Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: TUBB4B
Description: tubulin, beta 4B class IVb
Alias: Beta2, TUBB2, TUBB2C, class IVb beta tubulin, class IVb beta-tubulin, tubulin beta-2 chain, tubulin beta-2C chain, tubulin beta-4B chain, tubulin, beta 2C, tubulin, beta, 2
- MARK4 is a novel microtubule-associated proteins/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase that binds to the cellular microtubule network and to centrosomesBernhard Trinczek
Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Kansas, Malott Hall, Lawrence, Kansas 66045, USA
J Biol Chem 279:5915-23. 2004....
- Dose-dependent alterations in gene expression in mouse liver induced by diethylnitrosamine and ethylnitrosourea and determined by quantitative real-time PCRTakashi Watanabe
Functional Genomics Laboratory, School of Science and Engineering, Aoyama Gakuin University, Fuchinobe 5 10 1, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229 0006, Japan
Mutat Res 673:9-20. 2009..Cyp4a10, Cyp21a1, Fos, Gadd45b, Gdf15, Hmox1, Hspb1, Isg20l1, Jun, Mbd1, Mdm2, Myc, Net1, Plk2, Ppp1r3c, Rcan1 and Tubb2c], although the increase in gene expression due to ENU was generally weaker than that due to DEN...
- HIV-1 Tat targets microtubules to induce apoptosis, a process promoted by the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 relative BimDan Chen
Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 3206, USA
EMBO J 21:6801-10. 2002..Our findings reveal a strategy by which Tat induces apoptosis by targeting the microtubule network. Thus HIV-1 Tat joins a growing list of pathogen-derived proteins that target the cytoskeleton of host cells...
- Modifications in the human T cell proteome induced by intracellular HIV-1 Tat protein expressionMayte Coiras
AIDS Immunopathology Unit, National Centre of Microbiology, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain
Proteomics 6:S63-73. 2006..In conclusion, in addition to its role in viral mRNA elongation, the proteomic approach has provided insight into the way that Tat modifies host cell gene expression...
- Proteomic comparison of nasopharyngeal cancer cell lines C666-1 and NP69 identifies down-regulation of annexin II and beta2-tubulin for nasopharyngeal carcinomaCharles M L Chan
Department of Clinical Oncology, Sir Y K Pao Centre for Cancer, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China
Arch Pathol Lab Med 132:675-83. 2008..Since the prognosis of locally advanced and metastatic diseases is poor, increased understanding of the pathogenesis of NPC would be important for discovering novel markers for patients' management...
- HIV-1 rev depolymerizes microtubules to form stable bilayered ringsN R Watts
Laboratory of Structural Biology Research, National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, Bethesda, MD, USA
J Cell Biol 150:349-60. 2000..These results suggest that Rev may interact with MTs to induce their destabilization, a proposition consistent with the previously described disruption of MTs after HIV-1 infection...
- HIV-1 Tat, apoptosis and the mitochondria: a tubulin link?Mauro Giacca
Molecular Medicine Laboratory, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Trieste, Italy
Retrovirology 2:7. 2005..Two papers now published in Retrovirology provide possible molecular mechanisms for the pro-apoptotic effect of Tat, which involve the cell's microtubular network and the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis...
- HIV-1 Tat protein enhances microtubule polymerizationJean de Mareuil
UMR Univ, Med, CNRS FRE 2737, Faculte de Pharmacie, Universite de la Mediterranee, 27 Bd Jean Moulin, 13385 Marseille, France
Retrovirology 2:5. 2005..We compared the effect on tubulin polymerization of these Tat variants and peptides corresponding to different parts of the Tat sequence, with paclitaxel, an anti-cancer drug that targets microtubules...
- The glutamine-rich region of the HIV-1 Tat protein is involved in T-cell apoptosisGrant R Campbell
CNRS Formation de Recherche en Evolution 2737, Faculte de Pharmacie, Universite de la Mediterranee, 27, Boulevard Jean Moulin, 13385 Marseille, France
J Biol Chem 279:48197-204. 2004..The glutamine-rich region of Tat appears to be involved in the Tat-mediated apoptosis of T-cells...
- The mammalian beta-tubulin repertoire: hematopoietic expression of a novel, heterologous beta-tubulin isotypeD Wang
J Cell Biol 103:1903-10. 1986..We predict that the M beta 1 isotype is functionally specialized for assembly into the mammalian marginal band...
- Transcriptional patterns, biomarkers and pathways characterizing nasopharyngeal carcinoma of Southern ChinaWeiyi Fang
Cancer Research Institute of Southern Medical University, Key Lab for Transcriptomics and Proteomics of Human Fatal Diseases Supported by Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, 510515, PR China
J Transl Med 6:32. 2008....
- Proteomic surveillance of retinal autoantigens in endogenous uveitis: implication of esterase D and brain-type creatine kinase as novel autoantigensYoko Okunuki
Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan
Mol Vis 14:1094-104. 2008..In this study, we aimed to investigate the possibility of such spreading of autoantigens in endogenous uveoretinitis using a proteomic approach...
- Selection of suitable reference genes for real-time PCR studies of Atlantic halibut developmentJorge M O Fernandes
Department of Fisheries and Natural Sciences, Bodø Regional University, N 8049 Bodø, Norway
Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 150:23-32. 2008..We have determined the expression profiles of 6 candidate reference genes (Actb, Eef2, Fau, Gapdh, Tubb2 and 18S rRNA) in 6 embryonic and 5 larval stages of Atlantic halibut development...
- Three-dimensional neuroblastoma cell culture: proteomic analysis between monolayer and multicellular tumor spheroidsHari R Kumar
Section of Pediatric Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine and Riley Children s Hospital, 545 N Barnhill Dr EH202, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
Pediatr Surg Int 24:1229-34. 2008..e., monolayers and MCTS...
- Differential distribution of beta-tubulin isotypes in cerebellumR D Burgoyne
Physiological Laboratory, University of Liverpool, UK
EMBO J 7:2311-9. 1988..However, the strict subcellular segregation of other MAPs in brain may be determined by other factors...
- Expression of growth-related genes in muscle during fasting and refeeding of juvenile Atlantic halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus LØrjan Hagen
School of Biology, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Scotland, UK
Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 152:47-53. 2009..was used to analyse the stability of expression of five potential reference genes (Eef2, Fau, 18SrRNA, Actb and Tubb2) with GeNorm and Normfinder...
- Up-regulation of hnRNP A1, Ezrin, tubulin β-2C and Annexin A1 in sentinel lymph nodes of colorectal cancerZhen yu He
Department of General Surgery, Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, 121 Jiangjiayuan Road, Nanjing 210011, Jiangsu Province, China
World J Gastroenterol 16:4670-6. 2010..To investigate the early metastasis-associated proteins in sentinel lymph node micrometastasis (SLNMM) of colorectal cancer (CRC) through comparative proteome...
- Evaluation of potential reference genes for real time RT-PCR studies in Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus Hippoglossus L.); during development, in tissues of healthy and NNV-injected fish, and in anterior kidney leucocytesAina Cathrine Øvergård
Institute of Marine Research, PO Box 1870 Nordnes, N 5817 Bergen, Norway
BMC Mol Biol 11:36. 2010..EF1A1), hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase 1 (HPRT1), ribosomal protein L7 (RPL7), tubulin beta 2C (Tubb2C), and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (UbcE) were evaluated as reference genes for normalization of real time RT-PCR ..
- Tumoral and tissue-specific expression of the major human beta-tubulin isotypesLuis J Leandro-García
Hereditary Endocrine Cancer Group, Human Cancer Genetics Programme, Spanish National Cancer Research Center CNIO, Melchor Fernández Almagro n 3, Madrid, Spain
Cytoskeleton (Hoboken) 67:214-23. 2010..In the nontumoral tissues, we found that, overall, TUBB (I), TUBB2C (IVb), and TUBB6 (V) were ubiquitous, TUBB1(VI) was hematopoietic cell-specific, and TUBB2A (IIa), TUBB2B (IIb), ..
- Natural product derivative Bis(4-fluorobenzyl)trisulfide inhibits tumor growth by modification of beta-tubulin at Cys 12 and suppression of microtubule dynamicsWanhong Xu
Hangzhou High Throughput Drug Screening Center, ACEA Biosciences, Inc, 6779 Mesa Ridge Road, Suite 100, San Diego, CA 92121, USA
Mol Cancer Ther 8:3318-30. 2009..3% than paclitaxel with a rate of 43.0%. BFBTS displays a novel antimicrotubule agent with potentials for cancer therapeutics...
- ZNRF1 interacts with tubulin and regulates cell morphogenesisKoichi Yoshida
Department of Biochemistry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 389:506-11. 2009..Furthermore, we identified beta-tubulin type 2 (Tubb2) as a ZNRF1-binding protein by yeast two-hybrid screening...
- Evaluation of candidate reference genes for QPCR during ontogenesis and of immune-relevant tissues of European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax)Karin Mitter
Institute of Marine Biology and Genetics, Hellenic Center of Marine Research, Crete, P O Box 2214, 710 03 Iraklio, Crete, Greece
Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 153:340-7. 2009..Gapdh), beta-actin (two regions of beta-actin), 40S ribosomal protein S30 (Fau), ribosomal protein L13 a (L13a), beta2-tubulin (Tubb2) and tyrosine 3 monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein (Tyr)] for expression ..
- Tubulin-targeted drug action: functional significance of class ii and class IVb beta-tubulin in vinca alkaloid sensitivityPei Pei Gan
Children s Cancer Institute Australia for Medical Research, Randwick, New South Wales, Australia
Cancer Res 68:9817-24. 2008..This study provides direct evidence that betaII- or betaIVb-tubulins have functionally distinct roles and expression of these isotypes may serve as strong predictors of Vinca alkaloid response and resistance...
- Expression profiling reveals dysregulation of cellular cytoskeletal genes in HBx-induced hepatocarcinogenesisQiang Sun
Genetic Laboratory of Development and Diseases, Institute of Biotechnology, Beijing, PR, China
Cancer Biol Ther 6:668-74. 2007..Among them, cytoskeletal genes, including microtubule genes tubulinbeta2 (Tubb2), tubulinbeta3 (Tubb3) and tubulinbeta6 (Tubb6), intermediate filament genes periplakin, keratin 8 (K8) and ..
- Heightened sensitivity to paclitaxel in Class IVa beta-tubulin-transfected cells is lost as expression increasesHailing Yang
Department of Integrative Biology and Pharmacology, University of Texas Medical School, 6431 Fannin Street, Houston, TX 77030, USA
J Biol Chem 282:27058-66. 2007....
- Three expressed sequences within the human beta-tubulin multigene family each define a distinct isotypeS A Lewis
J Mol Biol 182:11-20. 1985..The overall composition of the multigene family and the evolutionary relationships among its various members are discussed...
- Tissue-specific microtubule functions in Drosophila spermatogenesis require the beta 2-tubulin isotype-specific carboxy terminusJ D Fackenthal
Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington 47405
Dev Biol 158:213-27. 1993..This observation supports the hypothesis that the variable carboxy terminus mediates isotype-specific microtubule-dependent functions...
- Associations of PKC isoforms with the cytoskeleton of B16F10 melanoma cellsJ Szalay
Queens College, Department of Biology, Flushing, New York 11367, USA
J Histochem Cytochem 49:49-66. 2001..These isoforms show various levels of induction by serum and specific patterns of association with various components of the detergent-resistant cell cytoskeleton...
- HLA-B2702 (77-83/83-77) peptide binds to beta-tubulin on human NK cells and blocks their cytotoxic capacityR Tarazona
Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Hospital Reina Sofia, University of Cordoba, Cordoba, Spain
J Immunol 165:6776-82. 2000....
- Differential mRNA degradation of two beta-tubulin isoforms correlates with cytosolic Ca2+ changes in glucan-elicited soybean cellsC Ebel
Friedrich Miescher Institut, P O Box 2543, CH 4002 Basel, Switzerland
Plant Physiol 126:87-96. 2001..of these elicitors on cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations and on mRNA levels of two beta-tubulin isoforms, tubB1 and tubB2, were investigated...
- Occurrence of nuclear beta(II)-tubulin in cultured cellsConsuelo Walss-Bass
Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX 78284 7760, USA
Cell Tissue Res 308:215-23. 2002..These results suggest that transformation may lead to localization of beta(II)-tubulin in cell nuclei, serving an as yet unknown function, and that nuclear beta(II) may be a useful marker for detection of tumor cells...
- SOCS-6 binds to insulin receptor substrate 4, and mice lacking the SOCS-6 gene exhibit mild growth retardationDanielle L Krebs
The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research and the Cooperative Research Centre for Cellular Growth Factors, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Victoria 3050, Australia
Mol Cell Biol 22:4567-78. 2002..However, both male and female SOCS-6(-/-) mice weighed approximately 10% less than wild-type littermates...
- Beta class II tubulin predominates in normal and tumor breast tissuesJames H Dozier
School of Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi, USA
Breast Cancer Res 5:R157-69. 2003..This implies that there is a difference in isotype composition between normal and tumor tissues...
- The double-edged sword of activation-induced cytidine deaminaseXiaosheng Wu
Transplantation Biology Program and the Department of Biochemistry, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
J Immunol 174:934-41. 2005....
- Two phylogenetically highly distinct beta-tubulin genes of the basidiomycete Suillus bovinusJarmo T Juuti
Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, General Microbiology, University of Helsinki, PL 56 Viikinkaari 9, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
Curr Genet 47:253-63. 2005Genes tubb1 and tubb2 which encode beta-tubulins 1 and 2, respectively, were characterised from the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Suillus bovinus...
- Molecular phenotype of zebrafish ovarian follicle by serial analysis of gene expression and proteomic profiling, and comparison with the transcriptomes of other animalsAnja Knoll-Gellida
Génomique et Physiologie des Poissons, UMR NuAGe, Universite Bordeaux 1, 33405 Talence Cedex, France
BMC Genomics 7:46. 2006..The data obtained were compared with ovary/follicle/egg molecular phenotypes of other animals, published or available in public sequence databases...
- cDNA microarray study to identify expression changes relevant for apoptosis in K562 cells co-treated with amifostine and imatinibMichele Bianchini
Departamento de Genetica, Instituto de Investigaciones Hematologicas Mariano R Castex, Academia Nacional de Medicina, Pacheco de Melo 3081, 1425, Capital Federal Buenos Aires, Argentina
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 59:349-60. 2007..In this study, we used genomic scale gene expression profiling to monitor changes at transcriptional level in K562 cells during the treatment with AMI + STI571...
- Proteomic mapping of stimulus-specific signaling pathways involved in THP-1 cells exposed to Porphyromonas gingivalis or its purified componentsJulian A Saba
Department of Periodontology and Oral Biology, Boston University School of Dental Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA
J Proteome Res 6:2211-21. 2007..These differential changes by the bacteria and its components are interpreted as preferential signal pathway activation in host immune/inflammatory responses to P.g. infection...
- Abnormal cytoskeletal protein expression in cultured skin fibroblasts from type 1 diabetes mellitus patients with nephropathy: A proteomic approachRenato Millioni
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Chair of Metabolism, University of Padova, Padova, Italy
Proteomics Clin Appl 2:492-503. 2008..These results demonstrate an association between DN and the constitutive expression of cytoskeleton proteins in cultured skin fibroblasts from T1DM with DN, which may retain pathophysiologycal implications...