UBE2D3

Summary

Gene Symbol: UBE2D3
Description: ubiquitin conjugating enzyme E2 D3
Alias: E2(17)KB3, UBC4/5, UBCH5C, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 D3, (E3-independent) E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme D3, E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme D3, ubiquitin carrier protein D3, ubiquitin conjugating enzyme E2D 3, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2(17)KB 3, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2-17 kDa 3, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2D 3 (UBC4/5 homolog, yeast), ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2D 3 (homologous to yeast UBC4/5), ubiquitin-protein ligase D3
Species: human
Products:     UBE2D3

Top Publications

  1. Jensen J, Bates P, Yang M, Vierstra R, Weissman A. Identification of a family of closely related human ubiquitin conjugating enzymes. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:30408-14 pubmed
    Two very closely related human E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzymes, UbfH5B and UbcH5C, have been identified...
  2. Hu J, McCall C, Ohta T, Xiong Y. Targeted ubiquitination of CDT1 by the DDB1-CUL4A-ROC1 ligase in response to DNA damage. Nat Cell Biol. 2004;6:1003-9 pubmed
    ..We suggest that DDB1 targets CDT1 for ubiquitination by a CUL4A-dependent ubiquitin ligase, CDL4A(DDB1), in response to UV irradiation. ..
  3. Zhao G, Sonoda E, Barber L, Oka H, Murakawa Y, Yamada K, et al. A critical role for the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Ubc13 in initiating homologous recombination. Mol Cell. 2007;25:663-75 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, generation of ssDNA/RPA complexes at DSBs is severely attenuated in the absence of Ubc13. These data reveal a critical and unexpected role for vertebrate Ubc13 in the initiation of HR at the level of DSB processing. ..
  4. Tuvia S, Taglicht D, Erez O, Alroy I, Alchanati I, Bicoviski V, et al. The ubiquitin E3 ligase POSH regulates calcium homeostasis through spatial control of Herp. J Cell Biol. 2007;177:51-61 pubmed
    ..Altogether, these results establish a critical role for POSH-mediated ubiquitination in the maintenance of calcium homeostasis through the spatial control of Herp. ..
  5. Hoeller D, Hecker C, Wagner S, Rogov V, Dötsch V, Dikic I. E3-independent monoubiquitination of ubiquitin-binding proteins. Mol Cell. 2007;26:891-8 pubmed
    ..This modification is mechanistically and functionally distinct from E3-mediated and growth factor-dependent monoubiquitination. ..
  6. Fan C, Lum M, Xu C, Black J, Wang X. Ubiquitin-dependent regulation of phospho-AKT dynamics by the ubiquitin E3 ligase, NEDD4-1, in the insulin-like growth factor-1 response. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:1674-84 pubmed publisher
    ..This study reveals a novel mechanism by which a specific E3 ligase is required for ubiquitin-dependent control of pAKT dynamics in a ligand-specific manner. ..
  7. Wang X, Shi Y, Wang J, Huang G, Jiang X. Crucial role of the C-terminus of PTEN in antagonizing NEDD4-1-mediated PTEN ubiquitination and degradation. Biochem J. 2008;414:221-9 pubmed publisher
  8. Chen D, Zhao M, Mundy G. Bone morphogenetic proteins. Growth Factors. 2004;22:233-41 pubmed
    ..A significant advancement about the understanding of in vivo functions of BMP ligands, receptors and signaling molecules has been achieved in recent years. ..
  9. Tan M, Zhu Y, Kovacev J, Zhao Y, Pan Z, Spitz D, et al. Disruption of Sag/Rbx2/Roc2 induces radiosensitization by increasing ROS levels and blocking NF-kappaB activation in mouse embryonic stem cells. Free Radic Biol Med. 2010;49:976-83 pubmed publisher

More Information

Publications88

  1. Nie J, Liu L, Wu M, Xing G, He S, Yin Y, et al. HECT ubiquitin ligase Smurf1 targets the tumor suppressor ING2 for ubiquitination and degradation. FEBS Lett. 2010;584:3005-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the C-terminal PHD domain of ING2 was required for Smurf1-mediated degradation. This study provided the first evidence that the stability of ING2 could be regulated by ubiquitin-mediated degradation. ..
  2. Murata S, Minami Y, Minami M, Chiba T, Tanaka K. CHIP is a chaperone-dependent E3 ligase that ubiquitylates unfolded protein. EMBO Rep. 2001;2:1133-8 pubmed
    ..Thermally denatured firefly luciferase was multiubiquitylated by CHIP in the presence of E1 and E2 (Ubc4 or UbcH5c) in vitro, only when the unfolded substrate was captured by Hsp90 or Hsc70 and Hsp40...
  3. Maspero E, Mari S, Valentini E, Musacchio A, Fish A, Pasqualato S, et al. Structure of the HECT:ubiquitin complex and its role in ubiquitin chain elongation. EMBO Rep. 2011;12:342-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutational analysis highlights differences between the processes of substrate polyubiquitination and self-ubiquitination. ..
  4. Watkins G, Wang N, Mazalouskas M, Gomez R, Guthrie C, Kraemer B, et al. Monoubiquitination promotes calpain cleavage of the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) regulatory subunit ?4, altering PP2A stability and microtubule-associated protein phosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:24207-15 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that regulated inter-domain cleavage controls the dual functions of ?4, and dysregulation of ?4 cleavage may contribute to Opitz syndrome and Alzheimer disease. ..
  5. Zhang S, Chea J, Meng X, Zhou Y, Lee E, Lee M. PCNA is ubiquitinated by RNF8. Cell Cycle. 2008;7:3399-404 pubmed
    ..We show that RNF8 readily mono-ubiquitinates PCNA in the presence of UbcH5c, and polyubiquitinates PCNA in the added presence of Ubc13/Uev1a...
  6. Petroski M, Zhou X, Dong G, Daniel Issakani S, Payan D, Huang J. Substrate modification with lysine 63-linked ubiquitin chains through the UBC13-UEV1A ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:29936-45 pubmed
  7. Wu W, Sato K, Koike A, Nishikawa H, Koizumi H, Venkitaraman A, et al. HERC2 is an E3 ligase that targets BRCA1 for degradation. Cancer Res. 2010;70:6384-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The HERC2 expression in breast epithelial cells and breast carcinomas suggests that this mechanism may play a role in breast carcinogenesis. ..
  8. Jin L, Williamson A, Banerjee S, Philipp I, Rape M. Mechanism of ubiquitin-chain formation by the human anaphase-promoting complex. Cell. 2008;133:653-65 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that recognition of similar motifs in substrates and ubiquitin enables the APC/C to assemble ubiquitin chains with the specificity and efficiency required for tight cell-cycle control. ..
  9. David Y, Ternette N, Edelmann M, Ziv T, Gayer B, Sertchook R, et al. E3 ligases determine ubiquitination site and conjugate type by enforcing specificity on E2 enzymes. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:44104-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on several model systems, we propose that although interaction with an E2 is sufficient to promote substrate ubiquitination the E3 molds the reaction into a specific, physiologically relevant protein modification. ..
  10. Tokunaga F, Nakagawa T, Nakahara M, Saeki Y, Taniguchi M, Sakata S, et al. SHARPIN is a component of the NF-?B-activating linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex. Nature. 2011;471:633-6 pubmed publisher
  11. Nie J, Xie P, Liu L, Xing G, Chang Z, Yin Y, et al. Smad ubiquitylation regulatory factor 1/2 (Smurf1/2) promotes p53 degradation by stabilizing the E3 ligase MDM2. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:22818-30 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate that Smurf1/2 functions as a factor to stabilize MDM2 protein rather than as a direct E3 ligase in regulation of p53 degradation. ..
  12. Lu K, Yin X, Weng T, Xi S, Li L, Xing G, et al. Targeting WW domains linker of HECT-type ubiquitin ligase Smurf1 for activation by CKIP-1. Nat Cell Biol. 2008;10:994-1002 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide evidence that the WW domains linker is important in complex assembly and in regulating activity of HECT-type E3s and that CKIP-1 functions as the first auxiliary factor to enhance the activation of Smurf1. ..
  13. Bentley M, Corn J, Dong K, Phung Q, Cheung T, Cochran A. Recognition of UbcH5c and the nucleosome by the Bmi1/Ring1b ubiquitin ligase complex. EMBO J. 2011;30:3285-97 pubmed publisher
    ..have determined the crystal structure of a complex between the Bmi1/Ring1b RING-RING heterodimer and the E2 enzyme UbcH5c and find that UbcH5c interacts with Ring1b only, in a manner fairly typical of E2-E3 interactions...
  14. Soss S, Yue Y, Dhe Paganon S, Chazin W. E2 conjugating enzyme selectivity and requirements for function of the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:21277-86 pubmed publisher
    ..These data support the proposal that the E2 SPA motif provides specificity for binding to CHIP, whereas activation of the E2?Ub conjugate is derived from other molecular determinants. ..
  15. Jung J, Bae S, Lee J, Woo S, Cha H, Yoon Y, et al. E3 ubiquitin ligase Hades negatively regulates the exonuclear function of p53. Cell Death Differ. 2011;18:1865-75 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings show that Hades-mediated p53 ubiquitination is a novel mechanism for negatively regulating the exonuclear function of p53. ..
  16. Wu K, Kovacev J, Pan Z. Priming and extending: a UbcH5/Cdc34 E2 handoff mechanism for polyubiquitination on a SCF substrate. Mol Cell. 2010;37:784-96 pubmed publisher
  17. Brzovic P, Keeffe J, Nishikawa H, Miyamoto K, Fox D, Fukuda M, et al. Binding and recognition in the assembly of an active BRCA1/BARD1 ubiquitin-ligase complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:5646-51 pubmed
    ..mutagenesis, we have mapped the binding site on the BRCA1BARD1 heterodimer for the Ub-conjugating enzyme UbcH5c. The results demonstrate that UbcH5c binds only to the BRCA1 RING domain and not the BARD1 RING...
  18. Furukawa M, Xiong Y. BTB protein Keap1 targets antioxidant transcription factor Nrf2 for ubiquitination by the Cullin 3-Roc1 ligase. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:162-71 pubmed
    ..These results may reconcile previously observed cytoplasmic sequestration of NRF2 by KEAP1 and suggest a possible regulatory step between KEAP1-NRF2 binding and NRF2 degradation. ..
  19. Yamashita M, Ying S, Zhang G, Li C, Cheng S, Deng C, et al. Ubiquitin ligase Smurf1 controls osteoblast activity and bone homeostasis by targeting MEKK2 for degradation. Cell. 2005;121:101-13 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that Smurf1 negatively regulates osteoblast activity and response to BMP through controlling MEKK2 degradation. ..
  20. Xia P, Wang S, Du Y, Zhao Z, Shi L, Sun L, et al. WASH inhibits autophagy through suppression of Beclin 1 ubiquitination. EMBO J. 2013;32:2685-96 pubmed publisher
    ..The lysine 437 ubiquitination of Beclin 1 enhances the association with Vps34 to promote Vps34 activity. WASH can suppress Beclin 1 ubiquitination to inactivate Vps34 activity leading to suppression of autophagy. ..
  21. Lu K, Li P, Zhang M, Xing G, Li X, Zhou W, et al. Pivotal role of the C2 domain of the Smurf1 ubiquitin ligase in substrate selection. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:16861-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate a previously unidentified role of the Smurf1 C2 domain in substrate selection and cellular localization. ..
  22. Kirisako T, Kamei K, Murata S, Kato M, Fukumoto H, Kanie M, et al. A ubiquitin ligase complex assembles linear polyubiquitin chains. EMBO J. 2006;25:4877-87 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the complex regulates the stability of Ub-GFP (a GFP fusion protein with an N-terminal ubiquitin). The linear polyubiquitin chain generated post-translationally may function as a new modulator of proteins. ..
  23. Du H, Wu K, Didoronkute A, Levy M, Todi N, Shchelokova A, et al. MID1 catalyzes the ubiquitination of protein phosphatase 2A and mutations within its Bbox1 domain disrupt polyubiquitination of alpha4 but not of PP2Ac. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e107428 pubmed publisher
  24. Benirschke R, Thompson J, Nominé Y, Wasielewski E, Juranic N, Macura S, et al. Molecular basis for the association of human E4B U box ubiquitin ligase with E2-conjugating enzymes UbcH5c and Ubc4. Structure. 2010;18:955-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Using X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy, we determined the structures of E4B U box free and bound to UbcH5c and Ubc4 E2s...
  25. Sugiura T, Yamaguchi A, Miyamoto K. A cancer-associated RING finger protein, RNF43, is a ubiquitin ligase that interacts with a nuclear protein, HAP95. Exp Cell Res. 2008;314:1519-28 pubmed publisher
    ..These results infer that RNF43 is a resident protein of the ER and, at least partially, the nuclear membrane, with ubiquitin ligase activity and may be involved in cell growth control potentially through the interaction with HAP95. ..
  26. Sakane A, Hatakeyama S, Sasaki T. Involvement of Rabring7 in EGF receptor degradation as an E3 ligase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;357:1058-64 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that Rabring7 is involved in the endocytic trafficking of EGFR through its E3 ligase activity. ..
  27. Tatham M, Plechanovová A, Jaffray E, Salmen H, Hay R. Ube2W conjugates ubiquitin to α-amino groups of protein N-termini. Biochem J. 2013;453:137-45 pubmed publisher
    ..The description in the present study is the first of an E2-conjugating enzyme with N-terminal ubiquitylation activity, and highlights the importance of E2 enzymes in the ultimate outcome of E3-mediated ubiquitylation. ..
  28. Zenke Kawasaki Y, Dohi Y, Katoh Y, Ikura T, Ikura M, Asahara T, et al. Heme induces ubiquitination and degradation of the transcription factor Bach1. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:6962-71 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that heme within a cell regulates the polyubiquitination and degradation of Bach1. ..
  29. Ronnebaum S, Wu Y, McDonough H, Patterson C. The ubiquitin ligase CHIP prevents SirT6 degradation through noncanonical ubiquitination. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:4461-72 pubmed publisher
  30. Hong S, Moon J, Kim J, Shin J, Jung K, Lee W, et al. p34 is a novel regulator of the oncogenic behavior of NEDD4-1 and PTEN. Cell Death Differ. 2014;21:146-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Notably, an inverse correlation between PTEN and p34/NEDD4-1 levels was confirmed in tumor samples from colon cancer patients. Thus, p34 acts as a key regulator of the oncogenic behavior of NEDD4-1 and PTEN. ..
  31. Zhang J, Hu M, Wang Y, Shu H. TRIM32 protein modulates type I interferon induction and cellular antiviral response by targeting MITA/STING protein for K63-linked ubiquitination. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:28646-55 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that TRIM32 is an important regulatory protein for innate immunity against both RNA and DNA viruses by targeting MITA for K63-linked ubiquitination and downstream activation. ..
  32. Xia Z, Sun L, Chen X, Pineda G, Jiang X, Adhikari A, et al. Direct activation of protein kinases by unanchored polyubiquitin chains. Nature. 2009;461:114-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we found that unanchored polyubiquitin chains synthesized by TRAF6 and UBCH5C (also known as UBE2D3) activate the IKK complex...
  33. Lv Y, Zhang K, Gao H. Paip1, an effective stimulator of translation initiation, is targeted by WWP2 for ubiquitination and degradation. Mol Cell Biol. 2014;34:4513-22 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore provide evidence that the stability of Paip1 can be regulated by ubiquitin-mediated degradation, thus highlighting the importance of WWP2 as a suppressor of translation. ..
  34. Besse A, Campos A, Webster W, Darnay B. TRAF-interacting protein (TRIP) is a RING-dependent ubiquitin ligase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;359:660-4 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, TRIP expression was down regulated during the late stages of osteoclastogenesis. Taken together, our results demonstrate that TRIP is a novel RING-dependent Ub ligase and a binding partner for TRAFs. ..
  35. Wu Baer F, Ludwig T, Baer R. The UBXN1 protein associates with autoubiquitinated forms of the BRCA1 tumor suppressor and inhibits its enzymatic function. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:2787-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Significantly, the E3 ligase activity of BRCA1/BARD1 is dramatically reduced in the presence of UBXN1, suggesting that UBXN1 regulates the enzymatic function of BRCA1 in a manner that is dependent on its ubiquitination status. ..
  36. Schweiger S, Dorn S, Fuchs M, Köhler A, Matthes F, Müller E, et al. The E3 ubiquitin ligase MID1 catalyzes ubiquitination and cleavage of Fu. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:31805-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that Fu ubiquitination and cleavage is one of the key elements connecting the MID1-PP2A protein complex with GLI3 activity control. ..
  37. Peng Z, Shi T, Ma D. RNF122: a novel ubiquitin ligase associated with calcium-modulating cyclophilin ligand. BMC Cell Biol. 2010;11:41 pubmed publisher
    ..RNF122 promotes its own degradation in a RING finger-and proteasome-dependent manner. RNF122 interacts with CAML, and its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity was noted to be dependent on the RING finger domain. ..
  38. Bartke T, Pohl C, Pyrowolakis G, Jentsch S. Dual role of BRUCE as an antiapoptotic IAP and a chimeric E2/E3 ubiquitin ligase. Mol Cell. 2004;14:801-11 pubmed
    ..Our work suggests that, owing to its two activities and its localization, BRUCE may function as a specialized regulator of cell death pathways. ..
  39. Poyurovsky M, Priest C, Kentsis A, Borden K, Pan Z, Pavletich N, et al. The Mdm2 RING domain C-terminus is required for supramolecular assembly and ubiquitin ligase activity. EMBO J. 2007;26:90-101 pubmed
    ..We further show that the Mdm2 C-terminus is involved in intramolecular interactions and can set up a platform for direct protein-protein interactions with the E2. ..
  40. Garzia A, Jafarnejad S, Meyer C, Chapat C, Gogakos T, Morozov P, et al. The E3 ubiquitin ligase and RNA-binding protein ZNF598 orchestrates ribosome quality control of premature polyadenylated mRNAs. Nat Commun. 2017;8:16056 pubmed publisher
    ..polyA segments by ZNF598 triggered ubiquitination of several ribosomal proteins, requiring the E2 ubiquitin ligase UBE2D3 to initiate RQC...
  41. Rogakou E, Pilch D, Orr A, Ivanova V, Bonner W. DNA double-stranded breaks induce histone H2AX phosphorylation on serine 139. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:5858-68 pubmed
    ..Thus, gamma-H2AX formation is a rapid and sensitive cellular response to the presence of DNA double-stranded breaks, a response that may provide insight into higher order chromatin structures. ..
  42. Hoffmeister M, Prelle C, Küchler P, Kovacevic I, Moser M, Müller Esterl W, et al. The ubiquitin E3 ligase NOSIP modulates protein phosphatase 2A activity in craniofacial development. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e116150 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude, that NOSIP is a critical modulator of brain and craniofacial development in mice and a candidate gene for holoprosencephaly in humans. ..
  43. Wenzel D, Lissounov A, Brzovic P, Klevit R. UBCH7 reactivity profile reveals parkin and HHARI to be RING/HECT hybrids. Nature. 2011;474:105-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results define the functional cadre of E3s for UBCH7, an E2 involved in cell proliferation and immune function, and indicate a novel mechanism for an entire class of E3s. ..
  44. Sugeno N, Hasegawa T, Tanaka N, Fukuda M, Wakabayashi K, Oshima R, et al. Lys-63-linked ubiquitination by E3 ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-1 facilitates endosomal sequestration of internalized ?-synuclein. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:18137-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings demonstrate that Nedd4-1-linked Lys-63 ubiquitination specifies the fate of extrinsic and de novo synthesized aS by facilitating their targeting to endosomes. ..
  45. Nishito Y, Hasegawa M, Inohara N, Nunez G. MEX is a testis-specific E3 ubiquitin ligase that promotes death receptor-induced apoptosis. Biochem J. 2006;396:411-7 pubmed
    ..MEX can act as an E3, Ub (ubiquitin) ligase, through the E2, Ub-conjugating enzymes UbcH5a, UbcH5c or UbcH6...
  46. Takeyama K, Aguiar R, Gu L, He C, Freeman G, Kutok J, et al. The BAL-binding protein BBAP and related Deltex family members exhibit ubiquitin-protein isopeptide ligase activity. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:21930-7 pubmed
    ..Consistent with this idea, BBAP and DTX1 associate via their unique N termini, resulting in enhanced self-ubiquitination. ..
  47. Maragno A, Baqui M, Gomes M. FBXO25, an F-box protein homologue of atrogin-1, is not induced in atrophying muscle. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1760:966-72 pubmed
    ..Further functional studies should elucidate the exact role of FBXO25 in the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. ..
  48. Frangini A, Sjoberg M, Román Trufero M, Dharmalingam G, Haberle V, Bartke T, et al. The aurora B kinase and the polycomb protein ring1B combine to regulate active promoters in quiescent lymphocytes. Mol Cell. 2013;51:647-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results identify a mechanism for regulating transcription in quiescent cells that has implications for epigenetic regulation of the choice between proliferation and quiescence. ..
  49. Wei L, Lan L, Yasui A, Tanaka K, Saijo M, Matsuzawa A, et al. BRCA1 contributes to transcription-coupled repair of DNA damage through polyubiquitination and degradation of Cockayne syndrome B protein. Cancer Sci. 2011;102:1840-7 pubmed publisher
  50. Chen R, Li M, Zhang Y, Zhou Q, Shu H. The E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH8 negatively regulates IL-1?-induced NF-?B activation by targeting the IL1RAP coreceptor for ubiquitination and degradation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:14128-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that MARCH8-mediated polyubiquitination and degradation of IL1RAP is an important mechanism for negative regulation of IL-1?-induced signaling pathways. ..
  51. Vichi A, Payne D, Pacheco Rodriguez G, Moss J, Vaughan M. E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of the trifunctional ARD1 (ADP-ribosylation factor domain protein 1). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:1945-50 pubmed
    ..Deletion of the RING region or point mutations within the RING sequence abolished ARD1 E3 ligase activity. All data are consistent with a potential function for ARD1 as an E3 ubiquitin ligase in cells. ..
  52. Ye B, Dai Z, Liu B, Wang R, Li C, Huang G, et al. Pcid2 inactivates developmental genes in human and mouse embryonic stem cells to sustain their pluripotency by modulation of EID1 stability. Stem Cells. 2014;32:623-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, Pcid2 is present in the CBP/p300-EID1 complex to control the switch balance of mouse and human ESCs through modulation of EID1 degradation. ..
  53. Saville M, Sparks A, Xirodimas D, Wardrop J, Stevenson L, Bourdon J, et al. Regulation of p53 by the ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes UbcH5B/C in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:42169-81 pubmed
  54. Shabbeer S, Omer D, Berneman D, Weitzman O, Alpaugh A, Pietraszkiewicz A, et al. BRCA1 targets G2/M cell cycle proteins for ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Oncogene. 2013;32:5005-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data provide mechanistic insight into how BRCA1 E3 ligase activity regulates the G2/M cell cycle checkpoint and, thus, contributes to maintenance of genomic stability. ..
  55. Yi J, Lu G, Li L, Wang X, Cao L, Lin M, et al. DNA damage-induced activation of CUL4B targets HUWE1 for proteasomal degradation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2015;43:4579-90 pubmed publisher
  56. Banks D, Wu M, Higa L, Gavrilova N, Quan J, Ye T, et al. L2DTL/CDT2 and PCNA interact with p53 and regulate p53 polyubiquitination and protein stability through MDM2 and CUL4A/DDB1 complexes. Cell Cycle. 2006;5:1719-29 pubmed
    ..Our studies demonstrate that PCNA, L2DTL and the DDB1-CUL4A complex play critical and differential roles in regulating the protein stability of p53 and MDM2/HDM2 in unstressed and stressed cells. ..
  57. Mallette F, Mattiroli F, Cui G, Young L, Hendzel M, Mer G, et al. RNF8- and RNF168-dependent degradation of KDM4A/JMJD2A triggers 53BP1 recruitment to DNA damage sites. EMBO J. 2012;31:1865-78 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the RNF8-dependent degradation of JMJD2A regulates DNA repair by controlling the recruitment of 53BP1 at DNA damage sites. ..
  58. Orian A, Gonen H, Bercovich B, Fajerman I, Eytan E, Israel A, et al. SCF(beta)(-TrCP) ubiquitin ligase-mediated processing of NF-kappaB p105 requires phosphorylation of its C-terminus by IkappaB kinase. EMBO J. 2000;19:2580-91 pubmed
    ..Since p105-Delta918-934 is also conjugated and processed, it appears that p105 can be recognized under different physiological conditions by two different ligases, targeting two distinct recognition motifs. ..
  59. Song E, Werner S, Neubauer J, Stegmeier F, Aspden J, Rio D, et al. The Prp19 complex and the Usp4Sart3 deubiquitinating enzyme control reversible ubiquitination at the spliceosome. Genes Dev. 2010;24:1434-47 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the reversible ubiquitination of spliceosomal proteins, such as Prp3, guides rearrangements in the composition of the spliceosome at distinct steps of the splicing reaction. ..
  60. Stankiewicz M, Nikolay R, Rybin V, Mayer M. CHIP participates in protein triage decisions by preferentially ubiquitinating Hsp70-bound substrates. FEBS J. 2010;277:3353-67 pubmed publisher
  61. Calvo V, Beato M. BRCA1 counteracts progesterone action by ubiquitination leading to progesterone receptor degradation and epigenetic silencing of target promoters. Cancer Res. 2011;71:3422-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The connections between BRCA1/BARD1 and PR activity suggested by our findings may help explain why host mutations in BRCA1 exert a tissue specificity in preferentially elevating the risk of breast cancer. ..
  62. Taherbhoy A, Huang O, Cochran A. BMI1-RING1B is an autoinhibited RING E3 ubiquitin ligase. Nat Commun. 2015;6:7621 pubmed publisher
    ..The structure of a high-activity variant in complex with E2 (PCGF5-RING1B-UbcH5c) reveals only subtle differences from an earlier PCGF4 complex structure...
  63. Subramaniam V, Li H, Wong M, Kitching R, Attisano L, Wrana J, et al. The RING-H2 protein RNF11 is overexpressed in breast cancer and is a target of Smurf2 E3 ligase. Br J Cancer. 2003;89:1538-44 pubmed
    ..Smurf2 plays an active role in the repression of TGFbeta signalling, and our data indicate that overexpression of RNF11, through its interaction with Smurf2, can restore TGFbeta responsiveness in transfected cells. ..
  64. Kim M, Tezuka T, Tanaka K, Yamamoto T. Cbl-c suppresses v-Src-induced transformation through ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation. Oncogene. 2004;23:1645-55 pubmed
    ..Therefore, activated Src may be a direct target of Cbl-c in vivo. Our results suggest that Cbl and Cbl-b suppress v-Src-induced transformation through mechanisms distinct from that of Cbl-c. ..
  65. Yudina Z, Roa A, Johnson R, Biris N, de Souza Aranha Vieira D, Tsiperson V, et al. RING Dimerization Links Higher-Order Assembly of TRIM5α to Synthesis of K63-Linked Polyubiquitin. Cell Rep. 2015;12:788-97 pubmed publisher
  66. Zhang Z, Rothbart S, Allison D, Cai Q, Harrison J, Li L, et al. An Allosteric Interaction Links USP7 to Deubiquitination and Chromatin Targeting of UHRF1. Cell Rep. 2015;12:1400-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results link USP7 interaction to the dynamic deubiquitination and chromatin association of UHRF1. ..
  67. Hattori T, Kishino T, Stephen S, Eberspaecher H, Maki S, Takigawa M, et al. E6-AP/UBE3A protein acts as a ubiquitin ligase toward SOX9 protein. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:35138-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, E6-AP-deficient mice showed SOX9 accumulation in chondrocytes and the brain. These findings support the concept that E6-AP regulates SOX9 levels in developing cartilage by acting as a ubiquitin ligase...
  68. Somesh B, Reid J, Liu W, Søgaard T, Erdjument Bromage H, Tempst P, et al. Multiple mechanisms confining RNA polymerase II ubiquitylation to polymerases undergoing transcriptional arrest. Cell. 2005;121:913-23 pubmed
    ..These results identify several mechanisms that confine ubiquitylation of RNAPII to the forms of the enzyme that arrest during elongation. ..
  69. Polanowska J, Martin J, Garcia Muse T, Petalcorin M, Boulton S. A conserved pathway to activate BRCA1-dependent ubiquitylation at DNA damage sites. EMBO J. 2006;25:2178-88 pubmed
    ..Extending these findings to human cells reveals a requirement for UbcH5c, the MRN complex, gamma-H2AX and a co-dependence for ATM and ATR kinases for BRCA1-dependent ubiquitylation at DNA ..
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    ..We employed a classical approach to identifying a ubiquitin ligase that is involved in p12 degradation. Using UbcH5c as ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, a ubiquitin ligase activity that polyubiquitinates p12 was purified from HeLa ..
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    ..This mechanism unexpectedly defines an essential but selective function for BRCA1 E3 ligase activity in cellular responses to DNA damage. ..
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    ..Collectively, our results suggest that OASIS and BBF2H7 are bona fide substrates of Fbxw7 and that Fbxw7 controls osteogenesis and chondrogenesis by targeting OASIS and BBF2H7, respectively, for degradation. ..
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    ..This suggests NEDD4-1 functions in conjunction with other post-translational mechanisms to regulate Thoc1 protein and THO activity. ..
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    ..These results suggest a novel, SKP1-independent mechanism for targeting E2F1 ubiquitination. ..
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    ..The recruitment of two distinct classes of E3 ubiquitin ligases and a histone demethylase by BCOR suggests that BCOR uses a unique combination of epigenetic modifications to direct gene silencing. ..
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    ..These findings clarify the mode of ubiquitination of Hsp70 and Hsp90 by CHIP, which ultimately leads to their degradation. ..