Gene Symbol: ubiquitin
Description: ubiquitin B
Alias: HEL-S-50, polyubiquitin-B, epididymis secretory protein Li 50, polyubiquitin B
Species: human
Products:     ubiquitin

Top Publications

  1. Fornace A, Alamo I, Hollander M, Lamoreaux E. Ubiquitin mRNA is a major stress-induced transcript in mammalian cells. Nucleic Acids Res. 1989;17:1215-30 pubmed
    b>Ubiquitin mRNA was found to be an abundant transcript which was induced by heat shock (HS), and certain other stresses in mammalian cells. In Chinese hamster cells, the 2 major ubiquitin transcripts of 2.6 kb and 1...
  2. Van Leeuwen F, de Kleijn D, van den Hurk H, Neubauer A, Sonnemans M, Sluijs J, et al. Frameshift mutants of beta amyloid precursor protein and ubiquitin-B in Alzheimer's and Down patients. Science. 1998;279:242-7 pubmed
    ..These structures were shown to contain forms of beta amyloid precursor protein and ubiquitin-B that are aberrant (+1 proteins) in the carboxyl terminus...
  3. Hu M, Li P, Li M, Li W, Yao T, Wu J, et al. Crystal structure of a UBP-family deubiquitinating enzyme in isolation and in complex with ubiquitin aldehyde. Cell. 2002;111:1041-54 pubmed
    The ubiquitin-specific processing protease (UBP) family of deubiquitinating enzymes plays an essential role in numerous cellular processes...
  4. Zhou H, Wertz I, O Rourke K, Ultsch M, Seshagiri S, Eby M, et al. Bcl10 activates the NF-kappaB pathway through ubiquitination of NEMO. Nature. 2004;427:167-71 pubmed
    ..Paracaspase and a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (UBC13) were both required for Bcl10-induced NEMO ubiquitination and subsequent NF-kappaB ..
  5. Sun L, Deng L, Ea C, Xia Z, Chen Z. The TRAF6 ubiquitin ligase and TAK1 kinase mediate IKK activation by BCL10 and MALT1 in T lymphocytes. Mol Cell. 2004;14:289-301 pubmed
    ..Here we present evidence that TRAF6 ubiquitin ligase and TAK1 protein kinase mediate IKK activation by BCL10 and MALT1...
  6. Kannouche P, Wing J, Lehmann A. Interaction of human DNA polymerase eta with monoubiquitinated PCNA: a possible mechanism for the polymerase switch in response to DNA damage. Mol Cell. 2004;14:491-500 pubmed
    ..Our findings provide an attractive mechanism by which monoubiquitination of PCNA might mediate the polymerase switch. ..
  7. Penengo L, Mapelli M, Murachelli A, Confalonieri S, Magri L, Musacchio A, et al. Crystal structure of the ubiquitin binding domains of rabex-5 reveals two modes of interaction with ubiquitin. Cell. 2006;124:1183-95 pubmed
    The interaction between ubiquitinated proteins and intracellular proteins harboring ubiquitin binding domains (UBDs) is critical to a multitude of cellular processes...
  8. Wang X, Chen C, Baker P, Chen P, Kaiser P, Huang L. Mass spectrometric characterization of the affinity-purified human 26S proteasome complex. Biochemistry. 2007;46:3553-65 pubmed
    ..In addition, all known proteasome activator proteins and components involved in the ubiquitin-proteasome degradation pathway are identified...
  9. van Tijn P, de Vrij F, Schuurman K, Dantuma N, Fischer D, van Leeuwen F, et al. Dose-dependent inhibition of proteasome activity by a mutant ubiquitin associated with neurodegenerative disease. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:1615-23 pubmed
    The ubiquitin-proteasome system is the main regulated intracellular proteolytic pathway. Increasing evidence implicates impairment of this system in the pathogenesis of diseases with ubiquitin-positive pathology...

More Information

Publications207 found, 100 shown here

  1. Wiesner S, Ogunjimi A, Wang H, Rotin D, Sicheri F, Wrana J, et al. Autoinhibition of the HECT-type ubiquitin ligase Smurf2 through its C2 domain. Cell. 2007;130:651-62 pubmed
    Ubiquitination of proteins is an abundant modification that controls numerous cellular processes. Many Ubiquitin (Ub) protein ligases (E3s) target both their substrates and themselves for degradation...
  2. Choudhary C, Kumar C, Gnad F, Nielsen M, Rehman M, Walther T, et al. Lysine acetylation targets protein complexes and co-regulates major cellular functions. Science. 2009;325:834-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data demonstrate that the regulatory scope of lysine acetylation is broad and comparable with that of other major posttranslational modifications. ..
  3. Gress T, Müller Pillasch F, Weber C, Lerch M, Friess H, Buchler M, et al. Differential expression of heat shock proteins in pancreatic carcinoma. Cancer Res. 1994;54:547-51 pubmed
    ..situ hybridization whether gene expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) (HSP 89 alpha, HSP 89 beta, HSP 70, and ubiquitin) is altered in pancreatic carcinoma, compared to control tissues (normal pancreas and chronic pancreatitis ..
  4. Reid M. Response of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway to changes in muscle activity. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2005;288:R1423-31 pubmed
    The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway plays a critical role in the adaptation of skeletal muscle to persistent decreases or increases in muscle activity...
  5. Krutauz D, Reis N, Nakasone M, Siman P, Zhang D, Kirkpatrick D, et al. Extended ubiquitin species are protein-based DUB inhibitors. Nat Chem Biol. 2014;10:664-70 pubmed publisher
    A frameshift mutation in the transcript of the ubiquitin-B gene leads to a C-terminally extended ubiquitin (Ub), UBB(+1)...
  6. Wu G, Xu G, Schulman B, Jeffrey P, Harper J, Pavletich N. Structure of a beta-TrCP1-Skp1-beta-catenin complex: destruction motif binding and lysine specificity of the SCF(beta-TrCP1) ubiquitin ligase. Mol Cell. 2003;11:1445-56 pubmed
    The SCF ubiquitin ligases catalyze protein ubiquitination in diverse cellular processes...
  7. Puertollano R, Bonifacino J. Interactions of GGA3 with the ubiquitin sorting machinery. Nat Cell Biol. 2004;6:244-51 pubmed
    ..Protein interaction analyses show that the GGAs bind ubiquitin. The VHS and GAT domains of GGA3 are responsible for this binding, as well as for interactions with TSG101, a ..
  8. Ozaki T, Nagashima K, Kusakabe T, Kakudo K, Kimura S. Development of thyroid gland and ultimobranchial body cyst is independent of p63. Lab Invest. 2011;91:138-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The structure and p63 expression pattern of the UBB cyst strikingly resemble the solid cell nest. These results show that in the absence of NKX2-1, UBB becomes cystic independent of p63, which is likely the origin of SCN. ..
  9. Kessler B, Edelmann M. PTMs in conversation: activity and function of deubiquitinating enzymes regulated via post-translational modifications. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2011;60:21-38 pubmed publisher
    ..In several cases PTMs might constitute a feedback mechanism insuring proper functioning of the ubiquitin proteasome system and other DUB-related pathways.
  10. Lim D, Park C, Ryu K, Chung H. Disruption of the polyubiquitin gene Ubb causes retinal degeneration in mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2019;513:35-40 pubmed publisher
    We have previously demonstrated that a reduction in ubiquitin (Ub) levels via disruption of the polyubiquitin gene Ubb results in reactive gliosis and hypothalamic neurodegeneration in mice...
  11. Young P, Deveraux Q, Beal R, Pickart C, Rechsteiner M. Characterization of two polyubiquitin binding sites in the 26 S protease subunit 5a. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:5461-7 pubmed
    ..One of these proteins, subunit 5a (S5a), has been shown to bind ubiquitin-lysozyme conjugates and free polyubiquitin chains...
  12. Lin Y, Yang J. Cooperation of ERK and SCFSkp2 for MKP-1 destruction provides a positive feedback regulation of proliferating signaling. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:915-26 pubmed
    ..The DEF and Ser(296)/Ser(323) sites were essential for ubiquitin-mediated MKP-1 proteolysis stimulated by MKK1-ERK signaling in H293 cells, whereas the N-terminal domain and Ser(..
  13. Ren Y, Zhao X, Yang T, Duan Y, Sun Y, Zhao W, et al. Exploring the Key Genes and Pathways of Osteoarthritis in Knee Cartilage in a Rat Model Using Gene Expression Profiling. Yonsei Med J. 2018;59:760-768 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of the present study provide a comprehensive understanding of the roles of DEGs in knee cartilage in relation to the development of OA. ..
  14. Gross I, Lhermitte B, Domon Dell C, Duluc I, Martin E, Gaiddon C, et al. Phosphorylation of the homeotic tumor suppressor Cdx2 mediates its ubiquitin-dependent proteasome degradation. Oncogene. 2005;24:7955-63 pubmed
    ..Thus, our data highlight a novel post-translational mechanism controlling Cdx2 degradation via phosphorylation and polyubiquitination, which may be of importance for intestinal development and cancer. ..
  15. Liu Y, Hedvat C, Mao S, Zhu X, Yao J, Nguyen H, et al. The ETS protein MEF is regulated by phosphorylation-dependent proteolysis via the protein-ubiquitin ligase SCFSkp2. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:3114-23 pubmed
    ..of threonine 643 and serine 648 at the C terminus of MEF by cdk2 and on the Skp1/Cul1/F-box (SCF) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex SCF(Skp2), which targets MEF for ubiquitination and proteolysis...
  16. Kajiwara Y, Franciosi S, Takahashi N, Krug L, Schmeidler J, Taddei K, et al. Extensive proteomic screening identifies the obesity-related NYGGF4 protein as a novel LRP1-interactor, showing reduced expression in early Alzheimer's disease. Mol Neurodegener. 2010;5:1 pubmed publisher
    ..The screens included both conventional screens as well as a novel, split-ubiquitin-based screen in which an LRP1 construct was expressed and screened as a transmembrane protein...
  17. Ryu H, Park C, Ryu K. Disruption of polyubiquitin gene Ubb causes dysregulation of neural stem cell differentiation with premature gliogenesis. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7026 pubmed publisher
    ..However, it remains unknown why reduced levels of ubiquitin (Ub) due to loss of Ubb lead to these neural phenotypes...
  18. Donaldson K, Li W, Ching K, Batalov S, Tsai C, Joazeiro C. Ubiquitin-mediated sequestration of normal cellular proteins into polyglutamine aggregates. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:8892-7 pubmed
    ..of most neurodegenerative diseases, including those caused by polyglutamine expansion, is the formation of ubiquitin (Ub)-positive protein aggregates in affected neurons...
  19. Hansen D, Loktev A, Ban K, Jackson P. Plk1 regulates activation of the anaphase promoting complex by phosphorylating and triggering SCFbetaTrCP-dependent destruction of the APC Inhibitor Emi1. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:5623-34 pubmed
    ..B/Cdk1 and its downstream targets, including Polo-like kinase and the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), the ubiquitin ligase directing degradation of cyclins A and B...
  20. Hoeller D, Crosetto N, Blagoev B, Raiborg C, Tikkanen R, Wagner S, et al. Regulation of ubiquitin-binding proteins by monoubiquitination. Nat Cell Biol. 2006;8:163-9 pubmed
    Proteins containing ubiquitin-binding domains (UBDs) interact with ubiquitinated targets and regulate diverse biological processes, including endocytosis, signal transduction, transcription and DNA repair...
  21. Verheijen B, Stevens J, Gentier R, van t Hekke C, van den Hove D, Hermes D, et al. Paradoxical effects of mutant ubiquitin on Aβ plaque formation in an Alzheimer mouse model. Neurobiol Aging. 2018;72:62-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is one of the major pathways for protein breakdown in cells and it has been suggested ..
  22. Shekhtman A, Cowburn D. A ubiquitin-interacting motif from Hrs binds to and occludes the ubiquitin surface necessary for polyubiquitination in monoubiquitinated proteins. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;296:1222-7 pubmed
    The ubiquitin-interacting motif (UIM) is a short, approximately 20 residue, structural element, which is present in, but not limited to, the proteins involved in endocytotic and proteasomal degradation...
  23. Greer S, Zika E, Conti B, Zhu X, Ting J. Enhancement of CIITA transcriptional function by ubiquitin. Nat Immunol. 2003;4:1074-82 pubmed
    ..Thus, ubiquitin positively regulates a mammalian coactivator by enhancing its assembly at the promoter.
  24. Dornan D, Shimizu H, Mah A, Dudhela T, Eby M, O Rourke K, et al. ATM engages autodegradation of the E3 ubiquitin ligase COP1 after DNA damage. Science. 2006;313:1122-6 pubmed
    ..the tumor suppressor protein p53, is tightly regulated by controlled degradation through COP1 and other E3 ubiquitin ligases, such as MDM2 and Pirh2; however, the signal transduction pathway that regulates the COP1-p53 axis ..
  25. Komander D. The emerging complexity of protein ubiquitination. Biochem Soc Trans. 2009;37:937-53 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the ubiquitin system is vastly more complex compared with phosphorylation...
  26. Song S, Kole S, Precht P, Pazin M, Bernier M. Activation of heat shock factor 1 plays a role in pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate-mediated expression of the co-chaperone BAG3. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2010;42:1856-63 pubmed publisher
    ..These results unravel a previously unrecognized mechanism by which PDTC and related compounds could confer cellular protection against inflammation through HSF1-induced expression of heat shock response genes. ..
  27. van Tijn P, Hobo B, Verhage M, Oitzl M, van Leeuwen F, Fischer D. Alzheimer-associated mutant ubiquitin impairs spatial reference memory. Physiol Behav. 2011;102:193-200 pubmed publisher
    UBB(+1) is a mutant ubiquitin which accumulates in the hallmarks of tauopathies, including Alzheimer's disease...
  28. Wu C, Kang H, Yang W, Wu J, Jeong Y, Wang J, et al. Critical role of monoubiquitination of histone H2AX protein in histone H2AX phosphorylation and DNA damage response. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:30806-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study therefore suggests that monoubiquitination of H2AX is an important step for DNA damage response and may have important clinical implications for the treatment of cancers. ..
  29. Poulsen M, Lukas C, Lukas J, Bekker Jensen S, Mailand N. Human RNF169 is a negative regulator of the ubiquitin-dependent response to DNA double-strand breaks. J Cell Biol. 2012;197:189-99 pubmed publisher
    ..of chromatin surrounding deoxyribonucleic acid double-strand breaks (DSBs), mediated by the RNF8/RNF168 ubiquitin ligases, plays a key role in recruiting repair factors, including 53BP1 and BRCA1, to reestablish genome ..
  30. Okino C, Ibelli A, Brentano L, Zanella R, Groke Marques M. Evaluation of candidate reference genes for investigation of the uterine tissue and corpus luteum of pigs on day 6 after artificial insemination. Anim Reprod Sci. 2018;198:202-209 pubmed publisher
    ..The stability of ubiquitin (UBB), glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), DNA topoisomerase 2-beta (TOP2B), histone H3 (H3F3A) ..
  31. Wiborg O, Pedersen M, Wind A, Berglund L, Marcker K, Vuust J. The human ubiquitin multigene family: some genes contain multiple directly repeated ubiquitin coding sequences. EMBO J. 1985;4:755-9 pubmed
    b>Ubiquitin coding sequences were isolated from a human genomic library and two cDNA libraries. One human ubiquitin gene consists of 2055 nucleotides and codes for a polyprotein consisting of 685 amino acid residues...
  32. Donzelli M, Squatrito M, Ganoth D, Hershko A, Pagano M, Draetta G. Dual mode of degradation of Cdc25 A phosphatase. EMBO J. 2002;21:4875-84 pubmed
    ..DNA damage or DNA replication blocks induce phosphorylation of Cdc25 A and its subsequent degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Here we have investigated the regulation of Cdc25 A in the cell cycle...
  33. Chung K, Thomas B, Li X, Pletnikova O, Troncoso J, Marsh L, et al. S-nitrosylation of parkin regulates ubiquitination and compromises parkin's protective function. Science. 2004;304:1328-31 pubmed
    Parkin is an E3 ubiquitin ligase involved in the ubiquitination of proteins that are important in the survival of dopamine neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD)...
  34. Memet S. NF-kappaB functions in the nervous system: from development to disease. Biochem Pharmacol. 2006;72:1180-95 pubmed
    ..g. neurons and glia. Current knowledge of the contribution of NF-kappaB to several neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases is also summarized. ..
  35. Haas A, Leach C. A baker's dozen of ubiquitin. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2011;60:1 pubmed publisher
  36. Kazlauskaite A, Kondapalli C, Gourlay R, Campbell D, Ritorto M, Hofmann K, et al. Parkin is activated by PINK1-dependent phosphorylation of ubiquitin at Ser65. Biochem J. 2014;460:127-39 pubmed publisher
    ..by mitochondrial depolarization and stimulates the Parkin E3 ligase by phosphorylating Ser65 within its Ubl (ubiquitin-like) domain...
  37. Braun R, Sommer C, Leibiger C, Gentier R, Dumit V, Paduch K, et al. Accumulation of Basic Amino Acids at Mitochondria Dictates the Cytotoxicity of Aberrant Ubiquitin. Cell Rep. 2015;10:1557-1571 pubmed publisher
    Neuronal accumulation of UBB+1, a frameshift variant of ubiquitin B, is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). How UBB+1 contributes to neuronal dysfunction remains elusive...
  38. Hartmann Petersen R, Wallace M, Hofmann K, Koch G, Johnsen A, Hendil K, et al. The Ubx2 and Ubx3 cofactors direct Cdc48 activity to proteolytic and nonproteolytic ubiquitin-dependent processes. Curr Biol. 2004;14:824-8 pubmed
    ..Ubx2 and Ubx3 also interact with ubiquitin chains...
  39. Ohnuki H, Inoue H, Takemori N, Nakayama H, Sakaue T, Fukuda S, et al. BAZF, a novel component of cullin3-based E3 ligase complex, mediates VEGFR and Notch cross-signaling in angiogenesis. Blood. 2012;119:2688-98 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore propose that BAZF supports angiogenic sprouting via BAZF-CUL3-based polyubiquitination-dependent degradation of CBF1 to down-regulate Notch signaling. ..
  40. Slawinska A, Plowiec A, Siwek M, Jaroszewski M, Bednarczyk M. Long-Term Transcriptomic Effects of Prebiotics and Synbiotics Delivered In Ovo in Broiler Chickens. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0168899 pubmed publisher
    ..This is likely due to its strong bifidogenic effect, which triggers proliferation of indigenous embryonic microflora in ovo, and indirectly influences gene expression regulation in host tissues, especially cecal tonsils. ..
  41. Seynnaeve D, Vecchio M, Fruhmann G, Verelst J, Cools M, Beckers J, et al. Recent Insights on Alzheimer's Disease Originating from Yeast Models. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19: pubmed publisher
    ..yeast model-based research advances regarding the role of Amyloid-β (Aβ), Tau and frameshift Ubiquitin UBB+1 in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are discussed...
  42. Sharma N, McLean P, Kawamata H, Irizarry M, Hyman B. Alpha-synuclein has an altered conformation and shows a tight intermolecular interaction with ubiquitin in Lewy bodies. Acta Neuropathol. 2001;102:329-34 pubmed
    ..we found evidence of a close, direct intermolecular interaction between the N terminus of alpha-synuclein and ubiquitin. These observations provide support for the hypothesis that in Lewy bodies alpha-synuclein adopts an altered ..
  43. Miyafusa T, Hirota K, Honda S. Generation of ubiquitin-based binder with an inserted active peptide. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;503:3162-3166 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we aimed to develop a grafting method using ubiquitin as a scaffold protein...
  44. Ott D, Coren L, Chertova E, Gagliardi T, Schubert U. Ubiquitination of HIV-1 and MuLV Gag. Virology. 2000;278:111-21 pubmed
    ..isolated and identified mature Gag products, HIV-1 p6(Gag) and MuLV p12(Gag), that were conjugated to a single ubiquitin. To study the importance of the monoubiquitination of Gag, a series of lysine to arginine mutants were ..
  45. Strack B, Calistri A, Gottlinger H. Late assembly domain function can exhibit context dependence and involves ubiquitin residues implicated in endocytosis. J Virol. 2002;76:5472-9 pubmed
    ..We have also examined the effects of ubiquitin mutants on virus-like particle production, and the results indicate that residues required for the endocytosis ..
  46. Evans P, Smith T, Lai M, Williams M, Burke D, Heyninck K, et al. A novel type of deubiquitinating enzyme. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:23180-6 pubmed
    ..Recombinant Cezanne cleaved ubiquitin monomers from linear or branched synthetic ubiquitin chains and from ubiquitinated proteins...
  47. Hope A, de Silva R, Fischer D, Hol E, van Leeuwen F, Lees A. Alzheimer's associated variant ubiquitin causes inhibition of the 26S proteasome and chaperone expression. J Neurochem. 2003;86:394-404 pubmed
    ..protein inclusions in Alzheimer's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy contain UBB+1, a variant ubiquitin. UBB+1 is able block the 26S proteasome in cell lines...
  48. Jäger S, Gottwein E, Kräusslich H. Ubiquitination of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag is highly dependent on Gag membrane association. J Virol. 2007;81:9193-201 pubmed
    b>Ubiquitin is important for the release of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) and several other retroviruses...
  49. Boutet S, Disatnik M, Chan L, Iori K, Rando T. Regulation of Pax3 by proteasomal degradation of monoubiquitinated protein in skeletal muscle progenitors. Cell. 2007;130:349-62 pubmed
    ..Pax3 was shuttled to the intrinsic proteasomal protein S5a by interacting specifically with the ubiquitin-binding protein Rad23B...
  50. Xirodimas D, Sundqvist A, Nakamura A, Shen L, Botting C, Hay R. Ribosomal proteins are targets for the NEDD8 pathway. EMBO Rep. 2008;9:280-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The ubiquitin-like molecule NEDD8 is implicated in the regulation of cell proliferation, viability and development...
  51. Feng L, Chen J. The E3 ligase RNF8 regulates KU80 removal and NHEJ repair. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2012;19:201-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The E3 ubiquitin ligase RING finger protein 8 (RNF8) triggers the initial ubiquitination at double-strand DNA breaks, whereas ..
  52. Dharadhar S, Clerici M, van Dijk W, Fish A, Sixma T. A conserved two-step binding for the UAF1 regulator to the USP12 deubiquitinating enzyme. J Struct Biol. 2016;196:437-447 pubmed publisher
    Regulation of deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB) activity is an essential step for proper function of cellular ubiquitin signals. UAF1 is a WD40 repeat protein, which binds and activates three important DUBs, USP1, USP12 and USP46...
  53. Conaway R, Brower C, Conaway J. Emerging roles of ubiquitin in transcription regulation. Science. 2002;296:1254-8 pubmed
    b>Ubiquitin is a small protein that was initially found to function as a tag that can be covalently attached to proteins to mark them for destruction by a multisubunit, adenosine 5'-triphosphate-dependent protease called the proteasome...
  54. Tachikui H, Saitou N, Nakajima T, Hayasaka I, Ishida T, Inoue I. Lineage-specific homogenization of the polyubiquitin gene among human and great apes. J Mol Evol. 2003;57:737-44 pubmed
    b>Ubiquitin is a highly conserved protein, and is encoded by a multigene family among eukaryote species. The polyubiquitin genes, UbB and UbC, comprise tandem multiple ubiquitin coding units without a spacer region or intron...
  55. Ishikawa H, Tachikawa H, Miura Y, Takahashi N. TRIM11 binds to and destabilizes a key component of the activator-mediated cofactor complex (ARC105) through the ubiquitin-proteasome system. FEBS Lett. 2006;580:4784-92 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that TRIM11, with the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, regulates ARC105 function in TGFbeta signaling.
  56. Tan Z, Sun X, Hou F, Oh H, Hilgenberg L, Hol E, et al. Mutant ubiquitin found in Alzheimer's disease causes neuritic beading of mitochondria in association with neuronal degeneration. Cell Death Differ. 2007;14:1721-32 pubmed
    A dinucleotide deletion in human ubiquitin (Ub) B messenger RNA leads to formation of polyubiquitin (UbB)+1, which has been implicated in neuronal cell death in Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases...
  57. Popko Scibor A, Lindberg M, Hansson M, Holmlund T, Wallberg A. Ubiquitination of Notch1 is regulated by MAML1-mediated p300 acetylation of Notch1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;416:300-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that CDK8 inhibits Notch acetylation and Notch transcription enhanced by p300. Therefore, we speculate that acetylation of Notch1 might be a mechanism to regulate Notch activity by interfering with ubiquitin-dependent pathways.
  58. Shimura H, Schwartz D, Gygi S, Kosik K. CHIP-Hsc70 complex ubiquitinates phosphorylated tau and enhances cell survival. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:4869-76 pubmed
    ..show that Alzheimer tau binds to Hsc70, and its phosphorylation is a recognition requirement for the addition of ubiquitin (Ub) by the E3 Ub ligase CHIP (carboxyl terminus of the Hsc70-interacting protein) and the E2 conjugating enzyme ..
  59. Okumura F, Hatakeyama S, Matsumoto M, Kamura T, Nakayama K. Functional regulation of FEZ1 by the U-box-type ubiquitin ligase E4B contributes to neuritogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:53533-43 pubmed
    ..known as UFD2a) is a mammalian homolog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ufd2, which was originally described as a ubiquitin chain assembly factor (E4)...
  60. Catic A, Misaghi S, Korbel G, Ploegh H. ElaD, a Deubiquitinating protease expressed by E. coli. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e381 pubmed
    b>Ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins (Ubl) are designed to modify polypeptides in eukaryotes. Covalent binding of ubiquitin or Ubls to substrate proteins can be reversed by specific hydrolases...
  61. Bailey A, Christopher J, Brozoski F, Salzar R. Post Mortem Human Surrogate Injury Response of the Pelvis and Lower Extremities to Simulated Underbody Blast. Ann Biomed Eng. 2015;43:1907-17 pubmed publisher
    ..The research in this paper discusses pelvis and lower extremity injuries under high rate vertical loads. ..
  62. Nenoi M, Mita K, Ichimura S, Cartwright I, Takahashi E, Yamauchi M, et al. Heterogeneous structure of the polyubiquitin gene UbC of HeLa S3 cells. Gene. 1996;175:179-85 pubmed
    ..coding region from genomic DNA, we found a heterogeneity in the repeat number (eight and nine repeats) of the ubiquitin coding units, which resulted from an apparent deletion of either the seventh or the eighth unit in the ..
  63. Petriz B, Almeida J, Gomes C, Pereira R, Murad A, Franco O. NanoUPLC/MS(E) proteomic analysis reveals modulation on left ventricle proteome from hypertensive rats after exercise training. J Proteomics. 2015;113:351-65 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, polyubiquitin B and C, and transcription regulators decreased in both intensities...
  64. Lei J, Hilgenfeld R. Structural and mutational analysis of the interaction between the Middle-East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) papain-like protease and human ubiquitin. Virol Sin. 2016;31:288-99 pubmed publisher
    ..of this process, we present here the X-ray crystal structure of a complex between MERS-CoV PL(pro) and human ubiquitin (Ub) that is devoid of any covalent linkage between the two proteins...
  65. Hao B, Zheng N, Schulman B, Wu G, Miller J, Pagano M, et al. Structural basis of the Cks1-dependent recognition of p27(Kip1) by the SCF(Skp2) ubiquitin ligase. Mol Cell. 2005;20:9-19 pubmed
    The ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis of the Cdk2 inhibitor p27(Kip1) plays a central role in cell cycle progression, and enhanced degradation of p27(Kip1) is associated with many common cancers...
  66. Bianchi M, Giacomini E, Crinelli R, Radici L, Carloni E, Magnani M. Dynamic transcription of ubiquitin genes under basal and stressful conditions and new insights into the multiple UBC transcript variants. Gene. 2015;573:100-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Ubiquitin (Ub) is a small 76-amino acid protein that is engaged in many different pathways within the cell, including protein turnover...
  67. Ji P, Jiang H, Rekhtman K, Bloom J, Ichetovkin M, Pagano M, et al. An Rb-Skp2-p27 pathway mediates acute cell cycle inhibition by Rb and is retained in a partial-penetrance Rb mutant. Mol Cell. 2004;16:47-58 pubmed
    ..These results identify an Rb-Skp2-p27 pathway in Rb function, which may be involved in inhibition of tumor progression. ..
  68. Cohn M, Kowal P, Yang K, Haas W, Huang T, Gygi S, et al. A UAF1-containing multisubunit protein complex regulates the Fanconi anemia pathway. Mol Cell. 2007;28:786-97 pubmed
    ..In vitro reconstitution of USP1 deubiquitinating enzyme activity, using either ubiquitin-7-amido-4-methylcoumarin (Ub-AMC) or purified monoubiquitinated FANCD2 protein as substrates, demonstrates that ..
  69. Chew G, Sim L, Ng S, Ding Y, Shin R, Lee T. Development of a mushroom powder Certified Reference Material for calcium, arsenic, cadmium and lead measurements. Food Chem. 2016;190:293-299 pubmed publisher
    ..59 mg/kg, 1.191 ± 0.079 mg/kg and 5.23 ± 0.94 mg/kg, respectively. The expanded measurement uncertainties were obtained by combining the uncertainty contributions from characterization (uchar) and between-bottle homogeneity (ubb). ..
  70. Feng Y, Zheng M, Gan S, Zhang L, Wan Z, Zhang Y, et al. Identification of potential gene targets in systemic vasculitis using DNA microarray analysis. Mol Med Rep. 2017;15:3665-3673 pubmed publisher
    ..FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog (FOS), ubiquitin B (UBB), signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) and MX dynamin‑like GTPase 1 (MX1) ..
  71. Yoganandan N, Chirvi S, Voo L, DeVogel N, Pintar F, Banerjee A. Foot-ankle complex injury risk curves using calcaneus bone mineral density data. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater. 2017;72:246-251 pubmed publisher
  72. Kobayashi M, Takaori Kondo A, Miyauchi Y, Iwai K, Uchiyama T. Ubiquitination of APOBEC3G by an HIV-1 Vif-Cullin5-Elongin B-Elongin C complex is essential for Vif function. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:18573-8 pubmed
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    The ubiquitin mutant UBB+1 has been identified as a hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we characterize polyubiquitinated forms of UBB+1 in vitro and from patient samples...
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    Mutant ubiquitin (UBB+1), a product of "molecular misreading," is toxic to cells because its ubiquitinated form inhibits the proteasome, contributing to accumulation of misfolded proteins and their ensuing toxicity...
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    A series of recent papers highlight a prominent role for ubiquitin in the formation and function of neural circuits...