV type 1 subtype C accessory genes vif, vpr, and vpu. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2007;23:322-30 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that antiviral drugs that target the conserved functional domains within Vif, Vpr or Vpu could be active against all circulating subtypes, including HIV-1 subtype C. ..
  11. Begum N, Izumi N, Nishikori M, Nagaoka H, Shinkura R, Honjo T. Requirement of non-canonical activity of uracil DNA glycosylase for class switch recombination. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:731-42 pubmed
    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG) are required for class switch recombination (CSR). AID is involved in the DNA cleavage step of CSR, but the precise role of UNG is not yet understood...
  12. Mol C, Arvai A, Sanderson R, Slupphaug G, Kavli B, Krokan H, et al. Crystal structure of human uracil-DNA glycosylase in complex with a protein inhibitor: protein mimicry of DNA. Cell. 1995;82:701-8 pubmed
    ..the uracil-containing phage DNA by irreversibly inhibiting the key DNA repair enzyme uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG). The 1...
  13. Otterlei M, Warbrick E, Nagelhus T, Haug T, Slupphaug G, Akbari M, et al. Post-replicative base excision repair in replication foci. EMBO J. 1999;18:3834-44 pubmed
    ..We report that the major nuclear uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG2) increases in S phase, during which it co-localizes with incorporated BrdUrd in replication foci...
  14. Otterlei M, Haug T, Nagelhus T, Slupphaug G, Lindmo T, Krokan H. Nuclear and mitochondrial splice forms of human uracil-DNA glycosylase contain a complex nuclear localisation signal and a strong classical mitochondrial localisation signal, respectively. Nucleic Acids Res. 1998;26:4611-7 pubmed
    Nuclear (UNG2) and mitochondrial (UNG1) forms of human uracil-DNA glycosylase are both encoded by the UNG gene but have different N-terminal sequences...
  15. Mol C, Arvai A, Slupphaug G, Kavli B, Alseth I, Krokan H, et al. Crystal structure and mutational analysis of human uracil-DNA glycosylase: structural basis for specificity and catalysis. Cell. 1995;80:869-78 pubmed
    Crystal structures of the DNA repair enzyme human uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG), combined with mutational analysis, reveal the structural basis for the specificity of the enzyme...
  16. Haug T, Skorpen F, Aas P, Malm V, Skjelbred C, Krokan H. Regulation of expression of nuclear and mitochondrial forms of human uracil-DNA glycosylase. Nucleic Acids Res. 1998;26:1449-57 pubmed
    Promoters PA and PBin the UNG gene and alternative splicing are utilized to generate nuclear (UNG2) and mitochondrial (UNG1) forms of human uracil-DNA glycosylase...
  17. Verma S, Bajaj B, Cai Q, Si H, Seelhammer T, Robertson E. Latency-associated nuclear antigen of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus recruits uracil DNA glycosylase 2 at the terminal repeats and is important for latent persistence of the virus. J Virol. 2006;80:11178-90 pubmed
    ..One of the identified proteins was uracil DNA glycosylase 2 (UNG2)...
  18. Nagelhus T, Slupphaug G, Lindmo T, Krokan H. Cell cycle regulation and subcellular localization of the major human uracil-DNA glycosylase. Exp Cell Res. 1995;220:292-7 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that the gene product from the UNG gene is located within three subcellular compartments and that the distribution between these compartments varies during the cell cycle. ..
  19. Kavli B, Slupphaug G, Mol C, Arvai A, Peterson S, Tainer J, et al. Excision of cytosine and thymine from DNA by mutants of human uracil-DNA glycosylase. EMBO J. 1996;15:3442-7 pubmed
    Uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG) protects the genome by removing mutagenic uracil residues resulting from deamination of cytosine...
  20. Nilsen H, Otterlei M, Haug T, Solum K, Nagelhus T, Skorpen F, et al. Nuclear and mitochondrial uracil-DNA glycosylases are generated by alternative splicing and transcription from different positions in the UNG gene. Nucleic Acids Res. 1997;25:750-5 pubmed
    A distinct nuclear form of human uracil-DNA glycosylase [UNG2, open reading frame (ORF) 313 amino acid residues] from the UNG gene has been identified...
  21. Nagelhus T, Haug T, Singh K, Keshav K, Skorpen F, Otterlei M, et al. A sequence in the N-terminal region of human uracil-DNA glycosylase with homology to XPA interacts with the C-terminal part of the 34-kDa subunit of replication protein A. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:6561-6 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the N-terminal part constitutes a separate structural domain required for RPA binding and suggest a possible function for RPA in base excision repair. ..
  22. Selig L, Benichou S, Rogel M, Wu L, Vodicka M, Sire J, et al. Uracil DNA glycosylase specifically interacts with Vpr of both human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and simian immunodeficiency virus of sooty mangabeys, but binding does not correlate with cell cycle arrest. J Virol. 1997;71:4842-6 pubmed
    ..Nonetheless, a mutational analysis of Vpr showed that binding to UNG is neither necessary nor sufficient for the effect of Vpr on the cell cycle. ..
  23. Imai K, Slupphaug G, Lee W, Revy P, Nonoyama S, Catalan N, et al. Human uracil-DNA glycosylase deficiency associated with profoundly impaired immunoglobulin class-switch recombination. Nat Immunol. 2003;4:1023-8 pubmed
  24. Power C, Hui E, Vivithanaporn P, Acharjee S, Polyak M. Delineating HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders using transgenic models: the neuropathogenic actions of Vpr. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2012;7:319-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The availability of different transgenic models to study HIV neuropathogenesis represents exciting and innovative approaches to understanding disease mechanisms and perhaps developing new therapeutic strategies in the future. ..
  25. Parikh S, Walcher G, Jones G, Slupphaug G, Krokan H, Blackburn G, et al. Uracil-DNA glycosylase-DNA substrate and product structures: conformational strain promotes catalytic efficiency by coupled stereoelectronic effects. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:5083-8 pubmed
    ..Yet human uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG), an archetypical enzyme that initiates DNA base-excision repair, efficiently excises the damaged base uracil ..
  26. Pulukuri S, Knost J, Estes N, Rao J. Small interfering RNA-directed knockdown of uracil DNA glycosylase induces apoptosis and sensitizes human prostate cancer cells to genotoxic stress. Mol Cancer Res. 2009;7:1285-93 pubmed publisher
    b>Uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG) is the primary enzyme responsible for removing uracil residues from DNA...
  27. Sharifi H, Furuya A, de Noronha C. The role of HIV-1 Vpr in promoting the infection of nondividing cells and in cell cycle arrest. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2012;7:187-94 pubmed publisher
  28. Slupphaug G, Olsen L, Helland D, Aasland R, Krokan H. Cell cycle regulation and in vitro hybrid arrest analysis of the major human uracil-DNA glycosylase. Nucleic Acids Res. 1991;19:5131-7 pubmed
    Uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG) is the first enzyme in the excision repair pathway for removal of uracil in DNA. In vitro transcription/translation of a cloned human cDNA encoding UDG resulted in easily measurable UDG activity...
  29. Schröfelbauer B, Hakata Y, Landau N. HIV-1 Vpr function is mediated by interaction with the damage-specific DNA-binding protein DDB1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:4130-5 pubmed
    ..In addition, Vpr causes rapid degradation of the uracil-DNA glycosylases UNG2 and SMUG1...
  30. Ahn J, Vu T, Novince Z, Guerrero Santoro J, Rapic Otrin V, Gronenborn A. HIV-1 Vpr loads uracil DNA glycosylase-2 onto DCAF1, a substrate recognition subunit of a cullin 4A-ring E3 ubiquitin ligase for proteasome-dependent degradation. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:37333-41 pubmed publisher
    ..virus type 1 (HIV-1) accessory protein, Vpr, interacts with several host cellular proteins including uracil DNA glycosylase-2 (UNG2) and a cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase assembly (CRL4(DCAF1))...
  31. Bouhamdan M, Xue Y, Baudat Y, Hu B, Sire J, Pomerantz R, et al. Diversity of HIV-1 Vpr interactions involves usage of the WXXF motif of host cell proteins. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:8009-16 pubmed
    ..More importantly, we demonstrate that the WXXF motif of uracil DNA glycosylase is implicated in the interaction of uracil DNA glycosylase with Vpr intracellularly...
  32. Mansky L, Preveral S, Selig L, Benarous R, Benichou S. The interaction of vpr with uracil DNA glycosylase modulates the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 In vivo mutation rate. J Virol. 2000;74:7039-47 pubmed
    ..Since Vpr interacts with a cellular protein implicated in the DNA repair process, uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG), we have explored the contribution of this interaction to the mutation rate of HIV-1...
  33. Elder R, Zhu X, Priet S, Chen M, Yu M, Navarro J, et al. A fission yeast homologue of the human uracil-DNA-glycosylase and their roles in causing DNA damage after overexpression. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;306:693-700 pubmed
    ..The Ung1 protein localizes predominantly to the nucleus, suggesting that it is more similar to the nuclear form (UNG2) than the mitochondrial form (UNG1) of human UNG...
  34. Priet S, Navarro J, Querat G, Sire J. Reversion of the lethal phenotype of an HIV-1 integrase mutant virus by overexpression of the same integrase mutant protein. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:20724-30 pubmed
    ..2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 4566-4571) that IN also plays a role in the packaging of the host uracil DNA glycosylase UNG2 into viral particles and that the region of IN encompassing residues 170-180 was responsible for the ..
  35. Kavli B, Sundheim O, Akbari M, Otterlei M, Nilsen H, Skorpen F, et al. hUNG2 is the major repair enzyme for removal of uracil from U:A matches, U:G mismatches, and U in single-stranded DNA, with hSMUG1 as a broad specificity backup. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:39926-36 pubmed
    ..We also provide evidence that hUNG2 is the major enzyme for removal of deaminated cytosine outside of replication foci, with hSMUG1 acting as a broad specificity backup. ..
  36. Priet S, Navarro J, Gros N, Querat G, Sire J. Functional role of HIV-1 virion-associated uracil DNA glycosylase 2 in the correction of G:U mispairs to G:C pairs. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:4566-71 pubmed
    ..We have previously reported that the host uracil DNA glycosylase enzyme UNG2 is packaged into HIV-1 viral particles via a specific association with the integrase domain of ..
  37. Ko R, Bennett S. Physical and functional interaction of human nuclear uracil-DNA glycosylase with proliferating cell nuclear antigen. DNA Repair (Amst). 2005;4:1421-31 pubmed
    ..In human cells, the nuclear form of uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG2) contains a conserved PCNA-binding motif located at the N-terminus that has been implicated experimentally in ..
  38. Slupphaug G, Mol C, Kavli B, Arvai A, Krokan H, Tainer J. A nucleotide-flipping mechanism from the structure of human uracil-DNA glycosylase bound to DNA. Nature. 1996;384:87-92 pubmed
    ..in DNA, a result of either misincorporation or deamination of cytosine, are removed by uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG), one of the most efficient and specific of the base-excision DNA-repair enzymes...
  39. Doseth B, Visnes T, Wallenius A, Ericsson I, Sarno A, Pettersen H, et al. Uracil-DNA glycosylase in base excision repair and adaptive immunity: species differences between man and mouse. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:16669-80 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore suggest that SMUG1 may work as a weak backup activity for UNG2 during class switch recombination in Ung(-/-) mice...
  40. Fenard D, Houzet L, Bernard E, Tupin A, Brun S, Mougel M, et al. Uracil DNA Glycosylase 2 negatively regulates HIV-1 LTR transcription. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:6008-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, Uracil DNA glycosylase 2 (UNG2), a major determinant of the uracil base excision repair pathway, was shown to undergo rapid ..
  41. Priet S, Navarro J, Gros N, Querat G, Sire J. Differential incorporation of uracil DNA glycosylase UNG2 into HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIV(MAC) viral particles. Virology. 2003;307:283-9 pubmed
    We have previously reported that the host uracil DNA glycosylase UNG2 enzyme is incorporated into HIV-1 virions via a specific association with the viral integrase (IN) domain of Gag-Pol precursor...
  42. Zhao R, Elder R, Bukrinsky M. Interactions of HIV-1 viral protein R with host cell proteins. Adv Pharmacol. 2007;55:233-60 pubmed
  43. Van Maele B, Debyser Z. HIV-1 integration: an interplay between HIV-1 integrase, cellular and viral proteins. AIDS Rev. 2005;7:26-43 pubmed
    ..In this review we summarize the candidate cellular proteins involved in the HIV-1 integration process identified so far and discuss their potential roles during HIV-1 replication. ..
  44. Kavli B, Andersen S, Otterlei M, Liabakk N, Imai K, Fischer A, et al. B cells from hyper-IgM patients carrying UNG mutations lack ability to remove uracil from ssDNA and have elevated genomic uracil. J Exp Med. 2005;201:2011-21 pubmed
    ..Our results may explain why SMUG1 cannot compensate the UNG2 deficiency in human B cells, and are fully consistent with the DNA deamination model that requires active nuclear ..
  45. Lang P, Kulla M, Kerwagen F, Lefering R, Friemert B, Palm H. The role of whole-body computed tomography in the diagnosis of thoracic injuries in severely injured patients - a retrospective multi-centre study based on the trauma registry of the German trauma society (TraumaRegister DGU®). Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2017;25:82 pubmed publisher
    ..In a retrospective study based on the trauma registry of the German Trauma Society (TraumaRegister DGU®), we analysed data from 16,545 patients who underwent treatment in 59 hospitals between 2002 and 2012 (..
  46. Croxford J, Gasser S. Damage control: how HIV survives the editor APOBEC3G. Nat Immunol. 2011;12:925-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The virus overcomes greater susceptibility to natural killer cell–mediated lysis by targeting APOBEC3G for degradation. ..
  47. Pérez Báez W, Garcia Latorre E, Maldonado Martínez H, Coronado Martínez I, Flores García L, Taja Chayeb L. Impact of fixation artifacts and threshold selection on high resolution melting analysis for KRAS mutation screening. Mol Cell Probes. 2017;35:34-43 pubmed publisher
    ..mCRC patients were tested for KRAS mutations by Therascreen™ (FDA Validated test), HRMA, and HRMA with UDG pre-treatment to reverse FFPE fixation artifacts...
  48. Baehr C, Huntoon C, Hoang S, Jerde C, Karnitz L. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 (GSK-3)-mediated Phosphorylation of Uracil N-Glycosylase 2 (UNG2) Facilitates the Repair of Floxuridine-induced DNA Lesions and Promotes Cell Survival. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:26875-26885 pubmed publisher
    Uracil N-glycosylase 2 (UNG2), the nuclear isoform of UNG, catalyzes the removal of uracil or 5-fluorouracil lesions that accumulate in DNA following treatment with the anticancer agents 5-fluorouracil and 5-fluorodeoxyuridine (..
  49. Cravens S, Hobson M, Stivers J. Electrostatic properties of complexes along a DNA glycosylase damage search pathway. Biochemistry. 2014;53:7680-92 pubmed publisher
    Human uracil DNA glycosylase (hUNG) follows an extended reaction coordinate for locating rare uracil bases in genomic DNA...
  50. Huehls A, Huntoon C, Joshi P, Baehr C, Wagner J, Wang X, et al. Genomically Incorporated 5-Fluorouracil that Escapes UNG-Initiated Base Excision Repair Blocks DNA Replication and Activates Homologous Recombination. Mol Pharmacol. 2016;89:53-62 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that depletion of the uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG) sensitizes tumor cells to FdUrd...
  51. Moore S, Kruchten J, Toomire K, Strauss P. Transcription Factors and DNA Repair Enzymes Compete for Damaged Promoter Sites. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:5452-60 pubmed publisher
    ..We incubated 39-mer CRE-containing double-stranded oligonucleotides with recombinant CREB1 alone or with UNG2 or OGG1, followed by EMSA. The CpG islet within CRE was modified to contain a G/U or 8-oxoG (°G)/C mispair...
  52. Broderick P, Bagratuni T, Vijayakrishnan J, Lubbe S, Chandler I, Houlston R. Evaluation of NTHL1, NEIL1, NEIL2, MPG, TDG, UNG and SMUG1 genes in familial colorectal cancer predisposition. BMC Cancer. 2006;6:243 pubmed
    ..Three novel missense variants were identified NEIL2 C367A, TDG3 A196G and UNG2 C262T in patients, which were not observed in 188 healthy control DNAs...
  53. Kamal A, Gulfraz M, Anwar M, Malik R. Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method development based on ultravioletvisible detector for the analysis of 1-hydroxypyrene (PAH biomarker) in human urine. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2015;28:399-403 pubmed publisher
    ..manual injection into the HPLC Shimadzu, equipped with the SPD-20 A UV-visible detector, the LC-20AT pump and the DGU-20A5 degasser. The C-18 column was used for the purpose of the analysis...
  54. Huang S, Ho T, Yang C, Chang Y, Chen J, Shaw N, et al. Chemopreventive Potential of Ethanolic Extracts of Luobuma Leaves (Apocynum venetum L.) in Androgen Insensitive Prostate Cancer. Nutrients. 2017;9: pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, Luobuma, which contains several antitumor bioactive compounds, holds the potential to be a dietary chemopreventive agent for prostate cancer. ..
  55. Komor A, Zhao K, Packer M, Gaudelli N, Waterbury A, Koblan L, et al. Improved base excision repair inhibition and bacteriophage Mu Gam protein yields C:G-to-T:A base editors with higher efficiency and product purity. Sci Adv. 2017;3:eaao4774 pubmed publisher
    ..5%, and further improves product purity. BE4, SaBE4, BE4-Gam, and SaBE4-Gam represent the state of the art in C:G-to-T:A base editing, and we recommend their use in future efforts. ..
  56. Wang H, Ho C, Chou C, Ko T, Huang M, Hsu K, et al. Using structural-based protein engineering to modulate the differential inhibition effects of SAUGI on human and HSV uracil DNA glycosylase. Nucleic Acids Res. 2016;44:4440-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>UDG activity is controlled by various cellular factors, including the uracil-DNA glycosylase inhibitors, which are DNA ..
  57. Nekorchuk M, Sharifi H, Furuya A, Jellinger R, de Noronha C. HIV relies on neddylation for ubiquitin ligase-mediated functions. Retrovirology. 2013;10:138 pubmed publisher
    ..Viral Protein R of HIV-1 (Vpr) assembles with the CRL4 ubiquitin ligase complex to deplete uracil-N-glycosylase2 (UNG2)...
  58. Sharbeen G, Yee C, Smith A, Jolly C. Ectopic restriction of DNA repair reveals that UNG2 excises AID-induced uracils predominantly or exclusively during G1 phase. J Exp Med. 2012;209:965-74 pubmed publisher
    ..This alone produces C:G to T:A transition mutations. Processing of U:G base pairs via U N-glycosylase 2 (UNG2) or MutS? generates further point mutations, predominantly at G:C or A:T base pairs, respectively, but it is ..
  59. Guenzel C, Hérate C, Le Rouzic E, Maidou Peindara P, Sadler H, Rouyez M, et al. Recruitment of the nuclear form of uracil DNA glycosylase into virus particles participates in the full infectivity of HIV-1. J Virol. 2012;86:2533-44 pubmed publisher
    ..This role of Vpr was related to the recruitment of the nuclear form of the uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG2) enzyme into virus particles, but several conflicting findings have been reported regarding the role ..
  60. Caradonna S, Muller Weeks S. The nature of enzymes involved in uracil-DNA repair: isoform characteristics of proteins responsible for nuclear and mitochondrial genomic integrity. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2001;2:335-47 pubmed
    ..These enzymatic functions are dUTP nucleotidohydrolase (dUTPase) and uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG), respectively. There are distinct nuclear and mitochondrial isoforms of each of these enzymes in human cells...
  61. Withers Ward E, Jowett J, Stewart S, Xie Y, Garfinkel A, Shibagaki Y, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr interacts with HHR23A, a cellular protein implicated in nucleotide excision DNA repair. J Virol. 1997;71:9732-42 pubmed
  62. Olsen L, Aasland R, Wittwer C, Krokan H, Helland D. Molecular cloning of human uracil-DNA glycosylase, a highly conserved DNA repair enzyme. EMBO J. 1989;8:3121-5 pubmed
    ..The similarity between the different uracil-DNA glycosylase genes is confined to several discrete boxes. These findings strongly indicate that uracil-DNA glycosylases from phylogenetically distant species are highly conserved. ..