UGT2B7

Summary

Gene Symbol: UGT2B7
Description: UDP glucuronosyltransferase family 2 member B7
Alias: UDPGT 2B7, UDPGT 2B9, UDPGT2B7, UDPGTH2, UDPGTh-2, UGT2B9, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7, 3,4-catechol estrogen specific, 3,4-catechol estrogen-specific UDPGT, UDP glucuronosyltransferase 2 family, polypeptide B7, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B9, UDP-glucuronyltransferase, family 2, beta-7
Species: human
Products:     UGT2B7

Top Publications

  1. Bhasker C, McKinnon W, Stone A, Lo A, Kubota T, Ishizaki T, et al. Genetic polymorphism of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 (UGT2B7) at amino acid 268: ethnic diversity of alleles and potential clinical significance. Pharmacogenetics. 2000;10:679-85 pubmed
    b>UGT2B7 catalyses the glucuronidation of a diverse range of drugs, environmental chemicals and endogenous compounds...
  2. Thibaudeau J, Lepine J, Tojcic J, Duguay Y, Pelletier G, Plante M, et al. Characterization of common UGT1A8, UGT1A9, and UGT2B7 variants with different capacities to inactivate mutagenic 4-hydroxylated metabolites of estradiol and estrone. Cancer Res. 2006;66:125-33 pubmed
    ..study, we conducted functional analyses of genetic variants in the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase UGT1A8, UGT1A9, and UGT2B7 enzymes primarily involved in the inactivation of 4-OHCEs...
  3. Takeda S, Ishii Y, Iwanaga M, Nurrochmad A, Ito Y, Mackenzie P, et al. Interaction of cytochrome P450 3A4 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7: evidence for protein-protein association and possible involvement of CYP3A4 J-helix in the interaction. Mol Pharmacol. 2009;75:956-64 pubmed publisher
    ..protein-protein interaction between UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 2B7 and cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) alters UGT2B7 function. However, the domain(s) involved in the interaction are largely unknown...
  4. Ritter J, Sheen Y, Owens I. Cloning and expression of human liver UDP-glucuronosyltransferase in COS-1 cells. 3,4-catechol estrogens and estriol as primary substrates. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:7900-6 pubmed
    ..The unique specificity of this transferase for 3,4-catechol estrogens and estriol suggests it may play an important role in regulating the level and activity of these potent and active estrogen metabolites. ..
  5. Lepine J, Bernard O, Plante M, Tetu B, Pelletier G, Labrie F, et al. Specificity and regioselectivity of the conjugation of estradiol, estrone, and their catecholestrogen and methoxyestrogen metabolites by human uridine diphospho-glucuronosyltransferases expressed in endometrium. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:5222-32 pubmed
    ..by specific UGTs at positions 2, 3, and 4 of the estrogens, whereas only E(2) was conjugated at position 17 by UGT2B7. Kinetic parameters indicate that the conjugation of E(2) at position 3 was predominantly catalyzed by 1A1, 1A3, ..
  6. Mitra P, Basu N, Owens I. Src supports UDP-glucuronosyltransferase-2B7 detoxification of catechol estrogens associated with breast cancer. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;382:651-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Although UGT2B7 has 3 PKC- and 2 tyrosine kinase (TK)-sites, its inhibition by genistein, herbimycin-A and PP2 with parallel ..
  7. Gradinaru J, Romand S, Geiser L, Carrupt P, Spaggiari D, Rudaz S. Inhibition screening method of microsomal UGTs using the cocktail approach. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2015;71:35-45 pubmed publisher
    ..for UGT1A4, serotonin for UGT 1A6, isoferulic acid for UGT1A9, codeine for UGT2B4, azidothymidine for UGT2B7, levomedetomidine for UGT2B10, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamine for UGT2B15 and testosterone for UGT2B17...
  8. Wang S, Liu Y, Zhou J, Yi J, Pan Y, Wang J, et al. Identification and tissue expression profiling of candidate UDP-glycosyltransferase genes expressed in Holotrichia parallela motschulsky antennae. Bull Entomol Res. 2018;108:807-816 pubmed publisher
    ..and revealed important domains and residues involved in sugar donor binding and catalysis by comparison with human UGT2B7. Phylogenetic analysis of these 20 UGT protein sequences revealed eight major groups, including both order-..
  9. Mürdter T, Schroth W, Bacchus Gerybadze L, Winter S, Heinkele G, Simon W, et al. Activity levels of tamoxifen metabolites at the estrogen receptor and the impact of genetic polymorphisms of phase I and II enzymes on their concentration levels in plasma. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2011;89:708-17 pubmed publisher
    ..relationships, 236 breast cancer patients were genotyped for CYP2D6, CYP2C9, CYP2B6, CYP2C19, CYP3A5, UGT1A4, UGT2B7, and UGT2B15; also, plasma concentrations of tamoxifen and 22 of its metabolites, including the (E)-, (Z)-, 3-, ..

More Information

Publications142 found, 100 shown here

  1. Trottier J, Perreault M, Rudkowska I, Levy C, Dallaire Theroux A, Verreault M, et al. Profiling serum bile acid glucuronides in humans: gender divergences, genetic determinants, and response to fenofibrate. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2013;94:533-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The chenodeoxycholic acid-3G (CDCA-3G) concentration was associated with the UGT2B7 802C>T polymorphism...
  2. Gufford B, Lu J, Metzger I, Jones D, Desta Z. Stereoselective Glucuronidation of Bupropion Metabolites In Vitro and In Vivo. Drug Metab Dispos. 2016;44:544-53 pubmed publisher
    ..b>UGT2B7 catalyzed the stereoselective formation of glucuronides of hydroxybupropion, (S,S)-hydrobupropion, (S,R)- and (R,S)..
  3. Zhang B, Madden P, Gu J, Xing X, Sankar S, Flynn J, et al. Uncovering the transcriptomic and epigenomic landscape of nicotinic receptor genes in non-neuronal tissues. BMC Genomics. 2017;18:439 pubmed publisher
    ..CHRNA4 transcription was highly correlated with genes involved in the nicotine metabolism, including CYP2A6, UGT2B7, and FMO3...
  4. Oeser S, Bingham J, Collier A. Regulation of Hepatic UGT2B15 by Methylation in Adults of Asian Descent. Pharmaceutics. 2018;10: pubmed publisher
    ..The UGT1A3 mRNA was 2-fold higher in females than males (p < 0.05), while UGT1A1 and UGT2B7 mRNA were significantly higher in Pacific Islanders than Caucasians (both p < 0.05)...
  5. Rong Y, Meng Z, Li J, Zhu X, Gan H, Gu R, et al. Application of ultra high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to investigate the regioselective glucuronidation of icaritin in vitro. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2018;154:444-453 pubmed publisher
    ..38?mL/mg/min). As for the regioselectivity, except for UGT1A8 and UGT2B7, most UGT isoforms exhibit preference for the position of 3-OH on icaritin structure...
  6. Kim J, Kwon S, Kong T, Cheong J, Kim H, In M, et al. AM-2201 Inhibits Multiple Cytochrome P450 and Uridine 5'-Diphospho-Glucuronosyltransferase Enzyme Activities in Human Liver Microsomes. Molecules. 2017;22: pubmed publisher
    ..CYP3A4-catalyzed midazolam 1'-hydroxylation, UGT1A3-catalyzed chenodeoxycholic acid 24-acyl-glucuronidation, and UGT2B7-catalyzed naloxone 3-glucuronidation with IC50 values of 3.9, 4.0, 4.3, and 10...
  7. Chen A, Zhou X, Cheng Y, Tang S, Liu M, Wang X. Design and optimization of the cocktail assay for rapid assessment of the activity of UGT enzymes in human and rat liver microsomes. Toxicol Lett. 2018;295:379-389 pubmed publisher
    ..for UGT1A1, chenodeoxycholic acid for UGT1A3, serotonin for UGT1A6, propofol for UGT1A9/PROG and zidovudine for UGT2B7/AZTG) in human and rat liver microsomes by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS/MS)...
  8. Konishi K, Tenmizu D, Takusagawa S. Identification of Uridine 5'-Diphosphate-Glucuronosyltransferases Responsible for the Glucuronidation of Mirabegron, a Potent and Selective ?3-Adrenoceptor Agonist, in Human Liver Microsomes. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2018;43:301-309 pubmed publisher
    ..3 pmol/min/mg protein). This result was supported by the correlation between M11 formation activity and UGT2B7 marker enzyme activity (3-glucuronidation of morphine, r 2 = 0.330, p = 0...
  9. Kwon S, Kim J, Jeong H, Cho Y, Oh S, Lee H. Inhibitory Effects of Aschantin on Cytochrome P450 and Uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase Enzyme Activities in Human Liver Microsomes. Molecules. 2016;21: pubmed publisher
    ..7, 144.1, and 71.0 µM, respectively, but did not show inhibition against UGT1A3, UGT1A4, or UGT2B7 up to 200 µM...
  10. Saruwatari J, Ishitsu T, Nakagawa K. Update on the Genetic Polymorphisms of Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes in Antiepileptic Drug Therapy. Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2010;3:2709-2732 pubmed
    ..This article summarizes the state of research on the effects of mutations of drug-metabolizing enzymes on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of AED therapies. Future directions for the dose-adjustment of AED are discussed. ..
  11. Hu D, Hulin J, Wijayakumara D, McKinnon R, Mackenzie P, Meech R. Intergenic Splicing between Four Adjacent UGT Genes (2B15, 2B29P2, 2B17, 2B29P1) Gives Rise to Variant UGT Proteins That Inhibit Glucuronidation via Protein-Protein Interactions. Mol Pharmacol. 2018;94:938-952 pubmed publisher
    ..assays demonstrated heterotypic interactions between chimeric UGT2B15 (or chimeric UGT2B17) and the UGT2B7 protein. Thus oligomerization of the chimeric UGTs with wild-type UGTs may explain their inhibitory activity...
  12. Uno Y, Takahira R, Murayama N, Onozeki S, Kawamura S, Uehara S, et al. Functional and molecular characterization of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2 family in cynomolgus macaques. Biochem Pharmacol. 2019;163:335-344 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the seven cynomolgus UGT2Bs heterologously expressed in yeast, UGT2B9 and UGT2B30 showed activities in estradiol 17-O-glucuronidation and morphine 3-O-glucuronidation but did not show ..
  13. Mazzarino M, Buccilli V, de la Torre X, Fiacco I, Palermo A, Ughi D, et al. Characterization of the phase I and phase II metabolic profile of tolvaptan by in vitro studies and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry profiling: Relevance to doping control analysis. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2017;145:555-568 pubmed publisher
    ..Most of the phase I metabolites undergo glucuronidation, carried out mostly by UGT2B7 and UGT2B17 isoforms...
  14. Matic M, de Wildt S, Tibboel D, van Schaik R. Analgesia and Opioids: A Pharmacogenetics Shortlist for Implementation in Clinical Practice. Clin Chem. 2017;63:1204-1213 pubmed publisher
    ..cytochrome P450 family 3 subfamily A member 5 (CYP3A5), UDP glucuronosyltransferase family 2 member B7 (UGT2B7), ATP binding cassette subfamily B member 1 (ABCB1), ATP binding cassette subfamily C member 3 (..
  15. Hagberg Thulin M, Nilsson M, Thulin P, Céraline J, Ohlsson C, Damber J, et al. Osteoblasts promote castration-resistant prostate cancer by altering intratumoral steroidogenesis. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2016;422:182-191 pubmed publisher
    ..HSD3B1, and AKR1C3), estrogen signaling-related genes (CYP19A1, and ESR2), and genes for DHT-inactivating enzymes (UGT2B7, UGT2B15, and UGT2B17)...
  16. Wang J, Shidfar A, Ivancic D, Ranjan M, Liu L, Choi M, et al. Overexpression of lipid metabolism genes and PBX1 in the contralateral breasts of women with estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer. Int J Cancer. 2017;140:2484-2497 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of DHRS2, HMGCS2, UGT2B7, UGT2B11, ALOX15B, HPGD, UGT2B28 and GLYATL1 was significantly higher in ER-negative versus ER-positive CUBs, and ..
  17. Johänning J, Kröner P, Thomas M, Zanger U, Nörenberg A, Eichelbaum M, et al. The formation of estrogen-like tamoxifen metabolites and their influence on enzyme activity and gene expression of ADME genes. Arch Toxicol. 2018;92:1099-1112 pubmed publisher
    ..Regarding phase II metabolism, UGT2B7, 1A8 and 1A3 showed highest activity in glucuronidation of tamoxifen bisphenol and metabolite E...
  18. Hu D, Marri S, McKinnon R, Mackenzie P, Meech R. Deregulation of the Genes that Are Involved in Drug Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion in Hepatocellular Carcinoma. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2019;368:363-381 pubmed publisher
    ..i>CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2E1, CYP3A4, NAT1, NAT2, UGT2B7, SLC22A1, SLCO1B1, and SLCO1B3) were downregulated...
  19. Busch D, Fritz A, Partecke L, Heidecke C, Oswald S. LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantification of intestinal CYP and UGT activity. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2018;155:194-201 pubmed publisher
    ..dextrorphan (CYP2D6), 1-hydroxymidazolam (CYP3A), ezetimibe glucuronide (UGT1A) and naloxone glucuronide (UGT2B7)...
  20. Kong T, Kim J, Kwon S, Cheong J, Kim H, In M, et al. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 and uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferases by MAM-2201 in human liver microsomes. Arch Pharm Res. 2017;40:727-735 pubmed publisher
    ..50 µM) negligibly inhibited CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, UGT1A1, UGT1A4, UGT1A6, UGT1A9, and UGT2B7. Based on these in vitro results, we conclude that MAM-2201 has the potential to trigger in vivo pharmacokinetic ..
  21. Tucci J, Pumuye P, Helsby N, Barratt D, Pokeya P, Hombhanje F, et al. Pharmacogenomics in Papua New Guineans: unique profiles and implications for enhancing drug efficacy while improving drug safety. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2018;28:153-164 pubmed publisher
    ..CYP2D6 known variants are unclear, and for phase II enzymes, only UGT2B7 and UGT1A9 data are available, with variant frequencies either slightly lower than or similar to Whites...
  22. Richter L, Kaminski Y, Noor F, Meyer M, Maurer H. Metabolic fate of desomorphine elucidated using rat urine, pooled human liver preparations, and human hepatocyte cultures as well as its detectability using standard urine screening approaches. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2016;408:6283-94 pubmed publisher
    ..UDP-glucuronyltransferase (UGT) initial activity screening showed that UGT1A1, UGT1A8, UGT1A9, UGT1A10, UGT2B4, UGT2B7, UGT2B15, and UGT2B17 formed desomorphine glucuronide...
  23. Hevir Kene N, Rižner T. The endometrial cancer cell lines Ishikawa and HEC-1A, and the control cell line HIEEC, differ in expression of estrogen biosynthetic and metabolic genes, and in androstenedione and estrone-sulfate metabolism. Chem Biol Interact. 2015;234:309-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Significantly higher CYP1B1 mRNA levels in Ishikawa cells compared to HEC-1A cells, together with lack of UGT2B7 expression, indicate that Ishikawa cells can accumulate more toxic estrogen-3,4-quinones than HEC-1A cells, as ..
  24. Vulsteke C, Pfeil A, Schwenkglenks M, Pettengell R, Szucs T, Lambrechts D, et al. Impact of genetic variability and treatment-related factors on outcome in early breast cancer patients receiving (neo-) adjuvant chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide, and docetaxel. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2014;147:557-70 pubmed publisher
    ..8; 95 % CI 1.2-2.7; p = 0.006), and G-allele homozygosity for the UGT2B7 variant rs3924194 (HR 3.4; 95 % CI 1.2-9.7, p = 0.023)...
  25. Jeong H, Kim J, Lee D, Shim H, Lee H. In Vitro Metabolic Pathways of the New Anti-Diabetic Drug Evogliptin in Human Liver Preparations. Molecules. 2015;20:21802-15 pubmed publisher
    ..of 4(S)-hydroxy-evogliptin (M2) to 4(S)-hydroxyevogliptin glucuronide (M4) was catalyzed by the enzymes UGT2B4 and UGT2B7. These results suggest that the interindividual variability in the metabolism of evogliptin in humans is a result ..
  26. Yan T, Gao S, Peng X, Shi J, Xie C, Li Q, et al. Significantly decreased and more variable expression of major CYPs and UGTs in liver microsomes prepared from HBV-positive human hepatocellular carcinoma and matched pericarcinomatous tissues determined using an isotope label-free UPLC-MS/MS method. Pharm Res. 2015;32:1141-57 pubmed publisher
    ..the average absolute amounts of 8 major CYP isoforms (except CYP2C19) and 3 UGT isoforms (UGT1A1, UGT1A4 and UGT2B7) were decreased significantly (p < 0.05), whereas UGT1A6 and UGT1A9 levels were unchanged (p > 0.05)...
  27. Qu W, Liu X. Identification of Cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms involved in the metabolism of artocarpin and assessment of its drug-drug interaction (DDI). Biomed Chromatogr. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Artocarpin showed strong inhibition against UGT1A3, UGT1A6, UGT1A7, UGT1A8, UGT1A9, UGT1A10, UGT2B7, CYP2C8 and CYP3A4...
  28. Shrestha R, Cho P, Paudel S, Shrestha A, Kang M, Jeong T, et al. Exploring the Metabolism of Loxoprofen in Liver Microsomes: The Role of Cytochrome P450 and UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase in Its Biotransformation. Pharmaceutics. 2018;10: pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we identified that UGT2B7 is the major UGT isoform catalyzing the glucuronidation of loxoprofen and its alcoholic metabolites...
  29. Papageorgiou I, Freytsis M, Court M. Transcriptome association analysis identifies miR-375 as a major determinant of variable acetaminophen glucuronidation by human liver. Biochem Pharmacol. 2016;117:78-87 pubmed publisher
    ..as enzyme activity and/or mRNA of AhR regulated enzymes including UGT1A1, UGT1A6, and CYP1A2, without affecting UGT2B7, which is not regulated by AhR...
  30. Papageorgiou I, Court M. Identification and validation of microRNAs directly regulating the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A subfamily enzymes by a functional genomics approach. Biochem Pharmacol. 2017;137:93-106 pubmed publisher
    ..human intestinal cells showed repression of UGT1A1 and UGT1A6 mediated glucuronidation and mRNA without affecting UGT2B7 activity or mRNA...
  31. Stachel N, Skopp G. Formation and inhibition of ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate. Forensic Sci Int. 2016;265:61-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Findings for quercetin with regard to UGT2B7 and SULT2A1 and for kaempferol with regard to SULT1E1 and SULT2A1 suggested a mechanism based inhibition...
  32. Yu Z, Zhou P, Wang X, Françoise B, Xu D, Zhang W, et al. Population pharmacokinetics and Bayesian estimation of mycophenolic acid concentrations in Chinese adult renal transplant recipients. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2017;38:1566-1579 pubmed publisher
    ..The polymorphism in uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase gene, UGT2B7, significantly explained the interindividual variability in the initial volume of distribution (V1/F)...
  33. Weiss J, Kocher J, Mueller C, Rosenzweig S, Theile D. Impact of enzalutamide and its main metabolite N-desmethyl enzalutamide on pharmacokinetically important drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 2017;38:517-525 pubmed publisher
    ..mRNA expression of UGT2B7 was suppressed by enzalutamide and its metabolite...
  34. You B, Gong E, Choi Y. Inhibitory Effect of Sauchinone on UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 2B7 Activity. Molecules. 2018;23: pubmed publisher
    ..08 and 0.524 μM, respectively. In in vivo interaction study using mice, sauchinone inhibited UGT2B7-mediated zidovudine metabolism, resulting in increased systemic exposure of zidovudine when sauchinone and ..
  35. Kwon S, Kim J, Jeong H, Ahn K, Oh S, Lee H. Role of cytochrome P450 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases in metabolic pathway of homoegonol in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2015;30:305-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Glucuronidation of homoegonol to M5 was mediated by UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A4, and UGT2B7 enzymes, whereas M4 was formed from 4-O-demethylhomoegonol by UGT1A1, UGT1A8, UGT1A10, and UGT2B15 enzymes.
  36. Zeng J, Fan Y, Tan B, Su H, Li Y, Zhang L, et al. Charactering the metabolism of cryptotanshinone by human P450 enzymes and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases in vitro. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2018;39:1393-1404 pubmed publisher
    ..This study showed that the metabolites at m/z of 473 were mediated by UGT1A9 and that the metabolites at m/z of 489 were mediated by UGT2B7 and UGT2B4. CT was extensively metabolized by UGTs following metabolism by CYPs in the liver.
  37. Sun H, Wang H, Liu H, Zhang X, Wu B. Glucuronidation of capsaicin by liver microsomes and expressed UGT enzymes: reaction kinetics, contribution of individual enzymes and marked species differences. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2014;10:1325-36 pubmed publisher
    ..765; p < 0.01) and with UGT2B7 protein levels (r = 0.721; p < 0.01). UGT1A1, 1A9 and 2B7 contributed 30.3, 6.0 and 49...
  38. Yi J, Kim Y, Lee Y, Bang O, Kim N. Effect of an ethanol extract of Descurainia sophia seeds on Phase I and II drug metabolizing enzymes and P-glycoprotein activity in vitro. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2015;15:441 pubmed publisher
    ..2, and 11.9 μg/mL, respectively. Other Phase I (CYP2C8, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4) and Phase II (UGT1A1 and UGT2B7) enzymes as well as P-gp were weakly or negligibly affected by EEDS with concentrations up to 500 μg/mL...
  39. Seltzer J, Scotton T, Kang K, Zada G, Carmichael J. Gene expression in prolactinomas: a systematic review. Pituitary. 2016;19:93-104 pubmed publisher
    ..Of the many genes identified, three upregulated (HMGA2, HST, SNAP25), and three downregulated (UGT2B7, Let7, miR-493) genes were selected for further analysis based on our subjective identification of strong ..
  40. Romand S, Spaggiari D, Marsousi N, Samer C, Desmeules J, Daali Y, et al. Characterization of oxycodone in vitro metabolism by human cytochromes P450 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2017;144:129-137 pubmed publisher
    ..Oxycodone-glucuronide was mainly produced by UGT2B7 (Km=762±153?M, Vmax=344±20 peak area/min/mg) and to a lesser extent by UGT2B4 (Km
  41. Félix A, Ciudad C, Noe V. Functional pharmacogenomics and toxicity of PolyPurine Reverse Hoogsteen hairpins directed against survivin in human cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 2018;155:8-20 pubmed publisher
    ..of PC3 cells to treatment with the PPRH against survivin, mainly POLR2G, PAK1IP1, SMC3, SF3A1, PPARGC1A, NCOA6, UGT2B7, ALG5, VAMP7 and HIST1H2BE, the former six present in the Gene Sets detected in the GSEA...
  42. Ishii Y, Hansen A, Mackenzie P. Octamer transcription factor-1 enhances hepatic nuclear factor-1alpha-mediated activation of the human UDP glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 promoter. Mol Pharmacol. 2000;57:940-7 pubmed
    The human UDP glucuronosyltransferase, UGT2B7, is expressed in the liver and gastrointestinal tract, where it catalyzes the glucuronidation of steroids and bile acids...
  43. Staines A, Sindelar P, Coughtrie M, Burchell B. Farnesol is glucuronidated in human liver, kidney and intestine in vitro, and is a novel substrate for UGT2B7 and UGT1A1. Biochem J. 2004;384:637-45 pubmed
    ..liver microsomes, UGT1A1 is primarily responsible for farnesol glucuronidation; however, in intestine microsomes, UGT2B7 is probably the major isoform involved, with a very-low-micromolar K(m)...
  44. Ross J, Rutter D, Welsh K, Joel S, Goller K, Wells A, et al. Clinical response to morphine in cancer patients and genetic variation in candidate genes. Pharmacogenomics J. 2005;5:324-36 pubmed
    ..variation in the mu-opioid receptor, betaarrestin2, stat6 and uridine diphosphate-glucuronysltransferase 2B7 (UGT2B7) genes, in patients who responded to morphine vs those who were switched to alternative opioids...
  45. Baldelli S, Merlini S, Perico N, Nicastri A, Cortinovis M, Gotti E, et al. C-440T/T-331C polymorphisms in the UGT1A9 gene affect the pharmacokinetics of mycophenolic acid in kidney transplantation. Pharmacogenomics. 2007;8:1127-41 pubmed
    ..By contrast, the production of the acyl MPAG, a minor MPA metabolite, was ascribed to UGT2B7 and UGT1A8. Several polymorphisms in the genes encoding for UGT1A9, UGT2B7 and MRP2 proteins have been described...
  46. Levesque E, Benoit Biancamano M, Delage R, Couture F, Guillemette C. Pharmacokinetics of mycophenolate mofetil and its glucuronide metabolites in healthy volunteers. Pharmacogenomics. 2008;9:869-79 pubmed publisher
    We previously reported that polymorphisms in the UGT2B7 and UGT1A9 genes are associated with significant alteration in the disposition of mycophenolic acid (MPA) in healthy volunteers...
  47. Uchaipichat V, Galetin A, Houston J, Mackenzie P, Williams J, Miners J. Kinetic modeling of the interactions between 4-methylumbelliferone, 1-naphthol, and zidovudine glucuronidation by udp-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 (UGT2B7) provides evidence for multiple substrate binding and effector sites. Mol Pharmacol. 2008;74:1152-62 pubmed publisher
    Interactions between the UGT2B7-catalyzed glucuronidation of zidovudine (AZT), 4-methylumbelliferone (4MU), and 1-naphthol (1NP) were analyzed using multisite and empirical kinetic models to explore the existence of multiple substrate and ..
  48. Miyauchi Y, Nagata K, Yamazoe Y, Mackenzie P, Yamada H, Ishii Y. Suppression of Cytochrome P450 3A4 Function by UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 through a Protein-Protein Interaction: Cooperative Roles of the Cytosolic Carboxyl-Terminal Domain and the Luminal Anchoring Region. Mol Pharmacol. 2015;88:800-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Because CYP3A4 interacts with UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 (UGT2B7) to alter its function, the reverse regulation is expected to modulate CYP3A4-catalyzed activity...
  49. Du Z, Cao Y, Li S, Hu C, Fu Z, Huang C, et al. Inhibition of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) by phthalate monoesters. Chemosphere. 2018;197:7-13 pubmed publisher
    ..exhibited negligible inhibition towards the activity of UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A6, UGT1A8, UGT1A10, UGT2B4, UGT2B7, UGT2B15 and UGT2B17...
  50. Monaghan G, Clarke D, Povey S, See C, Boxer M, Burchell B. Isolation of a human YAC contig encompassing a cluster of UGT2 genes and its regional localization to chromosome 4q13. Genomics. 1994;23:496-9 pubmed
    ..A yeast artificial chromosome contig containing the UGT2B4, UGT2B9, and UGT2B15 genes was isolated, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and PCR revealed that several members of the ..
  51. Strassburg C, Strassburg A, Nguyen N, Li Q, Manns M, Tukey R. Regulation and function of family 1 and family 2 UDP-glucuronosyltransferase genes (UGT1A, UGT2B) in human oesophagus. Biochem J. 1999;338 ( Pt 2):489-98 pubmed
    ..UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A4, UGT1A5 and UGT1A6 transcripts were not detected. UGT2 expression included UGT2B7, UGT2B10 and UGT2B15, but UGT2B4 mRNA was absent...
  52. Takekuma Y, Takenaka T, Kiyokawa M, Yamazaki K, Okamoto H, Kitabatake A, et al. Contribution of polymorphisms in UDP-glucuronosyltransferase and CYP2D6 to the individual variation in disposition of carvedilol. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2006;9:101-12 pubmed
    ..blocking and vasodilating activities, is mainly metabolized by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1, UGT2B4, UGT2B7 and CYP2D6...
  53. Kagaya H, Miura M, Satoh S, Inoue K, Saito M, Inoue T, et al. No pharmacokinetic interactions between mycophenolic acid and tacrolimus in renal transplant recipients. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2008;33:193-201 pubmed publisher
    ..MPA), the active metabolite of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and tacrolimus, as well as the impact of CYP3A5 and UGT2B7 genetic polymorphisms on these drug interactions in 71 Japanese renal transplant recipients...
  54. Precht J, Schroth W, Klein K, Brauch H, Krynetskiy E, Schwab M, et al. The letrozole phase 1 metabolite carbinol as a novel probe drug for UGT2B7. Drug Metab Dispos. 2013;41:1906-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Kinetic studies were done in recombinant human UGT2B7 and pooled human liver microsomes (HLMs)...
  55. Girard Bock C, Benoit Biancamano M, Villeneuve L, Desjardins S, Guillemette C. A Rare UGT2B7 Variant Creates a Novel N-Glycosylation Site at Codon 121 with Impaired Enzyme Activity. Drug Metab Dispos. 2016;44:1867-1871 pubmed
    ..b>UGT2B7 is of particular interest because of its action on a wide variety of drugs...
  56. Papageorgiou I, Court M. Identification and validation of the microRNA response elements in the 3'-untranslated region of the UDP glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 2B7 and 2B15 genes by a functional genomics approach. Biochem Pharmacol. 2017;146:199-213 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to identify the complete complement of miRNAs that could regulate UGT2B7 and UGT2B15 expression through binding to the reference and/or variant 3'-UTRs...
  57. Falkowski S, Woillard J, Postil D, Tubiana Mathieu N, Terrebonne E, Pariente A, et al. Common variants in glucuronidation enzymes and membrane transporters as potential risk factors for colorectal cancer: a case control study. BMC Cancer. 2017;17:901 pubmed publisher
    ..Three hundred CRC cases were matched with 300 controls for age, sex and enrolment site. Fifteen SNPs in UGT1A6-9, UGT2B7, ABCB1, ABCC2, SLCO1B1 and SLCO2B1 genes were characterized using Taqman® PCR...
  58. Darbari D, van Schaik R, Capparelli E, Rana S, McCarter R, van den Anker J. UGT2B7 promoter variant -840G>A contributes to the variability in hepatic clearance of morphine in patients with sickle cell disease. Am J Hematol. 2008;83:200-2 pubmed
    The purpose of the study was to determine if UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 2B7 allelic variants encoding for UGT2B7, primary enzyme responsible for morphine glucuronidation contribute to the variability in the hepatic clearance of ..
  59. Yang J, Lee P, Hutchinson I, Pravica V, Shah T, Min D. Genetic polymorphisms of MRP2 and UGT2B7 and gastrointestinal symptoms in renal transplant recipients taking mycophenolic acid. Ther Drug Monit. 2009;31:542-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Genotypes for MRP2 C-24 T and UGT2B7 C802 T were determined...
  60. Pazik J, Ołdak M, Lewandowski Z, Podgorska M, Sitarek E, Płoski R, et al. Uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 variant p.His268Tyr as a predictor of kidney allograft early acute rejection. Transplant Proc. 2013;45:1516-9 pubmed publisher
    Uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT2B7) is responsible for conversion of mycophenolic acid to mycophenolic acyl-glucuronide (acylMPAG). Conflicting data exist regarding the role of UGT2B7 p...
  61. Margaillan G, Rouleau M, Klein K, Fallon J, Caron P, Villeneuve L, et al. Multiplexed Targeted Quantitative Proteomics Predicts Hepatic Glucuronidation Potential. Drug Metab Dispos. 2015;43:1331-5 pubmed publisher
    ..b>UGT2B7 is the most abundant UGT in our collection of livers, expressed at 69 pmol/mg microsomal proteins, whereas UGT1A1, ..
  62. Ji J, Huang B, Gu T, Tai T, Zhou H, Jia Y, et al. Human UGT2B7 is the major isoform responsible for the glucuronidation of clopidogrel carboxylate. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..The formation of CAG was significantly inhibited by azidothymidine and gemfibrozil (well-characterized UGT2B7 substrates) in a concentration-dependent manner, or by fluconazole (a typical UGT2B7-selective inhibitor) in a ..
  63. Sun C, Di Rienzo A. UGT2B7 is not expressed in normal breast. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2009;117:225-6 pubmed publisher
  64. Li J, Menard V, Benish R, Jurevic R, Guillemette C, Stoneking M, et al. Worldwide variation in human drug-metabolism enzyme genes CYP2B6 and UGT2B7: implications for HIV/AIDS treatment. Pharmacogenomics. 2012;13:555-70 pubmed publisher
    Hepatic enzymes, CYP2B6 and UGT2B7 play a major role in the metabolism of the widely used antiretroviral drugs efavirenz, nevirapine and zidovudine...
  65. Fujiwara R, Itoh T. Extensive protein-protein interactions involving UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 2B7 in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2014;29:259-65 pubmed
    ..In the present study, therefore, extensive protein-protein interactions involving UGT2B7 were determined by a shotgun analysis of immunoprecipitate...
  66. Achour B, Dantonio A, Niosi M, Novak J, Fallon J, Barber J, et al. Quantitative Characterization of Major Hepatic UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase Enzymes in Human Liver Microsomes: Comparison of Two Proteomic Methods and Correlation with Catalytic Activity. Drug Metab Dispos. 2017;45:1102-1112 pubmed publisher
    ..Spurious abundance-activity correlations were identified in the cases of UGT1A4/2B4 and UGT2B7/2B15, which could be explained by correlations of protein expression between these enzymes...
  67. Joseph T, Wang S, Liu X, Kulkarni K, Wang J, Xu H, et al. Disposition of flavonoids via enteric recycling: enzyme stability affects characterization of prunetin glucuronidation across species, organs, and UGT isoforms. Mol Pharm. 2007;4:883-94 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, prunetin glucuronidation is species-, organ-, and UGT-isoform-dependent, all of which may be impacted by the thermostability of specific UGT isoforms involved in the metabolism. ..
  68. Innocenti F, Liu W, Fackenthal D, Ramirez J, Chen P, Ye X, et al. Single nucleotide polymorphism discovery and functional assessment of variation in the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 gene. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2008;18:683-97 pubmed publisher
    UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 (UGT2B7) plays a central role in the liver-mediated biotransformation of endogenous and exogenous compounds. The genetic basis of interindividual variability in UGT2B7 function is unknown...
  69. Zhang W, Chen B, Jin Z, Yu Z, Wang X, Chen H, et al. Influence of uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glucuronosyltransferases and ABCC2 genetic polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics of mycophenolic acid and its metabolites in Chinese renal transplant recipients. Xenobiotica. 2008;38:1422-36 pubmed publisher
    The aim was to investigate the effect of UGT1A9, UGT1A8, UGT2B7 and ABCC2 polymorphism on the pharmacokinetics of mycophenolic acid (MPA) and its metabolites phenolic glucuronide (MPAG) and acyl glucuronide (AcMPAG) in Chinese renal ..
  70. van der Logt E, te Morsche R, Groenendaal N, Roelofs H, de Metz M, van der Stappen J, et al. Genetic polymorphism in UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 and colorectal cancer risk. Oncol Res. 2009;17:323-9 pubmed
    ..To determine whether a genetic polymorphism in the detoxification enzyme UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 (UGT2B7) predisposes to CRC, 411 Caucasian patients with sporadic CRC and 600 Caucasian controls recruited from the same ..
  71. Rowbotham S, Illingworth N, Daly A, Veal G, Boddy A. Role of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase isoforms in 13-cis retinoic acid metabolism in humans. Drug Metab Dispos. 2010;38:1211-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, UGT1A9 is likely to be the most important enzyme in the glucuronidation of both substrates as this enzyme had the lowest K(m) and is expressed in both the intestine and at high levels in the liver...
  72. Sawyer M, Pituskin E, Damaraju S, Bies R, Vos L, Prado C, et al. A Uridine Glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 Polymorphism Predicts Epirubicin Clearance and Outcomes in Early-Stage Breast Cancer. Clin Breast Cancer. 2016;16:139-44.e1-3 pubmed publisher
    Epirubicin is metabolized by uridine glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 (UGT2B7), an enzyme rich in single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)...
  73. Hanioka N, Kinashi Y, Tanaka Kagawa T, Isobe T, Jinno H. Glucuronidation of mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in humans: roles of hepatic and intestinal UDP-glucuronosyltransferases. Arch Toxicol. 2017;91:689-698 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the recombinant UGTs examined, UGT1A3, UGT1A7, UGT1A8, UGT1A9, UGT1A10, UGT2B4, and UGT2B7 glucuronidated MEHP...
  74. Tang L, Platek M, Yao S, Till C, Goodman P, Tangen C, et al. Associations between polymorphisms in genes related to estrogen metabolism and function and prostate cancer risk: results from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial. Carcinogenesis. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..SNPs) in 13 genes (PGR, ESR1, ESR2, CYP17A1, HSD17B1, CYP19A1, CYP1A1, CYP1B1,COMT, UGT1A6, UGT1A10, UGT2B7, UGT2B15) were examined in whites only...
  75. Zhao W, Fakhoury M, Deschenes G, Roussey G, Brochard K, Niaudet P, et al. Population pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics of mycophenolic acid following administration of mycophenolate mofetil in de novo pediatric renal-transplant patients. J Clin Pharmacol. 2010;50:1280-91 pubmed publisher
    ..All patients were genotyped for UGT1A8-A9, UGT2B7, and ABCC2...
  76. Mitra P, Basu N, Basu M, Chakraborty S, Saha T, Owens I. Regulated phosphorylation of a major UDP-glucuronosyltransferase isozyme by tyrosine kinases dictates endogenous substrate selection for detoxification. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:1639-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, we determined that 2B7 substrate selection is not fixed but varies depending upon the TK(s) that carry out its required phosphorylation. ..
  77. Sparks R, Ulrich C, Bigler J, Tworoger S, Yasui Y, Rajan K, et al. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase and sulfotransferase polymorphisms, sex hormone concentrations, and tumor receptor status in breast cancer patients. Breast Cancer Res. 2004;6:R488-98 pubmed
    ..Polymorphic variation in five UGT and SULT genes - UGT1A1 ((TA)6/(TA)7), UGT2B4 (Asp458Glu), UGT2B7 (His268Tyr), UGT2B15 (Asp85Tyr), and SULT1A1 (Arg213His)--may be associated with circulating sex hormone ..
  78. Saito K, Moriya H, Sawaguchi T, Hayakawa T, Nakahara S, Goto A, et al. Haplotype analysis of UDP-glucuronocyltransferase 2B7 gene (UGT2B7) polymorphisms in healthy Japanese subjects. Clin Biochem. 2006;39:303-8 pubmed
    UDP-glucuronocyltransferase 2B7 (UGT2B7) catalyzes glucuronidation of various types of endogenous compounds and drugs, but the genetic basis of interindividual variation in the metabolism of these substances has not yet been sufficiently ..
  79. Coulbault L, Beaussier M, Verstuyft C, Weickmans H, Dubert L, Tregouet D, et al. Environmental and genetic factors associated with morphine response in the postoperative period. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2006;79:316-24 pubmed
    ..receptor (OPRM1) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP); T802C uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 (UGT2B7) SNP; and 2 adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette, subfamily B, member 1 (ABCB1) (multidrug resistance 1 [MDR1]) ..
  80. Jeannot E, Poussin K, Chiche L, Bacq Y, Sturm N, Scoazec J, et al. Association of CYP1B1 germ line mutations with hepatocyte nuclear factor 1alpha-mutated hepatocellular adenoma. Cancer Res. 2007;67:2611-6 pubmed
    ..For 10 genes (CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, COMT, UGT2B7, NQO1, GSTM1, GSTP1, and GSTT1), we did not find mutations nor differences in the allele distribution among 32 ..
  81. Takekuma Y, Takenaka T, Yamazaki K, Ueno K, Sugawara M. Stereoselective metabolism of racemic carvedilol by UGT1A1 and UGT2B7, and effects of mutation of these enzymes on glucuronidation activity. Biol Pharm Bull. 2007;30:2146-53 pubmed
    Carvedilol, an alpha- and beta-adrenergic blocking drug, is mainly metabolized by CYP2D6, UGT1A1, UGT2B4 and UGT2B7. This drug is administered orally as a racemic mixture of R(+)- and S(-)-enantiomers...
  82. Madadi P, Ross C, Hayden M, Carleton B, Gaedigk A, Leeder J, et al. Pharmacogenetics of neonatal opioid toxicity following maternal use of codeine during breastfeeding: a case-control study. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2009;85:31-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Two mothers whose infants exhibited severe neonatal toxicity were CYP2D6 UMs and of the UGT2B7*2/*2 genotype...
  83. Yong M, Schwartz S, Atkinson C, Makar K, Thomas S, Newton K, et al. Associations between polymorphisms in glucuronidation and sulfation enzymes and mammographic breast density in premenopausal women in the United States. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010;19:537-46 pubmed publisher
    ..07). No associations were observed between polymorphisms in the UGT2B family or SULT1E1 and breast density. Polymorphisms in SULT1A1 and the UGT1A locus may influence percent breast density in premenopausal women. ..
  84. Tian J, Ho I, Tsou H, Fang C, Hsiao C, Chen C, et al. UGT2B7 genetic polymorphisms are associated with the withdrawal symptoms in methadone maintenance patients. Pharmacogenomics. 2012;13:879-88 pubmed publisher
    To test whether the genetic polymorphisms within the gene encoding the UGT2B7 gene may have an impact on methadone treatment. Twelve SNPs in UGT2B7 were selected...
  85. Al Saabi A, Allorge D, Sauvage F, Tournel G, Gaulier J, Marquet P, et al. Involvement of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases UGT1A9 and UGT2B7 in ethanol glucuronidation, and interactions with common drugs of abuse. Drug Metab Dispos. 2013;41:568-74 pubmed publisher
    ..17 mg/l; inhibition constant (K(i)) = 3.1 mg/l). UGT1A9 and 2B7 are the main enzymes involved in ethanol glucuronidation. In addition, our results suggest that cannabinol and cannabidiol could significantly alter ethanol glucuronidation. ..
  86. Ma H, Zhang T, Gong Z, Zhou B, Zou M, Xiao S, et al. Effect of UGT2B7 genetic variants on serum valproic acid concentration. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2013;38:766-72 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the effect of UGT2B7 A268G and UGT2B7 G211T genetic polymorphism on serum drug concentration of valproic acid (VPA)...
  87. Sastre J, Varela G, Lopez M, Muriel C, Gonzalez Sarmiento R. Influence of uridine diphosphate-glucuronyltransferase 2B7 (UGT2B7) variants on postoperative buprenorphine analgesia. Pain Pract. 2015;15:22-30 pubmed publisher
    ..analgesia related to the presence of different isoforms (cytosine or thymine substitution at nucleotide 802) of UGT2B7 gene. Transdermal buprenorphine was administered to 91 patients who underwent muscle-sparing thoracotomy...
  88. Ma C, Wu X, Jiao Z, Hong Z, Wu Z, Zhong M. SCN1A, ABCC2 and UGT2B7 gene polymorphisms in association with individualized oxcarbazepine therapy. Pharmacogenomics. 2015;16:347-60 pubmed publisher
    Associations between the effects of SCN1A, SCN2A, ABCC2 and UGT2B7 genetic polymorphisms and oxcarbazepine (OXC) maintenance doses in Han Chinese epileptic patients were investigated...
  89. Xin H, Xia Y, Hou J, Wang P, He W, Yang L, et al. Identification and characterization of human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases responsible for the in-vitro glucuronidation of arctigenin. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2015;67:1673-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Both kinetic analysis and chemical inhibition assays demonstrated that UGT1A9, UGT2B7 and UGT2B17 played important roles in AR-4'-O-glucuronidation in HLM...
  90. Nielsen L, Sverrisdóttir E, Stage T, Feddersen S, Brøsen K, Christrup L, et al. Lack of genetic association between OCT1, ABCB1, and UGT2B7 variants and morphine pharmacokinetics. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2017;99:337-342 pubmed publisher
    ..isoform 1 (OCT1), the efflux transporter p-glycoprotein (ABCB1), and the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase-2B7 (UGT2B7) may influence morphine pharmacokinetics and thus, also pharmacodynamics...
  91. Yang Z, Li L, Xu M, Ju H, Hao M, Gu J, et al. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor involved epigenetic repression of UGT2B7 in colorectal carcinoma: A mechanism to alter morphine glucuronidation in tumor. Oncotarget. 2017;8:29138-29150 pubmed publisher
    ..Accordingly, morphine in CRC cells will stimulate the expression of its main metabolic enzyme, UGT2B7 during tolerance generation by activating the positive signals in histone 3, especially for trimethylated lysine ..
  92. Wang F, Miao M, Sun B, Wang Z, Tang X, Chen Y, et al. Acute liver failure enhances oral plasma exposure of zidovudine in rats by downregulation of hepatic UGT2B7 and intestinal P-gp. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2017;38:1554-1565 pubmed publisher
    ..AZT metabolism was studied in rat hepatic microsomes in vitro, which revealed that hepatic UGT2B7 was the main enzyme responsible for the formation of AZT O-glucuronide (GAZT); ALF markedly impaired AZT ..