Gene Symbol: UBE2D1
Description: ubiquitin conjugating enzyme E2 D1
Alias: E2(17)KB1, SFT, UBC4/5, UBCH5, UBCH5A, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 D1, (E3-independent) E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme D1, E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme D1, UBC4/5 homolog, stimulator of Fe transport, ubiquitin carrier protein D1, ubiquitin conjugating enzyme E2D 1, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2(17)KB 1, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2-17 kDa 1, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2D 1 (UBC4/5 homolog, yeast), ubiquitin-protein ligase D1
Species: human
Products:     UBE2D1

Top Publications

  1. Plechanovová A, Jaffray E, Tatham M, Naismith J, Hay R. Structure of a RING E3 ligase and ubiquitin-loaded E2 primed for catalysis. Nature. 2012;489:115-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report the crystal structure of the dimeric RING domain of rat RNF4 in complex with E2 (UbcH5A) linked by an isopeptide bond to ubiquitin...
  2. Desterro J, Thomson J, Hay R. Ubch9 conjugates SUMO but not ubiquitin. FEBS Lett. 1997;417:297-300 pubmed
    ..Transacetylation of Ubc9 by SUMO is not mediated by the E1 ubiquitin activating enzyme, but by a distinct enzymatic activity. SUMO conjugation to target proteins is mediated by a different, but parallel pathway to ubiquitination. ..
  3. Han X, Du H, Massiah M. Detection and characterization of the in vitro e3 ligase activity of the human MID1 protein. J Mol Biol. 2011;407:505-20 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies shed light on MID1 E3 ligase activity and show how its three zinc-binding domains can contribute to MID1's overall function. ..
  4. Sumara I, Quadroni M, Frei C, Olma M, Sumara G, Ricci R, et al. A Cul3-based E3 ligase removes Aurora B from mitotic chromosomes, regulating mitotic progression and completion of cytokinesis in human cells. Dev Cell. 2007;12:887-900 pubmed
    ..We thus propose that the Cul3/KLHL9/KLHL13 E3 ligase controls the dynamic behavior of Aurora B on mitotic chromosomes, and thereby coordinates faithful mitotic progression and completion of cytokinesis. ..
  5. Bosanac I, Phu L, Pan B, Zilberleyb I, Maurer B, Dixit V, et al. Modulation of K11-linkage formation by variable loop residues within UbcH5A. J Mol Biol. 2011;408:420-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We used these tools to probe the mechanisms controlling linkage specificity for UbcH5A. UbcH5A is a promiscuous E2 enzyme with an innate preference for forming polyubiquitin chains through lysine 11 (..
  6. Bartee E, Mansouri M, Hovey Nerenberg B, Gouveia K, Fruh K. Downregulation of major histocompatibility complex class I by human ubiquitin ligases related to viral immune evasion proteins. J Virol. 2004;78:1109-20 pubmed
  7. Chen A, Kleiman F, Manley J, Ouchi T, Pan Z. Autoubiquitination of the BRCA1*BARD1 RING ubiquitin ligase. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:22085-92 pubmed
    ..These results raise the possibility that BRCA1*BARD1 acts to assemble non-lysine 48-linked polyubiquitin chains that may serve as part of a signaling platform required for coordinating DNA repair-related events. ..
  8. Ito K, Adachi S, Iwakami R, Yasuda H, Muto Y, Seki N, et al. N-Terminally extended human ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s) mediate the ubiquitination of RING-finger proteins, ARA54 and RNF8. Eur J Biochem. 2001;268:2725-32 pubmed
    ..receptor coactivator, and RNF8 interacted with class III E2s (UBE2E2, UbcH6, and UBE2E3), but not with other E2s (UbcH5, UbcH7, UbcH10, hCdc34, and hBendless) in the yeast two-hybrid assay...
  9. Tatham M, Plechanovová A, Jaffray E, Salmen H, Hay R. Ube2W conjugates ubiquitin to α-amino groups of protein N-termini. Biochem J. 2013;453:137-45 pubmed publisher
    ..The description in the present study is the first of an E2-conjugating enzyme with N-terminal ubiquitylation activity, and highlights the importance of E2 enzymes in the ultimate outcome of E3-mediated ubiquitylation. ..

More Information


  1. Lee S, Choi J, Sung Y, Park H, Rhim H, Kang S. E3 ligase activity of RING finger proteins that interact with Hip-2, a human ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. FEBS Lett. 2001;503:61-4 pubmed
    ..RNF2 showed a ubiquitin ligase (E3) activity in the presence of Hip-2, suggesting that a subset of RING finger proteins may have roles as E3s. ..
  2. Wu T, Merbl Y, Huo Y, Gallop J, Tzur A, Kirschner M. UBE2S drives elongation of K11-linked ubiquitin chains by the anaphase-promoting complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:1355-60 pubmed publisher
    ..E2 enzyme, UBE2S/E2-EPF, that elongates ubiquitin chains after the substrates are pre-ubiquitinated by UbcH10 or UbcH5. UBE2S copurifies with APC; dominant-negative Ube2S slows down APC substrate degradation in functional cell-cycle ..
  3. Maerki S, Olma M, Staubli T, Steigemann P, Gerlich D, Quadroni M, et al. The Cul3-KLHL21 E3 ubiquitin ligase targets aurora B to midzone microtubules in anaphase and is required for cytokinesis. J Cell Biol. 2009;187:791-800 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results suggest that different Cul3 adaptors nonredundantly regulate aurora B during mitosis, possibly by ubiquitinating different pools of aurora B at distinct subcellular localizations. ..
  4. Li Y, Hao B. Structural basis of dimerization-dependent ubiquitination by the SCF(Fbx4) ubiquitin ligase. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:13896-906 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide a framework for understanding the role of F-box dimerization in the SCF-mediated ubiquitination reaction. ..
  5. Park Y, Yoon S, Yoon J. The HECT domain of TRIP12 ubiquitinates substrates of the ubiquitin fusion degradation pathway. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:1540-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide new insights into the mechanism of the mammalian UFD pathway and the functional nonequivalence of different HECT domains. ..
  6. Lee J, Oestreich A, Payne J, Gunawan M, Norgan A, Katzmann D. The HECT domain of the ubiquitin ligase Rsp5 contributes to substrate recognition. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:32126-37 pubmed publisher
    ..These results highlight the ability of Rsp5 to interact with substrates via multiple modalities, suggesting additional mechanisms of regulating this interaction and relevant outcomes. ..
  7. Rodriguez M, Desterro J, Lain S, Midgley C, Lane D, Hay R. SUMO-1 modification activates the transcriptional response of p53. EMBO J. 1999;18:6455-61 pubmed
    ..The SUMO-1 modification pathway therefore acts as a potential regulator of the p53 response and may represent a novel target for the development of therapeutically useful modulators of the p53 response. ..
  8. Kramer E, Scheuringer N, Podtelejnikov A, Mann M, Peters J. Mitotic regulation of the APC activator proteins CDC20 and CDH1. Mol Biol Cell. 2000;11:1555-69 pubmed
    ..These mechanisms can explain the temporal order of APC activation by CDC20 and CDH1 and may help to ensure that exit from mitosis is not initiated before anaphase has occurred. ..
  9. Xirodimas D, Saville M, Bourdon J, Hay R, Lane D. Mdm2-mediated NEDD8 conjugation of p53 inhibits its transcriptional activity. Cell. 2004;118:83-97 pubmed
  10. Zhang M, Windheim M, Roe S, Peggie M, Cohen P, Prodromou C, et al. Chaperoned ubiquitylation--crystal structures of the CHIP U box E3 ubiquitin ligase and a CHIP-Ubc13-Uev1a complex. Mol Cell. 2005;20:525-38 pubmed
  11. Tatham M, Geoffroy M, Shen L, Plechanovova A, Hattersley N, Jaffray E, et al. RNF4 is a poly-SUMO-specific E3 ubiquitin ligase required for arsenic-induced PML degradation. Nat Cell Biol. 2008;10:538-46 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that poly-SUMO chains can act as discrete signals from mono-SUMOylation, in this case targeting a poly-SUMOylated substrate for ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. ..
  12. Windheim M, Peggie M, Cohen P. Two different classes of E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes are required for the mono-ubiquitination of proteins and elongation by polyubiquitin chains with a specific topology. Biochem J. 2008;409:723-9 pubmed
    ..factor 6) with the E2s Ubc13 (ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 13)-Uev1a (ubiquitin E2 variant 1a) and UbcH5a, in the present study we demonstrate that Ubc13-Uev1a supports the formation of free Lys(63)-linked polyubiquitin ..
  13. Hoeller D, Hecker C, Wagner S, Rogov V, Dötsch V, Dikic I. E3-independent monoubiquitination of ubiquitin-binding proteins. Mol Cell. 2007;26:891-8 pubmed
    ..This modification is mechanistically and functionally distinct from E3-mediated and growth factor-dependent monoubiquitination. ..
  14. Lee D, Kuo H, Liu M, Chou C, Xia W, Du Y, et al. KEAP1 E3 ligase-mediated downregulation of NF-kappaB signaling by targeting IKKbeta. Mol Cell. 2009;36:131-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that the dysregulation of KEAP1-mediated IKKbeta ubiquitination may contribute to tumorigenesis. ..
  15. Wu K, Kovacev J, Pan Z. Priming and extending: a UbcH5/Cdc34 E2 handoff mechanism for polyubiquitination on a SCF substrate. Mol Cell. 2010;37:784-96 pubmed publisher
    ..reconstitution experiments revealed that the polyubiquitination of I kappaB alpha began with the action of the UbcH5 E2 Ub-conjugating enzyme, transferring a single Ub to I kappaB alpha K21/K22 rapidly and efficiently...
  16. Park Y, Yoon S, Yoon J. TRIP12 functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase of APP-BP1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;374:294-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that that TRIP12 promotes degradation of APP-BP1 by catalyzing its ubiquitination, which in turn modulates the neddylation pathway. ..
  17. Jensen J, Bates P, Yang M, Vierstra R, Weissman A. Identification of a family of closely related human ubiquitin conjugating enzymes. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:30408-14 pubmed
    ..genes and are 88-89% identical in amino acid sequence to the recently described human E2, UbcH5 (now designated UbcH5A), UbcH5A-C are homologous to a family of five ubiquitin conjugating enzymes from Arabidopsis thaliana, AtUBC8-12...
  18. Gack M, Shin Y, Joo C, Urano T, Liang C, Sun L, et al. TRIM25 RING-finger E3 ubiquitin ligase is essential for RIG-I-mediated antiviral activity. Nature. 2007;446:916-920 pubmed
    ..Thus, we demonstrate that TRIM25 E3 ubiquitin ligase induces the Lys 63-linked ubiquitination of RIG-I, which is crucial for the cytosolic RIG-I signalling pathway to elicit host antiviral innate immunity. ..
  19. Kirisako T, Kamei K, Murata S, Kato M, Fukumoto H, Kanie M, et al. A ubiquitin ligase complex assembles linear polyubiquitin chains. EMBO J. 2006;25:4877-87 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the complex regulates the stability of Ub-GFP (a GFP fusion protein with an N-terminal ubiquitin). The linear polyubiquitin chain generated post-translationally may function as a new modulator of proteins. ..
  20. Kim M, Tezuka T, Tanaka K, Yamamoto T. Cbl-c suppresses v-Src-induced transformation through ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation. Oncogene. 2004;23:1645-55 pubmed
    ..Cbl-c bound specifically to Src phosphorylated at Tyr419. Furthermore, Cbl-c together with UbcH5 induced ubiquitination of Src in vitro...
  21. Plechanovova A, Jaffray E, McMahon S, Johnson K, Navratilova I, Naismith J, et al. Mechanism of ubiquitylation by dimeric RING ligase RNF4. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2011;18:1052-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that RNF4 bound ubiquitin-charged UbcH5a tightly but free UbcH5a weakly...
  22. Mallery D, Vandenberg C, Hiom K. Activation of the E3 ligase function of the BRCA1/BARD1 complex by polyubiquitin chains. EMBO J. 2002;21:6755-62 pubmed
    ..Even though BRCA1 has been reported to associate with a C-terminal ubiquitin hydrolase, BAP1, this enzyme does not appear to function in the deubiquitylation of the BRCA1/BARD1 complex. ..
  23. Honda R, Tanaka H, Yasuda H. Oncoprotein MDM2 is a ubiquitin ligase E3 for tumor suppressor p53. FEBS Lett. 1997;420:25-7 pubmed
    ..p53 was polyubiquitinated in the presence of E1, UbcH5 as E2 and MDM2 oncoprotein...
  24. Soss S, Yue Y, Dhe Paganon S, Chazin W. E2 conjugating enzyme selectivity and requirements for function of the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:21277-86 pubmed publisher
    ..e. that E2 determines the outcome of Ub transfer. Site-directed mutagenesis on the E2 enzymes Ube2D1 and Ube2L3 (UbcH5a and UbcH7) established that an SPA motif in loop 7 of E2 is required for binding to CHIP but is ..
  25. Jung J, Bae S, Lee J, Woo S, Cha H, Yoon Y, et al. E3 ubiquitin ligase Hades negatively regulates the exonuclear function of p53. Cell Death Differ. 2011;18:1865-75 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings show that Hades-mediated p53 ubiquitination is a novel mechanism for negatively regulating the exonuclear function of p53. ..
  26. Bosanac I, Wertz I, Pan B, Yu C, Kusam S, Lam C, et al. Ubiquitin binding to A20 ZnF4 is required for modulation of NF-?B signaling. Mol Cell. 2010;40:548-57 pubmed publisher
  27. Zhang L, Fairall L, Goult B, Calkin A, Hong C, Millard C, et al. The IDOL-UBE2D complex mediates sterol-dependent degradation of the LDL receptor. Genes Dev. 2011;25:1262-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified the UBE2D family (UBE2D1-4) as E2 partners for IDOL that support both autoubiquitination and IDOL-dependent ubiquitination of the LDLR in a ..
  28. Sun X, Challagundla K, Dai M. Positive regulation of p53 stability and activity by the deubiquitinating enzyme Otubain 1. EMBO J. 2012;31:576-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, wild-type Otub1 and its catalytic mutant (Otub1(C91S)), but not Otub1(D88A), bind to the MDM2 cognate E2, UbcH5, and suppress its Ub-conjugating activity in vitro...
  29. Coon T, Glasser J, Mallampalli R, Chen B. Novel E3 ligase component FBXL7 ubiquitinates and degrades Aurora A, causing mitotic arrest. Cell Cycle. 2012;11:721-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, FBXL7 specifically interacts with Aurora A during mitosis but not in interphase, suggesting a regulatory role for FBXL7 in controlling Aurora A abundance during mitosis. ..
  30. Rojas Fernandez A, Plechanovová A, Hattersley N, Jaffray E, Tatham M, Hay R. SUMO chain-induced dimerization activates RNF4. Mol Cell. 2014;53:880-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus the ubiquitin E3 ligase activity of RNF4 is directly linked to the availability of its polySUMO substrates. ..
  31. Pabarcus M, Hoe N, Sadeghi S, Patterson C, Wiertz E, Correia M. CYP3A4 ubiquitination by gp78 (the tumor autocrine motility factor receptor, AMFR) and CHIP E3 ligases. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2009;483:66-74 pubmed publisher
    ..receptor (AMFR), an UBC7-dependent polytopic RING-finger E3, effectively ubiquitinated CYP3A4 in vitro, as did the UbcH5a-dependent cytosolic E3 CHIP...
  32. Barbash O, Egan E, Pontano L, Kosak J, Diehl J. Lysine 269 is essential for cyclin D1 ubiquitylation by the SCF(Fbx4/alphaB-crystallin) ligase and subsequent proteasome-dependent degradation. Oncogene. 2009;28:4317-25 pubmed publisher
  33. Boutell C, Sadis S, Everett R. Herpes simplex virus type 1 immediate-early protein ICP0 and is isolated RING finger domain act as ubiquitin E3 ligases in vitro. J Virol. 2002;76:841-50 pubmed
    ..finger domain induce the accumulation of polyubiquitin chains in vitro in the presence of E1 and the E2 enzymes UbcH5a and UbcH6...
  34. Brzovic P, Keeffe J, Nishikawa H, Miyamoto K, Fox D, Fukuda M, et al. Binding and recognition in the assembly of an active BRCA1/BARD1 ubiquitin-ligase complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:5646-51 pubmed
    ..Thus, binding alone is not sufficient for BRCA1-dependent Ub-ligase activity. ..
  35. Jiang J, Ballinger C, Wu Y, Dai Q, Cyr D, Hohfeld J, et al. CHIP is a U-box-dependent E3 ubiquitin ligase: identification of Hsc70 as a target for ubiquitylation. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:42938-44 pubmed
    ..CHIP interacts functionally and physically with the stress-responsive ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme family UBCH5. Surprisingly, a major target of the ubiquitin ligase activity of CHIP is Hsc70 itself...
  36. Fotia A, Cook D, Kumar S. The ubiquitin-protein ligases Nedd4 and Nedd4-2 show similar ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme specificities. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2006;38:472-9 pubmed
    ..We also found that Ube2e3, an E2 previously shown to be used by Nedd4-2, is used less efficiently than UbcH5b. Our results suggest that for optimal ubiquitination Nedd4 and Nedd4-2 require the same E2 enzymes. ..
  37. Kim H, Kim K, Lledias F, Kisselev A, Scaglione K, Skowyra D, et al. Certain pairs of ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s) and ubiquitin-protein ligases (E3s) synthesize nondegradable forked ubiquitin chains containing all possible isopeptide linkages. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:17375-86 pubmed
    ..using Ub mutants and mass spectrometry, that the U-box E3, CHIP, and Ring finger E3s, MuRF1 and Mdm2, with the E2, UbcH5, form a novel type of Ub chain that contains all seven possible linkages, but predominantly Lys(48), Lys(63), and ..
  38. Shi D, Pop M, Kulikov R, Love I, Kung A, Kung A, et al. CBP and p300 are cytoplasmic E4 polyubiquitin ligases for p53. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:16275-80 pubmed publisher
  39. Pettersson S, Kelleher M, Pion E, Wallace M, Ball K. Role of Mdm2 acid domain interactions in recognition and ubiquitination of the transcription factor IRF-2. Biochem J. 2009;418:575-85 pubmed publisher
    ..The ability of Mdm2 and IRF-2 to form a complex in cells complements the biochemical assays and together establishes a novel substrate with which to develop insights into E3-ubiquitin ligase-substrate interactions in vitro and in cells. ..
  40. Lin D, Barbash O, Kumar K, Weber J, Harper J, Klein Szanto A, et al. Phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination of cyclin D1 by the SCF(FBX4-alphaB crystallin) complex. Mol Cell. 2006;24:355-66 pubmed
    ..We conclude that SCF(FBX4-alphaB crystallin) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that promotes ubiquitin-dependent degradation of Thr286-phosphorylated cyclin D1. ..
  41. Li M, Brooks C, Wu Baer F, Chen D, Baer R, Gu W. Mono- versus polyubiquitination: differential control of p53 fate by Mdm2. Science. 2003;302:1972-5 pubmed
    ..These results clarify the nature of ubiquitination-mediated p53 regulation and suggest that distinct mechanisms regulate p53 function in accordance with the levels of Mdm2 activity. ..
  42. Wu P, Hanlon M, Eddins M, Tsui C, Rogers R, Jensen J, et al. A conserved catalytic residue in the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme family. EMBO J. 2003;22:5241-50 pubmed
    ..We propose that the conserved asparagine side chain stabilizes the oxyanion intermediate formed during lysine attack. The E2 asparagine is the first non-covalent catalytic group to be proposed in any Ub conjugation factor. ..
  43. Santra M, Wajapeyee N, Green M. F-box protein FBXO31 mediates cyclin D1 degradation to induce G1 arrest after DNA damage. Nature. 2009;459:722-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal FBXO31 as a regulator of the G1/S transition that is specifically required for DNA damage-induced growth arrest. ..
  44. Xu M, Skaug B, Zeng W, Chen Z. A ubiquitin replacement strategy in human cells reveals distinct mechanisms of IKK activation by TNFalpha and IL-1beta. Mol Cell. 2009;36:302-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The ubiquitin replacement methodology described here provides a means to investigate the function of polyubiquitin topology in various cellular processes. ..
  45. Savary C, Rousselet M, Michalak S, Fournier H, Taris M, Loussouarn D, et al. [Solitary fibrous tumors and hemangiopericytomas of the meninges: Immunophenotype and histoprognosis in a series of 17 cases]. Ann Pathol. 2016;36:258-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Initial tumors were 11 HPC and 4 SFT. STAT6 and CD34 were expressed in 16/17 tumors, EMA and progesterone receptors in 2 and 5 cases, respectively...
  46. Smith H, Peggie M, Campbell D, Vandermoere F, Carrick E, Cohen P. Identification of the phosphorylation sites on the E3 ubiquitin ligase Pellino that are critical for activation by IRAK1 and IRAK4. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:4584-90 pubmed publisher
    ..the E3 ligase activity of Pellino 1 similarly with any of several E2-conjugating enzymes (Ubc13-Uev1a, UbcH4, or UbcH5a/5b) and identify 7 amino acid residues in Pellino 1 whose phosphorylation is critical for activation...
  47. Li Y, Sun X, Elferich J, Shinde U, David L, Dai M. Monoubiquitination is critical for ovarian tumor domain-containing ubiquitin aldehyde binding protein 1 (Otub1) to suppress UbcH5 enzyme and stabilize p53 protein. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:5097-108 pubmed publisher
    ..regulates p53 stability and activity via non-canonical inhibition of the MDM2 cognate Ub-conjugating enzyme (E2) UbcH5. However, it is not clear how this activity of Otub1 is regulated in cells...
  48. Gissi D, Tarsitano A, Leonardi E, Gabusi A, Neri F, Marchetti C, et al. Clonal analysis as a prognostic factor in multiple oral squamous cell carcinoma. Oral Oncol. 2017;67:131-137 pubmed publisher
    ..from the index tumour, local recurrence (LR), clonally related to the primary tumour, and second field tumour (SFT), derived from the same genetically altered mucosal field as the primary tumour...
  49. Vizcaíno M, Bishop J, Sharma R, ReFaey K, Quinones Hinojosa A, Rodriguez F. Intracranial solitary fibrous tumor/ hemangiopericytoma with osteoclast-like multinucleated giant cells: comparison with giant cell-rich solitary fibrous tumor. Clin Neuropathol. 2016;35:171-7 pubmed publisher
    Intracranial solitary fibrous tumor/hemangiopericytoma (SFT/HPC) is a mesenchymal neoplasm that typically presents in adults as a dural-based lesion. The presence of giant cells in these tumors is a rare occurrence...
  50. Soss S, Rose K, Hill S, Jouan S, Chazin W. Biochemical and Proteomic Analysis of Ubiquitination of Hsc70 and Hsp70 by the E3 Ligase CHIP. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0128240 pubmed publisher
    ..analysis by mass spectrometry revealed that only 12 of 39 detectable lysine residues were ubiquitinated by UbcH5a in Hsp70 and only 16 of 45 in Hsc70...
  51. Al Shar i N, Obaidat R. Experimental and Computational Comparative Study of the Supercritical Fluid Technology (SFT) and Kneading Method in Preparing ?-Cyclodextrin Complexes with Two Essential Oils (Linalool and Carvacrol). AAPS PharmSciTech. 2018;19:1037-1047 pubmed publisher
    Supercritical fluid technology (SFT) offers many advantages as a potential complexation method compared to the conventional kneading technique. Its applicability to processess in which solvents are not required is a significant benefit...
  52. Kreft S, Nassal M. hRUL138, a novel human RNA-binding RING-H2 ubiquitin-protein ligase. J Cell Sci. 2003;116:605-16 pubmed
    ..The combined presence of RNA binding and E3 activity in hRUL138 raises the possibility that both are mechanistically linked. ..
  53. Phu L, Izrael Tomasevic A, Matsumoto M, Bustos D, Dynek J, Fedorova A, et al. Improved quantitative mass spectrometry methods for characterizing complex ubiquitin signals. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2011;10:M110.003756 pubmed publisher
    ..By combining these two powerful tools, we show that polyubiquitinated substrates purified from cells can be modified by mixtures of K48, K63, and K11 linkages. ..
  54. Kim J, Choi J, Kim S, Kim K, Myung P, Park S, et al. Synergistic effect of two E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzymes in SCF(hFBH1) catalyzed polyubiquitination. BMB Rep. 2015;48:25-9 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we identified UbcH5a as a novel stimulating factor for poly-ubiquitination catalyzed by SCF(hFBH1) using biochemical fractionations and ..
  55. Liu J, Furukawa M, Matsumoto T, Xiong Y. NEDD8 modification of CUL1 dissociates p120(CAND1), an inhibitor of CUL1-SKP1 binding and SCF ligases. Mol Cell. 2002;10:1511-8 pubmed
    ..We suggest that by restricting SKP1-CUL1 interaction, CAND1 regulated the assembly of productive SCF ubiquitin ligases, allowing a common CUL1-ROC core to be utilized by a large number of SKP1-F box-substrate subcomplexes. ..
  56. Wang Y, Guan S, Acharya P, Liu Y, Thirumaran R, Brandman R, et al. Multisite phosphorylation of human liver cytochrome P450 3A4 enhances Its gp78- and CHIP-mediated ubiquitination: a pivotal role of its Ser-478 residue in the gp78-catalyzed reaction. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2012;11:M111.010132 pubmed publisher
    ..occurs via a classical ER-associated degradation (ERAD) process involving ubiquitination by both UBC7/gp78 and UbcH5a/CHIP E2-E3 complexes for 26 S proteasomal targeting...
  57. Jacobson A, Macfadden A, Wu Z, Peng J, Liu C. Autoregulation of the 26S proteasome by in situ ubiquitination. Mol Biol Cell. 2014;25:1824-35 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that in situ ubiquitination of the 26S proteasome regulates its activity, which could function to adjust proteasomal activity in response to the alteration of cellular ubiquitination levels. ..
  58. Tokgöz Z, Siepmann T, Streich F, Kumar B, Klein J, Haas A. E1-E2 interactions in ubiquitin and Nedd8 ligation pathways. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:311-21 pubmed publisher
  59. Yamada H, Gorbsky G. Tumor suppressor candidate TSSC5 is regulated by UbcH6 and a novel ubiquitin ligase RING105. Oncogene. 2006;25:1330-9 pubmed
    ..UbcH6-RING105 may define a novel ubiquitin-proteasome pathway that targets TSSC5 in mammalian cells. ..
  60. Liao W, Xiao Q, Tchikov V, Fujita K, Yang W, Wincovitch S, et al. CARP-2 is an endosome-associated ubiquitin ligase for RIP and regulates TNF-induced NF-kappaB activation. Curr Biol. 2008;18:641-9 pubmed publisher
    ..CARP-2 acts at the level of endocytic vesicles to limit the intensity of TNF-induced NF-kappaB activation by the regulated elimination of a necessary signaling component within the receptor complex. ..
  61. Jia Q, Zhou Z, Zhang D, Yang J, Liu C, Wang T, et al. Surgical management of spinal solitary fibrous tumor/hemangiopericytoma: a case series of 20 patients. Eur Spine J. 2018;27:891-901 pubmed publisher
    Spinal solitary fibrous tumor/hemangiopericytoma (SFT/HPC), a rare mesenchymal tumor that arises from pericytes of Zimmerman, comprises only 0.08% of all primary bone tumors and 0...
  62. Jin L, Williamson A, Banerjee S, Philipp I, Rape M. Mechanism of ubiquitin-chain formation by the human anaphase-promoting complex. Cell. 2008;133:653-65 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that recognition of similar motifs in substrates and ubiquitin enables the APC/C to assemble ubiquitin chains with the specificity and efficiency required for tight cell-cycle control. ..