Gene Symbol: tyrosinase
Description: tyrosinase
Alias: ATN, CMM8, OCA1, OCA1A, OCAIA, SHEP3, tyrosinase, LB24-AB, SK29-AB, monophenol monooxygenase, oculocutaneous albinism IA, tumor rejection antigen AB
Species: human
Products:     tyrosinase

Top Publications

  1. Kato A, Fukai K, Oiso N, Hosomi N, Saitoh S, Wada T, et al. A novel P gene missense mutation in a Japanese patient with oculocutaneous albinism type II (OCA2). J Dermatol Sci. 2003;31:189-92 pubmed
    ..We had an opportunity to examine a case of albinism, and screened the mutations of tyrosinase and P gene. Genomic DNA was prepared from peripheral leukocytes...
  2. Nakamura E, Miyamura Y, Matsunaga J, Kano Y, Dakeishi Hara M, Tanita M, et al. A novel mutation of the tyrosinase gene causing oculocutaneous albinism type 1 (OCA1). J Dermatol Sci. 2002;28:102-5 pubmed
    b>Tyrosinase is a rate-limiting enzyme in the melanin biosynthetic pathway and a complete defect of the enzyme activity caused by homozygous mutations of the tyrosinase gene is well known to result in tyrosinase-negative oculocutaneous ..
  3. Liu J, Choy K, Chan L, Leung T, Tam P, Chiang S, et al. Tyrosinase gene (TYR) mutations in Chinese patients with oculocutaneous albinism type 1. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2010;38:37-42 pubmed publisher
    To identify the sequence variants of the tyrosinase (TYR) gene in Chinese families with oculocutaneous albinism.
  4. Oetting W, Pietsch J, Brott M, Savage S, Fryer J, Summers C, et al. The R402Q tyrosinase variant does not cause autosomal recessive ocular albinism. Am J Med Genet A. 2009;149A:466-9 pubmed publisher
    Mutations in the gene for tyrosinase, the key enzyme in melanin synthesis, are responsible for oculocutaneous albinism type 1, and more than 100 mutations of this gene have been identified. The c...
  5. Grønskov K, Ek J, Sand A, Scheller R, Bygum A, Brixen K, et al. Birth prevalence and mutation spectrum in danish patients with autosomal recessive albinism. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:1058-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The study was initiated to investigate the mutation spectrum of four OCA genes and to calculate the birth prevalence in patients with autosomal recessive albinism...
  6. Ibarrola Villava M, Hu H, Guedj M, Fernandez L, Descamps V, Basset Seguin N, et al. MC1R, SLC45A2 and TYR genetic variants involved in melanoma susceptibility in southern European populations: results from a meta-analysis. Eur J Cancer. 2012;48:2183-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of these biomarkers in clinical practice could be promising and warrants further discussion. ..
  7. Nan H, Kraft P, Qureshi A, Guo Q, Chen C, Hankinson S, et al. Genome-wide association study of tanning phenotype in a population of European ancestry. J Invest Dermatol. 2009;129:2250-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these tanning ability-related loci are similar to the hair color-related loci previously reported in the GWAS of hair color. ..
  8. Kwon B, Haq A, Pomerantz S, Halaban R. Isolation and sequence of a cDNA clone for human tyrosinase that maps at the mouse c-albino locus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987;84:7473-7 pubmed
    Screening of a lambda gt11 human melanocyte cDNA library with antibodies against hamster tyrosinase (monophenol, L-dopa:oxygen oxidoreductase, EC resulted in the isolation of 16 clones...
  9. Barrett J, Iles M, Harland M, Taylor J, Aitken J, Andresen P, et al. Genome-wide association study identifies three new melanoma susceptibility loci. Nat Genet. 2011;43:1108-13 pubmed publisher
    ..6 × 10(-7) under a fixed-effects model and P = 1.2 × 10(-3) under a random-effects model). These newly associated variants showed no association with nevus or pigmentation phenotypes in a large British case-control series. ..

More Information


  1. Jin Y, Birlea S, Fain P, Gowan K, Riccardi S, Holland P, et al. Variant of TYR and autoimmunity susceptibility loci in generalized vitiligo. N Engl J Med. 2010;362:1686-97 pubmed publisher
    ..07x10(-15)) and GZMB (P=3.44x10(-8)), and in a locus containing TYR (P=1.60x10(-18)), encoding tyrosinase. We observed associations between generalized vitiligo and markers implicating multiple genes, some associated ..
  2. Duffy D, Zhao Z, Sturm R, Hayward N, Martin N, Montgomery G. Multiple pigmentation gene polymorphisms account for a substantial proportion of risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma. J Invest Dermatol. 2010;130:520-8 pubmed publisher
    ..of polymorphisms in pigmentation loci (ASIP (Agouti signalling protein, nonagouti homolog (mouse) gene), TYR (tyrosinase), TYRP1 (tyrosinase-related protein 1), MC1R, OCA2, IRF4 (interferon regulatory factor 4), SLC24A4 (solute ..
  3. Tripathi R, Strunk K, Giebel L, Weleber R, Spritz R. Tyrosinase gene mutations in type I (tyrosinase-deficient) oculocutaneous albinism define two clusters of missense substitutions. Am J Med Genet. 1992;43:865-71 pubmed
    Type I (tyrosinase-deficient) oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) results from mutations of the gene encoding tyrosinase, the enzyme that catalyzes the first 2 steps of melanin pigment biosynthesis...
  4. Opitz S, Käsmann Kellner B, Kaufmann M, Schwinger E, Zühlke C. Detection of 53 novel DNA variations within the tyrosinase gene and accumulation of mutations in 17 patients with albinism. Hum Mutat. 2004;23:630-1 pubmed
    Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) in man may be caused by mutations within the tyrosinase gene (TYR) resulting in OCA1. Analysing patients with recessively inherited albinism we found DNA variations in 82 unrelated individuals...
  5. Watabe H, Valencia J, Yasumoto K, Kushimoto T, Ando H, Muller J, et al. Regulation of tyrosinase processing and trafficking by organellar pH and by proteasome activity. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:7971-81 pubmed
    ..b>Tyrosinase (TYR) is absolutely required for melanogenesis, but other melanosomal proteins, such as TYRP1, DCT, and gp100, ..
  6. Wei A, Wang Y, Long Y, Wang Y, Guo X, Zhou Z, et al. A comprehensive analysis reveals mutational spectra and common alleles in Chinese patients with oculocutaneous albinism. J Invest Dermatol. 2010;130:716-24 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the spectrum of mutational genes and alleles of OCA is population specific. OCA1 is the most common (70.1% of cases) form of Chinese OCA, whereas OCA2, OCA4, and HPS1 account for 10.2%, 12...
  7. Giebel L, Strunk K, King R, Hanifin J, Spritz R. A frequent tyrosinase gene mutation in classic, tyrosinase-negative (type IA) oculocutaneous albinism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:3255-8 pubmed
    We have identified a tyrosinase gene mutation in several patients with classic, tyrosinase-negative (type IA) oculocutaneous albinism...
  8. Preising M, Forster H, Gonser M, Lorenz B. Screening of TYR, OCA2, GPR143, and MC1R in patients with congenital nystagmus, macular hypoplasia, and fundus hypopigmentation indicating albinism. Mol Vis. 2011;17:939-48 pubmed
    ..diagnosis of OA or OCA based on the classical findings, to evaluate the frequency of sequence variants in tyrosinase (TYR), P-gene, P-protein (OCA2), and the G-protein-coupled receptor 143 gene, OA1 (GPR143)...
  9. Park S, Chae H, Kim Y, Kim M. Molecular analysis of Korean patients with oculocutaneous albinism. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2012;56:98-103 pubmed publisher
    ..469G>A (D157N) and c.686G>A (C229Y)]. OCA1A (66...
  10. Lin Y, Wei A, Zhou Z, Zhu W, He X, Lian S. A novel missense mutation of the TYR gene in a pedigree with oculocutaneous albinism type 1 from China. Chin Med J (Engl). 2011;124:3358-61 pubmed
    The mutation of the tyrosinase (TYR) gene results in oculocutaneous albinism type 1 (OCA1), an autosomal recessive genetic disorder. OCA1 is the most common type of OCA in the Chinese population...
  11. Spritz R, Strunk K, Hsieh C, Sekhon G, Francke U. Homozygous tyrosinase gene mutation in an American black with tyrosinase-negative (type IA) oculocutaneous albinism. Am J Hum Genet. 1991;48:318-24 pubmed
    We have identified a tyrosinase gene mutation in an American black with classic, tyrosinase-negative oculocutaneous albinism. This mutation results in an amino acid substitution (Cys----Arg) at codon 89 of the tyrosinase polypeptide...
  12. Gudbjartsson D, Sulem P, Stacey S, Goldstein A, Rafnar T, Sigurgeirsson B, et al. ASIP and TYR pigmentation variants associate with cutaneous melanoma and basal cell carcinoma. Nat Genet. 2008;40:886-91 pubmed publisher
    ..14, P = 6.1 x 10(-4)). An eye color variant in TYRP1 was associated with risk of CM (OR = 1.15, P = 4.6 x 10(-4)). The association of all three variants is robust with respect to adjustment for the effect of pigmentation. ..
  13. Hutton S, Spritz R. A comprehensive genetic study of autosomal recessive ocular albinism in Caucasian patients. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008;49:868-72 pubmed publisher
    ..constitutes a clinically mild presentation of oculocutaneous albinism (OCA), due to mutations in either the TYR (OCA1) or OCA2 (P) genes...
  14. Stokowski R, Pant P, Dadd T, Fereday A, Hinds D, Jarman C, et al. A genomewide association study of skin pigmentation in a South Asian population. Am J Hum Genet. 2007;81:1119-32 pubmed
    ..Our study is the first to interrogate polymorphisms across the genome, to find genetic determinants of the natural variation of skin pigmentation within a human population. ..
  15. Fukai K, Holmes S, Lucchese N, Siu V, Weleber R, Schnur R, et al. Autosomal recessive ocular albinism associated with a functionally significant tyrosinase gene polymorphism. Nat Genet. 1995;9:92-5 pubmed
    ..We analysed 12 unrelated patients with AROA, and found that two had abnormalities of the tyrosinase (TYR) gene...
  16. Berson J, Frank D, Calvo P, Bieler B, Marks M. A common temperature-sensitive allelic form of human tyrosinase is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum at the nonpermissive temperature. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:12281-9 pubmed
    Oculocutaneous albinism type 1TS is caused by mutations that render the melanocyte-specific enzyme tyrosinase temperature-sensitive (ts); the enzyme is inactive in cells grown at 37 degrees C but displays full activity in cells grown at ..
  17. Shriver M, Parra E, Dios S, Bonilla C, Norton H, Jovel C, et al. Skin pigmentation, biogeographical ancestry and admixture mapping. Hum Genet. 2003;112:387-99 pubmed
    ..The implications and applications of ancestry estimates in biomedical research are discussed. ..
  18. Nan H, Kraft P, Hunter D, Han J. Genetic variants in pigmentation genes, pigmentary phenotypes, and risk of skin cancer in Caucasians. Int J Cancer. 2009;125:909-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study provides evidence for the contribution of pigmentation genetic variants, in addition to the MC1R variants, to variation in human pigmentary phenotypes and possibly the development of skin cancer. ..
  19. King R, Mentink M, Oetting W. Non-random distribution of missense mutations within the human tyrosinase gene in type I (tyrosinase-related) oculocutaneous albinism. Mol Biol Med. 1991;8:19-29 pubmed
    Type I oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is produced by mutations of the tyrosinase gene. We report four new missense mutations in the tyrosinase gene in patients with type IA OCA...
  20. Sulem P, Gudbjartsson D, Stacey S, Helgason A, Rafnar T, Magnusson K, et al. Genetic determinants of hair, eye and skin pigmentation in Europeans. Nat Genet. 2007;39:1443-52 pubmed
    ..3 is associated with freckles. The fifth region provided refinements to a previously reported association in OCA2, and the sixth encompasses previously described variants in MC1R. ..
  21. Breimer L, Winder A, Jay B, Jay M. Initiation codon mutation of the tyrosinase gene as a cause of human albinism. Clin Chim Acta. 1994;227:17-22 pubmed
    Direct DNA sequence determination of PCR amplified exons of the tyrosinase gene of three British patients suffering from tyrosinase negative oculocutaneous albinism has revealed three new missense point mutations: (1) an adenine to ..
  22. Oetting W, King R. Molecular basis of albinism: mutations and polymorphisms of pigmentation genes associated with albinism. Hum Mutat. 1999;13:99-115 pubmed
    ..have been reported to be responsible for different types of oculocutaneous and ocular albinism, including the tyrosinase gene (TYR) and OCA1 (MIM# 203100), the OCA2 gene and OCA2 (MIM# 203200), the tyrosinase-related protein-1 gene (..
  23. Bishop D, Demenais F, Iles M, Harland M, Taylor J, Corda E, et al. Genome-wide association study identifies three loci associated with melanoma risk. Nat Genet. 2009;41:920-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite wide variation in allele frequency, these genetic variants show notable homogeneity of effect across populations of European ancestry living at different latitudes and show independent association to disease risk. ..
  24. Giebel L, Tripathi R, Strunk K, Hanifin J, Jackson C, King R, et al. Tyrosinase gene mutations associated with type IB ("yellow") oculocutaneous albinism. Am J Hum Genet. 1991;48:1159-67 pubmed
    We have identified three different tyrosinase gene mutant alleles in four unrelated patients with type IB ("yellow") oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) and thus have demonstrated that type IB OCA is allelic to type IA (tyrosinase ..
  25. Rooryck C, Morice Picard F, Elcioglu N, Lacombe D, Taieb A, Arveiler B. Molecular diagnosis of oculocutaneous albinism: new mutations in the OCA1-4 genes and practical aspects. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2008;21:583-7 pubmed publisher
  26. Fernandez L, Milne R, Pita G, Avilés J, Lazaro P, Benitez J, et al. SLC45A2: a novel malignant melanoma-associated gene. Hum Mutat. 2008;29:1161-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first time SLC45A2 has been described as a melanoma susceptibility gene in a light-skinned population. ..
  27. Goto M, Sato Matsumura K, Sawamura D, Yokota K, Nakamura H, Shimizu H. Tyrosinase gene analysis in Japanese patients with oculocutaneous albinism. J Dermatol Sci. 2004;35:215-20 pubmed
    Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is a heterogeneous congenital disorder. Tyrosinase is a key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis, and tyrosinase gene mutations cause the OCA1 subtype.
  28. Giebel L, Strunk K, Spritz R. Organization and nucleotide sequences of the human tyrosinase gene and a truncated tyrosinase-related segment. Genomics. 1991;9:435-45 pubmed
    We have isolated and sequenced the gene encoding human tyrosinase, the key enzyme in pigment biosynthesis. The human tyrosinase gene contains five exons and spans more than 50 kb of DNA on chromosome segment 11q14----q21...
  29. Halaban R, Svedine S, Cheng E, Smicun Y, Aron R, Hebert D. Endoplasmic reticulum retention is a common defect associated with tyrosinase-negative albinism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:5889-94 pubmed
    b>Tyrosinase is a melanocyte-specific enzyme critical for the synthesis of melanin, a process normally restricted to a post-Golgi compartment termed the melanosome...
  30. Gargiulo A, Testa F, Rossi S, Di Iorio V, Fecarotta S, de Berardinis T, et al. Molecular and clinical characterization of albinism in a large cohort of Italian patients. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:1281-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinical analysis revealed that the severity of the ocular manifestations depends on the degree of retinal pigmentation. ..
  31. Satheeshkumar E, Yang J. Analyte-induced photoreduction method for visual and colorimetric detection of tyrosine. Anal Chim Acta. 2015;879:111-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Quantitative studies indicated that a linear response up to 10 μM with a detection limit of 100 nM could be obtained. For visually detection, color change could be observed with a concentration as low as 500 nM of Tyr. ..
  32. Jin Y, Lin C, Lu T, Li J, Chen I, Kuo Y, et al. Chemical constituents derived from Artocarpus xanthocarpus as inhibitors of melanin biosynthesis. Phytochemistry. 2015;117:424-35 pubmed publisher
    ..steppogenin, norartocarpetin, resveratrol, oxyresveratrol, and chlorophorin potently inhibited mushroom tyrosinase activity with IC50 values from 0.9 to 5.7 μM that were all far stronger than the positive controls...
  33. Klar A, Biedermann T, Michalak K, Michalczyk T, Meuli Simmen C, Scherberich A, et al. Human Adipose Mesenchymal Cells Inhibit Melanocyte Differentiation and the Pigmentation of Human Skin via Increased Expression of TGF-β1. J Invest Dermatol. 2017;137:2560-2569 pubmed publisher
    ..levels of transforming growth factor-β1 by down-regulating the expression of key melanogenic enzymes such as tyrosinase. This caused decreased melanin synthesis and, consequently, greatly reduced pigmentation of melDESS...
  34. Foppiani L, Panarello S, Filauro M, Scirocco M, Cappato S, Parodi A, et al. Insulinoma and Chronic Kidney Disease: An Uncommon Conundrum Not to Be Overlooked. Clin Med Insights Endocrinol Diabetes. 2017;10:1179551417742620 pubmed publisher
    ..In patients with CKD, the interpretation of biochemical criteria for the diagnosis of insulinoma can be challenging. Localization techniques may display pitfalls. Surgery is curative in most patients but long-term follow-up is required...
  35. Ferretta A, Maida I, Guida S, Azzariti A, Porcelli L, Tommasi S, et al. New insight into the role of metabolic reprogramming in melanoma cells harboring BRAF mutations. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016;1863:2710-2718 pubmed publisher
    ..in homo/heterozygosis were found to be correlated to high levels of pERK, to downregulate PGC-1?/?, MITF and tyrosinase activity, resulting in a reduced melanin synthesis as compared to BRAFwt melanoma cells...
  36. Chang T, Tsai Y. Inhibition of Melanogenesis by Yeast Extracts from Cultivations of Recombinant Pichia pastoris Catalyzing ortho-Hydroxylation of Flavonoids. Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2015;16:1085-93 pubmed
    ..The yeast extract from genistein biotransformation also showed inhibitory activity on cellular tyrosinase activity in the B16 cells...
  37. Jin W, Wang L, Zhu F, Tan W, Lin W, Chen D, et al. Critical POU domain residues confer Oct4 uniqueness in somatic cell reprogramming. Sci Rep. 2016;6:20818 pubmed publisher
    ..Our systematic structure-function analyses bring novel mechanistic insight into the molecular basis of how critical residues function together to confer Oct4 uniqueness among POU family for somatic cell reprogramming. ..
  38. Zhu G, Koszelak Rosenblum M, Connelly S, Dumont M, Malkowski M. The Crystal Structure of an Integral Membrane Fatty Acid α-Hydroxylase. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:29820-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations provide insight into the different mechanisms of substrate binding and recognition of substrates by the hydroxylase and desaturase enzymes. ..
  39. Xing R, Wang F, Dong L, Zheng A, Wang L, Su W, et al. Inhibitory effects of Na7PMo11CuO40 on mushroom tyrosinase and melanin formation and its antimicrobial activities. Food Chem. 2016;197:205-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The inhibitory effects of PMo11Cu on mushroom tyrosinase and melanin formation in B16 melanoma cells were studied...
  40. Nagatomo S, Saito K, Yamamoto K, Ogura T, Kitagawa T, Nagai M. Heterogeneity between Two ? Subunits of ?2?2 Human Hemoglobin and O2 Binding Properties: Raman, 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, and Terahertz Spectra. Biochemistry. 2017;56:6125-6136 pubmed publisher
  41. NematiNiko F, Chegini K, Asghari H, Amini A, Gheibi N. Modifying effects of carboxyl group on the interaction of recombinant S100A8/A9 complex with tyrosinase. Biochim Biophys Acta Proteins Proteom. 2017;1865:370-379 pubmed publisher
    b>Tyrosinase is a determinant enzyme for modulating melanin production as its abnormal activity can result in an increased amount of melanin...
  42. Zucca P, Pintus M, Manzo G, Nieddu M, Steri D, Rinaldi A. Antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-tyrosinase properties of extracts of the Mediterranean parasitic plant Cytinus hypocistis. BMC Res Notes. 2015;8:562 pubmed publisher
    ..blossom) of Cytinus hypocistis collected in Sardinia, Italy, and explored the antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-tyrosinase, and cytotoxic activities of the extracts. Extracts from C...
  43. Chen P, Chu P, Tung S, Liu C, Tsai Y, Lin Y, et al. Overexpression of phosphoprotein phosphatase 2A predicts worse prognosis in patients with breast cancer: a 15-year follow-up. Hum Pathol. 2017;66:93-100 pubmed publisher
    ..012). Our data revealed that high p-PP2A expression is positively associated with HER2, Ki-67, and p-AKT expression. High p-PP2A expression correlates with poor clinical outcomes in breast cancer, especially in patients with TNBC. ..
  44. Liu L, Li Y, Coelhan M, Chan H, Ma W, Liu L. Relative developmental toxicity of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. Environ Pollut. 2016;219:1122-1130 pubmed publisher
  45. Saraswaty V, Ketut Adnyana I, Pudjiraharti S, Mozef T, Insanu M, Kurniati N, et al. Fractionation using adsorptive macroporous resin HPD-600 enhances antioxidant activity of Gnetum gnemon L. seed hard shell extract. J Food Sci Technol. 2017;54:3349-3357 pubmed publisher
    ..substances from Gnetum gnemon seed are mainly stilbenoid derivatives which show potent antioxidant, tyrosinase inhibitor, and antimicrobial activities...
  46. Makowska J, Żamojć K, Wyrzykowski D, Żmudzińska W, Uber D, Wierzbicka M, et al. Probing the binding of Cu(2+) ions to a fragment of the Aβ(1-42) polypeptide using fluorescence spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry and molecular dynamics simulations. Biophys Chem. 2016;216:44-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The conditional thermodynamic parameters suggest that, under the experimental conditions, the formation of the Cu(2+)-HZ1 complex is both an enthalpy and entropy driven process. ..
  47. First E, Richardson C. Spectrophotometric assays for monitoring tRNA aminoacylation and aminoacyl-tRNA hydrolysis reactions. Methods. 2017;113:3-12 pubmed publisher
  48. Liu N, Kong X, Shi H, Wu Q, Jiang M. Tyrosinase gene mutations in the Chinese Han population with OCA1. Genet Res (Camb). 2014;96:e14 pubmed publisher
    ..OCA results in reduced or absent pigmentation in the hair, skin and eyes. Type 1 OCA (OCA1) is the result of tyrosinase (TYR) gene mutations and is a severe disease type...
  49. Traub Weidinger T, Putzer D, von Guggenberg E, Dobrozemsky G, Nilica B, Kendler D, et al. Multiparametric PET imaging in thyroid malignancy characterizing tumour heterogeneity: somatostatin receptors and glucose metabolism. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2015;42:1995-2001 pubmed publisher
  50. Verma R, Yadav M, Pradhan D, Bhuyan R, Aggarwal S, Nayek A, et al. Probing binding mechanism of interleukin-6 and olokizumab: in silico design of potential lead antibodies for autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. J Recept Signal Transduct Res. 2016;36:601-616 pubmed
    ..Therefore, these newly designed macromolecules were proposed as potential lead antibodies to serve as a therapeutics option for IL-6-mediated diseases. ..
  51. Chen Y, Huang L, Wen Z, Zhang C, Liang C, Lai S, et al. Skin whitening capability of shikimic acid pathway compound. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2016;20:1214-20 pubmed
    ..We measured the tyrosinase inhibitory capacity of the compounds in the animal model of zebrafish and also evaluated the compounds' anti-..
  52. Zühlke C, Criée C, Gemoll T, Schillinger T, Kaesmann Kellner B. Polymorphisms in the genes for oculocutaneous albinism type 1 and type 4 in the German population. Pigment Cell Res. 2007;20:225-7 pubmed
  53. Muthusamy B, Budi E, Katsuno Y, Lee M, Smith S, Mirza A, et al. ShcA Protects against Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition through Compartmentalized Inhibition of TGF-β-Induced Smad Activation. PLoS Biol. 2015;13:e1002325 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings position ShcA as a determinant of the epithelial phenotype by repressing TGF-β-induced Smad activation through differential partitioning of receptor complexes at the cell surface. ..
  54. Wang M, Toda K, Maeda H. Biochemical properties and subcellular localization of tyrosine aminotransferases in Arabidopsis thaliana. Phytochemistry. 2016;132:16-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Biochemical and cellular analyses of Arabidopsis TATs provide a fundamental basis for future in vivo studies and metabolic engineering for enhanced production of Tyr-derived phytochemicals in plants. ..
  55. Sjöholm J, Ho F, Ahmadova N, Brinkert K, Hammarström L, Mamedov F, et al. The protonation state around TyrD/TyrD• in photosystem II is reflected in its biphasic oxidation kinetics. Biochim Biophys Acta Bioenerg. 2017;1858:147-155 pubmed publisher
    ..We assign the fast and slow oxidation phases to two populations of PSII centers with different water positions, proximal and distal respectively, and discuss possible deprotonation events in the vicinity of TyrD. ..
  56. Hu X, Yu M, Yan G, Wang H, Hou A, Lei C. Isoprenylated phenolic compounds with tyrosinase inhibition from Morus nigra. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2017;:1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Sanggenon M (2), chalcomoracin (5), sorocein H (6), kuwanon J (7), sanggenon C (8), and sanggenon O (9) showed significant inhibitory effects on mushroom tyrosinase.
  57. Oyama T, Yoshimori A, Takahashi S, Yamamoto T, Sato A, Kamiya T, et al. Structural insight into the active site of mushroom tyrosinase using phenylbenzoic acid derivatives. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2017;27:2868-2872 pubmed publisher
    So far, many inhibitors of tyrosinase have been discovered for cosmetic and clinical agents. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the inhibition in the active site of tyrosinase have not been well understood...
  58. Sun M, Xie H, Tang Y, Lin S, Li J, Sun S, et al. G protein-coupled estrogen receptor enhances melanogenesis via cAMP-protein kinase (PKA) by upregulating microphthalmia-related transcription factor-tyrosinase in melanoma. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2017;165:236-246 pubmed publisher
    ..Cell proliferation, melanin content, tyrosinase (TYR) activity, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) level, and TYR and microphthalmia-related transcription ..
  59. Gilot D, Migault M, Bachelot L, Journe F, Rogiers A, Donnou Fournet E, et al. A non-coding function of TYRP1 mRNA promotes melanoma growth. Nat Cell Biol. 2017;19:1348-1357 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that TYRP1 mRNA, in addition to encoding tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1), indirectly promotes cell proliferation by sequestering miR-16 on non-canonical miRNA ..
  60. Tripathi R, Bundey S, Musarella M, Droetto S, Strunk K, Holmes S, et al. Mutations of the tyrosinase gene in Indo-Pakistani patients with type I (tyrosinase-deficient) oculocutaneous albinism (OCA). Am J Hum Genet. 1993;53:1173-9 pubmed
    ..Type I (tyrosinase-deficient) OCA results from mutations of the tyrosinase gene (TYR gene) encoding tyrosinase, the enzyme that ..
  61. Zheng L, Nukuna B, Brennan M, Sun M, Goormastic M, Settle M, et al. Apolipoprotein A-I is a selective target for myeloperoxidase-catalyzed oxidation and functional impairment in subjects with cardiovascular disease. J Clin Invest. 2004;114:529-41 pubmed
    ..They also suggest a potential mechanism for MPO-dependent generation of a proatherogenic dysfunctional form of HDL in vivo...
  62. Sharma C, Sharma M, Prasad K. Involvement of Different Genes Expressions during Immunological and Inflammatory Responses in Vitiligo. Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene Expr. 2017;27:277-287 pubmed publisher
    ..Theories including reactive oxygen species model, Nrf2-antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway, WNT pathway, tyrosinase activity, biochemical, molecular, and cellular alterations have been hypothesized to explain vitiligo ..
  63. Roppongi S, Tateoka C, Fujimoto M, Iizuka I, Morisawa S, Nakamura A, et al. Periplasmic form of dipeptidyl aminopeptidase IV from Pseudoxanthomonas mexicana WO24: purification, kinetic characterization, crystallization and X-ray crystallographic analysis. Acta Crystallogr F Struct Biol Commun. 2017;73:601-606 pubmed publisher
    ..84?Å, ? = 67.42, ? = 68.83, ? = 65.46°. Initial phases were determined by the molecular-replacement method using Stenotrophomonas maltophilia DPP IV (PDB entry 2ecf) as a template and refinement of the structure is in progress...
  64. Zuleger C, Kang C, Ranheim E, Kurzman I, Macklin M, Newton M, et al. Pilot study of safety and feasibility of DNA microseeding for treatment of spontaneous canine melanoma. Vet Med Sci. 2017;3:134-145 pubmed publisher
    ..A USDA-approved xenogeneic human tyrosinase (huTYR) plasmid DNA vaccine delivered intramuscularly induces detectable immune responses and has clinical ..
  65. Veselinović J, Veselinović A, Ilic Tomic T, Davis R, O CONNOR K, Pavic A, et al. Potent anti-melanogenic activity and favorable toxicity profile of selected 4-phenyl hydroxycoumarins in the zebrafish model and the computational molecular modeling studies. Bioorg Med Chem. 2017;25:6286-6296 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of tyrosinase was identified as the possible mode of anti-melanogenic action...
  66. Glusac J, Isaschar Ovdat S, Kukavica B, Fishman A. Oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by tyrosinase-crosslinked potato protein. Food Res Int. 2017;100:407-415 pubmed publisher
    ..Attempts to modulate its functional properties by crosslinking have not been reported to date. The effect of tyrosinase-mediated crosslinking of PP on the properties of o/w emulsions was studied in the present work...
  67. Wang J, Peng L, Shi M, Li C, Zhang Y, Kang W. Spectrum Effect Relationship and Component Knock-Out in Angelica Dahurica Radix by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Q Exactive Hybrid Quadrupole-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer. Molecules. 2017;22: pubmed publisher
    ..They showed inhibitory or activating effects on tyrosinase, a rate-limiting enzyme of melanogenesis...
  68. Doppalapudi S, Mahira S, Khan W. Development and in vitro assessment of psoralen and resveratrol co-loaded ultradeformable liposomes for the treatment of vitiligo. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2017;174:44-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Psoralen in combination with ultraviolet-A (PUVA) acts by stimulation of melanin content and tyrosinase activity in melanocytes...
  69. Draghi P, Fernandes J. Label-free potentiometric biosensor based on solid-contact for determination of total phenols in honey and propolis. Talanta. 2017;164:413-417 pubmed publisher
    We developed a label-free potentiometric biosensor using tyrosinase extracted from Musa acuminata and immobilized by covalent bond on a surface of a solid-contact transducer. The transducer was manufactured containing two layers...
  70. Colzato L, Steenbergen L, Sellaro R, Stock A, Arning L, Beste C. Effects of l-Tyrosine on working memory and inhibitory control are determined by DRD2 genotypes: A randomized controlled trial. Cortex. 2016;82:217-224 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reinforce the idea that genetic predisposition modulates the effect of TYR in its role as cognitive enhancer. ..
  71. Alexova R, Nelson C, Millar A. Temporal development of the barley leaf metabolic response to Pi limitation. Plant Cell Environ. 2017;40:645-657 pubmed publisher
  72. Moretti S, Menicali E, Nucci N, Voce P, Colella R, Melillo R, et al. Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 1 Plays a Pivotal Role in RET/PTC3 Oncogene-induced Expression of Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase 1. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:1785-1797 pubmed publisher
    ..The detection of those targets is becoming increasingly important to yield the full function of novel immune checkpoint inhibitors. ..
  73. Ahn J, Jin S, Kang H. LPS induces melanogenesis through p38 MAPK activation in human melanocytes. Arch Dermatol Res. 2008;300:325-9 pubmed publisher
    ..LPS was found to induce the expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and tyrosinase protein in cells. Stimulation of melanocytes with LPS led to time dependent phosphorylation of p38 MAPK...
  74. Nemoto K, Ramadan A, Arimura G, Imai K, Tomii K, Shinozaki K, et al. Tyrosine phosphorylation of the GARU E3 ubiquitin ligase promotes gibberellin signalling by preventing GID1 degradation. Nat Commun. 2017;8:1004 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, Nemoto et al. show that the gibberellin response is positively regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation of GARU, an E3 ubiquitin ligase that mediates degradation of GID1. ..
  75. Taira N, Katsuyama Y, Yoshioka M, Okano Y, Masaki H. 3-O-Glyceryl-2-O-hexyl ascorbate suppresses melanogenesis by interfering with intracellular melanosome transport and suppressing tyrosinase protein synthesis. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, existing water-soluble AsA derivatives that were developed to improve its stability also have low skin penetration...
  76. K B, Purohit R. Mutational analysis of TYR gene and its structural consequences in OCA1A. Gene. 2013;513:184-95 pubmed publisher
    ..TYR gene codes tyrosinase protein to its relation with melanin formation by knowing the function of these SNPs...