Gene Symbol: TUBB
Description: tubulin beta class I
Alias: CDCBM6, CSCSC1, M40, OK/SW-cl.56, TUBB1, TUBB5, tubulin beta chain, beta Ib tubulin, tubulin beta-1 chain, tubulin beta-5 chain, tubulin, beta polypeptide
Species: human
Products:     TUBB

Top Publications

  1. Zhang Y, Li N, Caron C, Matthias G, Hess D, Khochbin S, et al. HDAC-6 interacts with and deacetylates tubulin and microtubules in vivo. EMBO J. 2003;22:1168-79 pubmed
  2. North B, Marshall B, Borra M, Denu J, Verdin E. The human Sir2 ortholog, SIRT2, is an NAD+-dependent tubulin deacetylase. Mol Cell. 2003;11:437-44 pubmed
    ..These observations establish SIRT2 as a bona fide tubulin deacetylase. ..
  3. Ren Y, Zhao J, Feng J. Parkin binds to alpha/beta tubulin and increases their ubiquitination and degradation. J Neurosci. 2003;23:3316-24 pubmed
    ..Its ability to enhance the ubiquitination and degradation of misfolded tubulins may play a significant role in protecting neurons from toxins that cause PD. ..
  4. Gandhi P, Wang X, Zhu X, Chen S, Wilson Delfosse A. The Roc domain of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 is sufficient for interaction with microtubules. J Neurosci Res. 2008;86:1711-20 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings are significant in that they link LRRK2 with microtubules, a structural component of the cell that is critically involved in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases, including PD. ..
  5. Gillardon F. Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 phosphorylates brain tubulin-beta isoforms and modulates microtubule stability--a point of convergence in parkinsonian neurodegeneration?. J Neurochem. 2009;110:1514-22 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that LRRK2(G2019S)-induced neurodegeneration in Parkinsonian brains may be partly mediated by increased phosphorylation of tubulin-beta and constraining of microtubule dynamics...
  6. Hall J, Dudley L, Dobner P, Lewis S, Cowan N. Identification of two human beta-tubulin isotypes. Mol Cell Biol. 1983;3:854-62 pubmed
    ..Thus, at least two human beta-tubulin genes, each specifying a distinct isotype, are expressed in HeLa cells, and the 2.6-kilobase mRNA band is a composite of at least two comigrating beta-tubulin mRNAs. ..
  7. Pal L, Moult J. Genetic Basis of Common Human Disease: Insight into the Role of Missense SNPs from Genome-Wide Association Studies. J Mol Biol. 2015;427:2271-89 pubmed publisher
    ..In still other cases, the missense SNPs are in proteins not previously suggested as disease candidates, such as TUBB1 (tubulin, beta 1, class VI) for hypertension...
  8. Freitag D, Koch A, Lawson McLean A, Kalff R, Walter J. Validation of Reference Genes for Expression Studies in Human Meningiomas under Different Experimental Settings. Mol Neurobiol. 2018;55:5787-5797 pubmed publisher
    ..and FFPE tissue), 13 candidate reference genes (ACTB, B2M, HPRT, VIM, GAPDH, YWHAZ, EIF4A2, MUC1, ATP5B, GNB2L, TUBB, CYC1, RPL13A) were chosen for quantitative expression analysis...
  9. Florea A, Varga A, Matei H. Ultrastructural variability of mitochondrial cristae induced in vitro by bee (Apis mellifera) venom and its derivatives, melittin and phospholipase A2, in isolated rat adrenocortical mitochondria. Micron. 2018;112:42-54 pubmed publisher
    ..of mitochondria were constituted, corresponding to the five different doses of the three substance tested (BV5 to M40; M5 to M40 and P5 to P40)...

More Information

Publications197 found, 100 shown here

  1. Madrigal I, Rabionet R, Alvarez Mora M, Sanchez A, Rodriguez Revenga L, Estivill X, et al. Spectrum of clinical heterogeneity of β-tubulin TUBB5 gene mutations. Gene. 2019;695:12-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Exome sequencing revealed the presence of a de novo missense mutation in the TUBB5 gene (E401K)...
  2. Karimzadeh A, Bagheri S, Raeissadat S, Bagheri S, Rayegani S, Rahimi Dehgolan S, et al. The comparison of the effectiveness between different doses of local methylprednisolone injection versus triamcinolone in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: a double-blind clinical trial. J Pain Res. 2019;12:579-584 pubmed publisher
    ..assigned them to four groups: 20 or 40 mg triamcinolone (T20 or T40) and 20 or 40 mg methylprednisolone (M20 or M40) groups; each patient received a single injection of steroid using conventional approach...
  3. Volz A, Weiss E, Trowsdale J, Ziegler A. Presence of an expressed beta-tubulin gene (TUBB) in the HLA class I region may provide the genetic basis for HLA-linked microtubule dysfunction. Hum Genet. 1994;93:42-6 pubmed
    An expressed beta-tubulin gene (TUBB) has previously been localized to chromosome region 6pter-p21 in man...
  4. Mann V, Grimm D, Corydon T, Kruger M, Wehland M, Riwaldt S, et al. Changes in Human Foetal Osteoblasts Exposed to the Random Positioning Machine and Bone Construct Tissue Engineering. Int J Mol Sci. 2019;20: pubmed publisher
    ..bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP2), SRY-Box 9 (SOX9), actin beta (ACTB), beta tubulin (TUBB), vimentin (VIM), laminin subunit alpha 1 (LAMA1), collagen type 1 alpha 1 (COL1A1), ..
  5. Huby R, Carlile G, Ley S. Interactions between the protein-tyrosine kinase ZAP-70, the proto-oncoprotein Vav, and tubulin in Jurkat T cells. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:30241-4 pubmed
    ..The association of ZAP-70 and Vav with tubulin implies that the microtubules may be involved in the signaling function of these two molecules, perhaps by targeting them to their appropriate intracellular location. ..
  6. Di Donato N, Timms A, Aldinger K, Mirzaa G, Bennett J, Collins S, et al. Analysis of 17 genes detects mutations in 81% of 811 patients with lissencephaly. Genet Med. 2018;20:1354-1364 pubmed publisher
    ..and were tested by a targeted panel of 17 genes (ACTB, ACTG1, ARX, CRADD, DCX, LIS1, TUBA1A, TUBA8, TUBB2B, TUBB, TUBB3, TUBG1, KIF2A, KIF5C, DYNC1H1, RELN, and VLDLR) or by whole-exome sequencing...
  7. Martin L, Fanarraga M, Aloria K, Zabala J. Tubulin folding cofactor D is a microtubule destabilizing protein. FEBS Lett. 2000;470:93-5 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the tubulin folding cofactor D, although it does not co-polymerize with microtubules either in vivo or in vitro, modulates microtubule dynamics by sequestering beta-tubulin from GTP-bound alphabeta-heterodimers. ..
  8. Geng F, Tang L, Li Y, Yang L, Choi K, Kazim A, et al. Allyl isothiocyanate arrests cancer cells in mitosis, and mitotic arrest in turn leads to apoptosis via Bcl-2 protein phosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:32259-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, this study has revealed a novel anticancer mechanism of a phytochemical that is commonly present in human diet. ..
  9. Kang X, Liu H, Onaitis M, Liu Z, Owzar K, Han Y, et al. Polymorphisms of the centrosomal gene (FGFR1OP) and lung cancer risk: a meta-analysis of 14,463 cases and 44,188 controls. Carcinogenesis. 2016;37:280-289 pubmed publisher
    ..05 were mapped to one novel gene FGFR1OP and two previously reported genes (TUBB and BRCA2)...
  10. Tripathi S, Srivastava G, Sharma A. Molecular dynamics simulation and free energy landscape methods in probing L215H, L217R and L225M ?I-tubulin mutations causing paclitaxel resistance in cancer cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;476:273-279 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, it clearly provides the molecular basis of Ptxl resistance mechanism in leucine MTs. This work will help in developing novel microtubule stabilizers molecules active against MTs. ..
  11. Kurpińska A, Suraj J, Bonar E, Zakrzewska A, Stojak M, Sternak M, et al. Proteomic characterization of early lung response to breast cancer metastasis in mice. Exp Mol Pathol. 2019;107:129-140 pubmed publisher
    ..4T1 cell inoculation resulted in the reorganization of lung tissue structure [actin, cytoplasmic 1 (Actb), tubulin beta chain (Tubb5), lamin-B1 (Lmnb1), serine protease inhibitor A3K (Serpina3k)] and activation of defense mechanisms [..
  12. Laughlin M, Padilla J, Jenkins N, Thorne P, Martin J, Rector R, et al. Exercise-induced differential changes in gene expression among arterioles of skeletal muscles of obese rats. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2015;119:583-603 pubmed publisher
    ..SPRINT also increased expression of Nfkbia, Hspa5, Tubb 2a and Tubb 2b, and Fkbp5 in all five arterioles and increased expression of Gnat1 in all but the soleus second-..
  13. Breuss M, Fritz T, Gstrein T, Chan K, Ushakova L, Yu N, et al. Mutations in the murine homologue of TUBB5 cause microcephaly by perturbing cell cycle progression and inducing p53-associated apoptosis. Development. 2016;143:1126-33 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we explore the genetic and cellular mechanisms that cause TUBB5-associated microcephaly by exploiting two new mouse models: a conditional E401K knock-in, and a conditional ..
  14. Schubring D, Popov T, Miller G, Rockstroh B. Consistency of abnormal sensory gating in first-admission and chronic schizophrenia across quantification methods. Psychophysiology. 2018;55: pubmed publisher
    ..S2/S1) and as a S1-minus-S2 difference, with M50 amplitude scored relative to baseline and relative to M100 and to M40. Independent of quantification method, patients showed less sensory gating than HC, with medium-to-large effect ..
  15. Azuma K, Horie K, Inoue S, Ouchi Y, Sakai R. Analysis of estrogen receptor alpha signaling complex at the plasma membrane. FEBS Lett. 2004;577:339-44 pubmed
    ..By mass-spectrometry analysis, alpha- and beta-tubulins and heat shock protein 70 were identified as the AF-1-associated proteins. Of these, tubulins are associated only with membrane-targeted AF-1. ..
  16. Batonon Alavo D, Bastianelli D, Lescoat P, Weber G, Umar Faruk M. Simultaneous inclusion of sorghum and cottonseed meal or millet in broiler diets: effects on performance and nutrient digestibility. Animal. 2016;10:1118-28 pubmed publisher
    ..either sorghum or millet and other three diets with simultaneous inclusion of these two ingredients (S30/M30, S40/M40, S50/M50)...
  17. Kaur I, Kaur J, Sooraj K, Goswami S, Saxena R, Chauhan V, et al. Comparative evaluation of the aqueous humor proteome of primary angle closure and primary open angle glaucomas and age-related cataract eyes. Int Ophthalmol. 2019;39:69-104 pubmed publisher
    ..ADCY2, ITPR1, MAPK3, MAP3K2 and TUBB1 were found in "Gap Junction" pathway...
  18. Kohta R, Kotake Y, Hosoya T, Hiramatsu T, Otsubo Y, Koyama H, et al. 1-Benzyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline binds with tubulin beta, a substrate of parkin, and reduces its polyubiquitination. J Neurochem. 2010;114:1291-301 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, substances which reduce polyubiquitination of tubulin such as 1BnTIQ are supposed to be candidates of etiological factors of PD. ..
  19. Reyniers L, Del Giudice M, Civiero L, Belluzzi E, Lobbestael E, Beilina A, et al. Differential protein-protein interactions of LRRK1 and LRRK2 indicate roles in distinct cellular signaling pathways. J Neurochem. 2014;131:239-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Functional analysis of these interactions and the pathways they mediate shows that LRRK1 and LRRK2 signaling do not intersect, reflective of the differential role of both LRRKs in Parkinson's disease. ..
  20. Evison B, Actis M, Wu S, Shao Y, Heath R, Yang L, et al. A site-selective, irreversible inhibitor of the DNA replication auxiliary factor proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Bioorg Med Chem. 2014;22:6333-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Initially, we identified and validated PCNA methionine 40 (M40) and histidine 44 (H44) as essential residues for PCNA/PIP-box interactions in general and, more specifically, for ..
  21. Rozenova K, Jiang J, Donaghy R, Aressy B, Greenberg R, Tong W. MERIT40 deficiency expands hematopoietic stem cell pools by regulating thrombopoietin receptor signaling. Blood. 2015;125:1730-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that MERIT40 (Mediator of RAP80 Interactions and Targeting 40 kDa [M40]), a core subunit of an Lnk-associated Lys63 deubiquitinating (DUB) complex, attenuates HSC expansion...
  22. Caparrós Pérez E, Teruel Montoya R, Palma Barquero V, Torregrosa J, Blanco J, Delgado J, et al. Down Regulation of the Munc18b-syntaxin-11 Complex and ?1-tubulin Impairs Secretion and Spreading in Neonatal Platelets. Thromb Haemost. 2017;117: pubmed publisher
    ..Noteworthy, we found decreased TUBB1 mRNA and protein levels in neonatal platelets, while TUBB2A and TUBB isoforms were overexpressed, partially ..
  23. Tsurutani J, Komiya T, Uejima H, Tada H, Syunichi N, Oka M, et al. Mutational analysis of the beta-tubulin gene in lung cancer. Lung Cancer. 2002;35:11-6 pubmed
    ..Further investigations are needed to clarify the mechanism of drug resistance. ..
  24. Hasegawa S, Miyoshi Y, Egawa C, Ishitobi M, Tamaki Y, Monden M, et al. Mutational analysis of the class I beta-tubulin gene in human breast cancer. Int J Cancer. 2002;101:46-51 pubmed
    ..In addition, the overestimation of the incidence of somatic mutations of the class I beta-tubulin gene due to the pseudogenes is discussed. ..
  25. Zhao Z, Xu H, Gong W. Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) is an independent deacetylase for alpha-tubulin. Protein Pept Lett. 2010;17:555-8 pubmed
    ..The results clearly demonstrated that interaction between HDAC6 and tubulin is independent of other proteins. In addition, HDAC6 can independently catalyze deacetylation of both tubulin dimer and microtubule polymer. ..
  26. Zuo J, Brewer D, Arlt V, Cooper C, Phillips D. Benzo pyrene-induced DNA adducts and gene expression profiles in target and non-target organs for carcinogenesis in mice. BMC Genomics. 2014;15:880 pubmed publisher
    ..Gene ontology analysis also revealed that BaP-induced bioactivities were tissue specific; eight genes (Tubb5, Fos, Cdh1, Cyp1a1, Apc, Myc, Ctnnb1 and Cav) showed significant expression difference between three target and ..
  27. Siripin D, Kheolamai P, U Pratya Y, Supokawej A, Wattanapanitch M, Klincumhom N, et al. Transdifferentiation of erythroblasts to megakaryocytes using FLI1 and ERG transcription factors. Thromb Haemost. 2015;114:593-602 pubmed publisher
    ..exhibit typical features of megakaryocytes including morphology, expression of specific genes (cMPL and TUBB1) and a marker protein (CD41)...
  28. Li S, Huo M, Wu X, Huang Y, Wang L, Zhang X, et al. Involvement of galanin and galanin receptor 1 in nociceptive modulation in the central nucleus of amygdala in normal and neuropathic rats. Sci Rep. 2017;7:15317 pubmed publisher
    ..The increased HWLs were significantly attenuated by intra-CeA injection of galanin receptor antagonist M40, indicating an involvement of galanin receptor in nociceptive modulation in CeA...
  29. Ramírez Mata A, Pacheco M, Moreno S, Xiqui Vazquez M, Baca B. Versatile use of Azospirillum brasilense strains tagged with egfp and mCherry genes for the visualization of biofilms associated with wheat roots. Microbiol Res. 2018;215:155-163 pubmed publisher
    This study reports the introduction of egfp or mCherry markers to the Sp245, Sp7, and M40 wild-type strains of Azospirillum brasilense and the hhkB (encoding for a putative hybrid histidine kinase) minus mutant an isogenic strain of A...
  30. Stoupa A, Adam F, Kariyawasam D, Strassel C, Gawade S, Szinnai G, et al. TUBB1 mutations cause thyroid dysgenesis associated with abnormal platelet physiology. EMBO Mol Med. 2018;10: pubmed publisher
    ..We identified three novel TUBB1 gene mutations that co-segregated with TD in three distinct families leading to 1...
  31. Floyd Smith G, de Martinville B, Francke U. An expressed beta-tubulin gene, TUBB, is located on the short arm of human chromosome 6 and two related sequences are dispersed on chromosomes 8 and 13. Exp Cell Res. 1986;163:539-48 pubmed
    ..regions of the expressed gene M40 and of pseudogene 21 beta were used to localize the M40 sequence (gene symbol TUBB) to chromosome 6 region 6p21----6pter, the 21 beta pseudogene (TUBBP1) to chromosome 8 region 8q21----8pter and a ..
  32. Liu L, Tommasi S, Lee D, Dammann R, Pfeifer G. Control of microtubule stability by the RASSF1A tumor suppressor. Oncogene. 2003;22:8125-36 pubmed
    ..In addition, knowledge of the microtubule-targeting function of RASSF1 may aid in the development of new anticancer drugs. ..
  33. Okai T, Araki Y, Tada M, Tateno T, Kontani K, Katada T. Novel small GTPase subfamily capable of associating with tubulin is required for chromosome segregation. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:4705-15 pubmed
    ..Thus, this is the first report showing that a small GTPase subfamily capable of associating with microtubules might be involved in chromosome segregation. ..
  34. Coiras M, Camafeita E, Ureña T, Lopez J, Caballero F, Fernández B, et al. Modifications in the human T cell proteome induced by intracellular HIV-1 Tat protein expression. Proteomics. 2006;6 Suppl 1:S63-73 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, in addition to its role in viral mRNA elongation, the proteomic approach has provided insight into the way that Tat modifies host cell gene expression. ..
  35. White S, Evans K, Lary J, Cole J, Lauring B. Recognition of C-terminal amino acids in tubulin by pore loops in Spastin is important for microtubule severing. J Cell Biol. 2007;176:995-1005 pubmed
  36. Law B, Spain V, Leinster V, Chia R, Beilina A, Cho H, et al. A direct interaction between leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 and specific ?-tubulin isoforms regulates tubulin acetylation. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:895-908 pubmed publisher
    ..LRRK2 selectively interacts with three ?-tubulin isoforms: TUBB, TUBB4, and TUBB6, one of which (TUBB4) is mutated in the movement disorder dystonia type 4 (DYT4)...
  37. Srivastava D, Chakrabarti O. Mahogunin-mediated ?-tubulin ubiquitination via noncanonical K6 linkage regulates microtubule stability and mitotic spindle orientation. Cell Death Dis. 2014;5:e1064 pubmed publisher
    ..MGRN1-mediated ?-tubulin modification, and hence its stability, may highlight a key event in the LR patterning during embryogenesis. ..
  38. Hettiarachchige I, Ekanayake P, Mann R, Guthridge K, Sawbridge T, Spangenberg G, et al. Phylogenomics of asexual Epichloë fungal endophytes forming associations with perennial ryegrass. BMC Evol Biol. 2015;15:72 pubmed publisher
    ..for taxonomic studies of endophytes, were selected together with the frequently used 'house-keeping' genes tefA and tubB (encoding translation elongation factor 1-α and β-tubulin, respectively)...
  39. Kautzman M, Wickstrom M, Hogan N, Scott T. Using near infrared transmittance to generate sorted fractions of Fusarium-infected wheat and the impact on broiler performance. Poult Sci. 2015;94:1619-28 pubmed publisher
    ..These fractions were reconstituted into 4 ratios-M0, M20, M40, and M60-relating to the proportion of the high mycotoxin fraction in the reconstituted diets...
  40. Klein H, Abu Arish A, Trinh N, Luo Y, Wiseman P, Hanrahan J, et al. Investigating CFTR and KCa3.1 Protein/Protein Interactions. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0153665 pubmed publisher
    ..1 cytosolic domains might mediate an interaction with CFTR. Our results showed that both the N-terminal fragment M1-M40 of KCa3.1 and part of the KCa3...
  41. Zheng Z, Omairi Nasser A, Li X, Dong C, Lin Y, Haselkorn R, et al. An amidase is required for proper intercellular communication in the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:E1405-E1412 pubmed publisher
    ..An all1140-null mutant (M40) was unable to grow diazotrophically, and no mature heterocysts were observed in the absence of combined nitrogen...
  42. Carignano H, Roldan D, Beribe M, Raschia M, Amadio A, Nani J, et al. Genome-wide scan for commons SNPs affecting bovine leukemia virus infection level in dairy cattle. BMC Genomics. 2018;19:142 pubmed publisher
    ..LTB, TNF, IER3, GRP111, CRISP1), several genes involved in cell cytoskeletal reorganization (CD2AP, PKHD1, FLOT1, TUBB5) and modelling of the extracellular matrix (TRAM2, TNXB)...
  43. Lian S, Meng L, Liu C, Xing X, Song Q, Dong B, et al. PRL-3 activates NF-?B signaling pathway by interacting with RAP1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;430:196-201 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, PRL-3 transcriptionally activates RAP1 expression, which is counteracted by ablating p65. Therefore, our results demonstrate PRL-3 as a novel regulator of NF-?B signaling pathway through RAP1. ..
  44. Zuccotti P, Cartelli D, Stroppi M, Pandini V, Venturin M, Aliverti A, et al. Centaurin-?? interacts with ?-tubulin and stabilizes microtubules. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e52867 pubmed publisher
    ..Centaurin-?? interacts with ?-Tubulin and it mainly associates to MTs, resistant to destabilizing agents, in vitro and in cell. We propose Centaurin-?? as a new microtubule-associated protein (MAP) increasing MT stability. ..
  45. Hast B, Goldfarb D, Mulvaney K, Hast M, Siesser P, Yan F, et al. Proteomic analysis of ubiquitin ligase KEAP1 reveals associated proteins that inhibit NRF2 ubiquitination. Cancer Res. 2013;73:2199-210 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our findings further support the competition model of NRF2 activation and suggest that "ETGE"-containing proteins such as DPP3 contribute to NRF2 activity in cancer. ..
  46. Zhang Q, Jin M, Zhang L, Yu H, Sun Z, Lu R. Hydrophobicity of whey protein hydrolysates enhances the protective effect against oxidative damage on PC 12 cells. J Dairy Res. 2015;82:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..After absorbed by macroporous adsorption resin DA201-C, three fractions named as M20, M40, and M60 were eluted by various concentrations of ethanol...
  47. Song H, Nan Z. Origin, divergence, and phylogeny of asexual Epichloë endophyte in Elymus species from western China. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0127096 pubmed publisher
    ..from Elymus species in western China and sequenced intron-rich regions in the genes encoding β-tubulin (tubB) and translation elongation factor 1-α (tefA)...
  48. Ding Y, Li Y, Li Z, Zhang J, Lu C, Wang H, et al. Alteramide B is a microtubule antagonist of inhibiting Candida albicans. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016;1860:2097-106 pubmed publisher
    ..Overexpression of the wild type and site-directed mutants of the ?-tubulin gene (TUBB) changed the sensitivity of C...
  49. Fixter K, Rabbolini D, Valecha B, Morel Kopp M, Gabrielli S, Chen Q, et al. Mean platelet diameter measurements to classify inherited thrombocytopenias. Int J Lab Hematol. 2018;40:187-195 pubmed publisher
    ..MYH9-related disorders (MYH9-RD) (n = 11), GFI1B-related thrombocytopenia (RT) (n = 15), FLI1-RT (n = 2), TUBB1-RT (n = 3), ITGA2B/ITGB3-RT (n = 1), RUNX1-RT (n = 2) and controls (n = 54)...
  50. Romaniello R, Arrigoni F, Fry A, Bassi M, Rees M, Borgatti R, et al. Tubulin genes and malformations of cortical development. Eur J Med Genet. 2018;61:744-754 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations in seven genes encoding alpha-tubulin (TUBA1A), beta-tubulin (TUBB2A, TUBB2B, TUBB3, TUBB4A, TUBB) and gamma-tubulin (TUBG1) isoforms have been associated with a wide and overlapping range of brain malformations ..
  51. Laurin Y, Savarin P, Robert C, Takahashi M, Eyer J, Prevost C, et al. Investigating the Structural Variability and Binding Modes of the Glioma Targeting NFL-TBS.40-63 Peptide on Tubulin. Biochemistry. 2015;54:3660-9 pubmed publisher
    ..40-63 peptide's antimitotic activity at the molecular level. ..
  52. Nami B, Wang Z. Genetics and Expression Profile of the Tubulin Gene Superfamily in Breast Cancer Subtypes and Its Relation to Taxane Resistance. Cancers (Basel). 2018;10: pubmed publisher
    ..of BC tumors and tumor-adjacent normal breast tissues showed upregulation of TUBA1A, TUBA1C, TUBB and TUBB3 and downregulation of TUBB2A, TUBB2B, TUBB6, TUBB7P pseudogene, ..
  53. Takahashi M, Tomizawa K, Sato K, Ohtake A, Omori A. A novel tau-tubulin kinase from bovine brain. FEBS Lett. 1995;372:59-64 pubmed
    ..The enzyme requires no second messenger and is inhibited with high concentration of heparin, but not by inhibitors of CKI. These results indicate that this enzyme, tau-tubulin kinase is novel and distinct from TPKI, II and CKI, II. ..
  54. Feng Y, Hodge D, Palmieri G, Chase D, Longo D, Ferris D. Association of polo-like kinase with alpha-, beta- and gamma-tubulins in a stable complex. Biochem J. 1999;339 ( Pt 2):435-42 pubmed
    ..The specific interaction between Plk and tubulins might provide a molecular basis for the physiological functions of Plk in regulating the cell cycle, particularly in establishing the normal bipolar spindle. ..
  55. Isrie M, Breuss M, Tian G, Hansen A, Cristofoli F, Morandell J, et al. Mutations in Either TUBB or MAPRE2 Cause Circumferential Skin Creases Kunze Type. Am J Hum Genet. 2015;97:790-800 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that mutations in either MAPRE2 or TUBB underlie the genetic origin of this syndrome...
  56. Fernandez J, Keshvara L, Peters J, Furlong M, Harrison M, Geahlen R. Phosphorylation- and activation-independent association of the tyrosine kinase Syk and the tyrosine kinase substrates Cbl and Vav with tubulin in B-cells. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:1401-6 pubmed
    ..The proteins of 110 and 90 kDa were identified as Cbl and Vav, two proto-oncogene products known to become prominently phosphorylated following receptor engagement. Both proteins were shown to be constitutively associated with tubulin. ..
  57. Alhosin M, Ibrahim A, Boukhari A, Sharif T, Gies J, Auger C, et al. Anti-neoplastic agent thymoquinone induces degradation of ? and ? tubulin proteins in human cancer cells without affecting their level in normal human fibroblasts. Invest New Drugs. 2012;30:1813-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, they highlight the interest of developing anti-cancer therapies that target directly tubulin rather than microtubules dynamics. ..
  58. Avolio M, Camporese A. Liquid based microbiological transport systems: conformity assessment of two commercial devices. J Microbiol Methods. 2015;115:42-4 pubmed publisher
    ..microbiology devices for microorganism viability according to standardized quantitative elution method CLSI M40-A2. The eSwab® met CLSI acceptance criteria of viability maintenance for all microorganisms tested...
  59. Lotti L, Ottini L, D Amico C, Gradini R, Cama A, Belleudi F, et al. Subcellular localization of the BRCA1 gene product in mitotic cells. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2002;35:193-203 pubmed
    ..These results are consistent with an involvement of BRCA1 in the dynamics of the mitotic spindle and in the segregation of duplicated chromosomes. ..
  60. Lau A, Mruk D. Rab8B GTPase and junction dynamics in the testis. Endocrinology. 2003;144:1549-63 pubmed
    ..Taken collectively, these studies suggest that Rab8B participates in adherens junction dynamics in the testis. ..
  61. Maeno K, Ito K, Hama Y, Shingu K, Kimura M, Sano M, et al. Mutation of the class I beta-tubulin gene does not predict response to paclitaxel for breast cancer. Cancer Lett. 2003;198:89-97 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that mutation of the class I beta-tubulin gene is unlikely to play an important role in the mechanism of resistance to paclitaxel in breast cancer. ..
  62. Goforth P, Leinninger G, Patterson C, Satin L, Myers M. Leptin acts via lateral hypothalamic area neurotensin neurons to inhibit orexin neurons by multiple GABA-independent mechanisms. J Neurosci. 2014;34:11405-15 pubmed publisher
    ..galanin, which is coexpressed in LepRb(Nts) neurons, inhibited OX neurons, whereas the galanin receptor antagonist M40 (galanin-(1-12)-Pro3-(Ala-Leu)2-Ala amide) prevented the leptin-induced hyperpolarization of OX cells...
  63. Gholkar A, Senese S, Lo Y, Vides E, Contreras E, Hodara E, et al. The X-Linked-Intellectual-Disability-Associated Ubiquitin Ligase Mid2 Interacts with Astrin and Regulates Astrin Levels to Promote Cell Division. Cell Rep. 2016;14:180-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results could help explain how mutation of MID2 leads to misregulation of microtubule organization and the downstream disease pathology associated with X-linked intellectual disabilities. ..
  64. Lin Y, Lee Y, Liang P. Targeting ?-tubulin:CCT-? complexes incurs Hsp90- and VCP-related protein degradation and induces ER stress-associated apoptosis by triggering capacitative Ca2+ entry, mitochondrial perturbation and caspase overactivation. Cell Death Dis. 2012;3:e434 pubmed publisher
  65. Kopp S, Kruger M, Feldmann S, Oltmann H, Schütte A, Schmitz B, et al. Thyroid cancer cells in space during the TEXUS-53 sounding rocket mission - The THYROID Project. Sci Rep. 2018;8:10355 pubmed publisher
    ..Hyper-g induced a significant up-regulation of TUBB1, VIM, RDX, CAV1, VEGFA and BCL2...
  66. Fukata Y, Itoh T, Kimura T, Menager C, Nishimura T, Shiromizu T, et al. CRMP-2 binds to tubulin heterodimers to promote microtubule assembly. Nat Cell Biol. 2002;4:583-91 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that CRMP-2 regulates axonal growth and branching as a partner of the tubulin heterodimer, in a different fashion from traditional MAPs. ..
  67. Belda Iniesta C, Perona R, de Castro Carpeno J, Chattopadhyay S, Casado E, Cejas P, et al. Do beta-tubulin pseudogenes really matter?. Lancet Oncol. 2004;5:271-2 pubmed
  68. Crabtree D, Ojima I, Geng X, Adler A. Tubulins in the primate retina: evidence that xanthophylls may be endogenous ligands for the paclitaxel-binding site. Bioorg Med Chem. 2001;9:1967-76 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we show that there are at least five different types of beta-tubulin in the macula lutea of rhesus monkey...
  69. Otto E, Schermer B, Obara T, O Toole J, Hiller K, Mueller A, et al. Mutations in INVS encoding inversin cause nephronophthisis type 2, linking renal cystic disease to the function of primary cilia and left-right axis determination. Nat Genet. 2003;34:413-20 pubmed
    ..The interaction and colocalization in cilia of inversin, nephrocystin and beta-tubulin connect pathogenetic aspects of NPHP to PKD, to primary cilia function and to left-right axis determination. ..
  70. Chen V, Li X, Perreault H, Nagy J. Interaction of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) with alpha-actinin-4: application of functional proteomics for identification of PDZ domain-associated proteins. J Proteome Res. 2006;5:2123-34 pubmed
  71. He Z, Tian T, Guo D, Wu H, Chen Y, Zhang Y, et al. Cytoplasmic retention of a nucleocytoplasmic protein TBC1D3 by microtubule network is required for enhanced EGFR signaling. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e94134 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these studies indicate a novel model by which the microtubule network regulates EGFR stability and signaling through tubulin dimer/oligomer interaction with the nucleocytoplasmic protein TBC1D3. ..
  72. Severin M, Trebucobich M, Buszniez P, Brandoni A, Torres A. The urinary excretion of an organic anion transporter as an early biomarker of methotrexate-induced kidney injury. Toxicol Res (Camb). 2016;5:530-538 pubmed publisher
    ..w. (M40, M80, M120, M180, M360, n = 4, respectively) and experiments were carried out 48 h after MTX administration...
  73. Berrieman H, Lind M, Cawkwell L. Do beta-tubulin mutations have a role in resistance to chemotherapy?. Lancet Oncol. 2004;5:158-64 pubmed
    ..Here, we overview the beta-tubulin gene family and summarise the results of studies done comparing beta-tubulin mutations with antitubulin drug resistance. ..
  74. Leandro García L, Leskela S, Landa I, Montero Conde C, López Jiménez E, Leton R, et al. Tumoral and tissue-specific expression of the major human beta-tubulin isotypes. Cytoskeleton (Hoboken). 2010;67:214-23 pubmed publisher
    ..In the nontumoral tissues, we found that, overall, TUBB (I), TUBB2C (IVb), and TUBB6 (V) were ubiquitous, TUBB1(VI) was hematopoietic cell-specific, and TUBB2A (IIa), TUBB2B (IIb), TUBB3 (III), and TUBB4 (IVa) had high ..
  75. Kotomura N, Harada N, Ishihara S. The Proportion of Chromatin Graded between Closed and Open States Determines the Level of Transcripts Derived from Distinct Promoters in the CYP19 Gene. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0128282 pubmed publisher
    ..001% to 0.1% of that of the TUBB control gene...
  76. Pusalkar S, Plesescu M, Milton M, Balani S, Chowdhury S, Prakash S. Metabolism, Excretion and Pharmacokinetics of MLN3897, a CCR1 Antagonist, in Humans. Drug Metab Lett. 2016;10:22-37 pubmed
    ..of the carboxylic acid metabolite (M19) and the (4-(4-chlorophenyl)-3,3- dimethylpiperidin-4-ol) metabolite (M40)...
  77. Sang W, He L, Wang X, Zhu Salzman K, Lei C. Evaluation of Reference Genes for RT-qPCR in Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) Under UVB Stress. Environ Entomol. 2015;44:418-25 pubmed publisher
    ..points, whereas expression of other normally used reference genes, such as those encoding the β-tubulin gene TUBB and the E-cadherin gene CAD, varied at different developmental stages...
  78. Chau M, Radeke M, De Ines C, Barasoain I, Kohlstaedt L, Feinstein S. The microtubule-associated protein tau cross-links to two distinct sites on each alpha and beta tubulin monomer via separate domains. Biochemistry. 1998;37:17692-703 pubmed
    ..Integrating these and earlier data with the 3.7 A resolution model of the alphabeta tubulin dimer recently presented by E. Nogales et al. [(1998), Nature 391, 199-203], we propose a new model for the tau-microtubule interaction. ..
  79. Wang Y, Shan Q, Hou G, Zhang J, Bai J, Lv X, et al. Discovery of potential colorectal cancer serum biomarkers through quantitative proteomics on the colonic tissue interstitial fluids from the AOM-DSS mouse model. J Proteomics. 2016;132:31-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The abundances of leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein 1 (LRG1), tubulin beta-5 chain (TUBB5) and immunoglobulin J chain (IGJ) were significantly higher in CRC mice than in control mice...
  80. Rahmanzadeh R, Rai P, Celli J, Rizvi I, Baron Lühr B, Gerdes J, et al. Ki-67 as a molecular target for therapy in an in vitro three-dimensional model for ovarian cancer. Cancer Res. 2010;70:9234-42 pubmed publisher
    ..cancer cells both in monolayer and in three-dimensional (3D) cultures of OVCAR-5 cells, with the antibody TuBB-9 targeting a physiologically active form of pKi-67 but not with MIB-1, directed to a different epitope...
  81. El Meligie S, Taher A, Kamal A, Youssef A. Design, synthesis and cytotoxic activity of certain novel chalcone analogous compounds. Eur J Med Chem. 2017;126:52-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Target compound 2e, 3a, 3b, 3c, 4a-4d, 5a, 5b and 6 showed broad spectrum excellent anticancer activity against both MCF-7 and HepG2. Compound 4a showed the most TUBb inhibition activity.
  82. Izumi H, Matsumoto Y, Ikeuchi T, Saya H, Kajii T, Matsuura S. BubR1 localizes to centrosomes and suppresses centrosome amplification via regulating Plk1 activity in interphase cells. Oncogene. 2009;28:2806-20 pubmed publisher
    ..These results unravel a crucial role of BubR1 in preventing centrosome reduplication through negative regulation of Plk1 in interphase cells. ..
  83. Maurin J, Couble M, Staquet M, Carrouel F, About I, Avila J, et al. Microtubule-associated protein 1b, a neuronal marker involved in odontoblast differentiation. J Endod. 2009;35:992-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this work was to identify the MAP-1B expression in in vitro and in vivo human odontoblasts during development and carious processes. The expression of MAP2 and tau was also studied...
  84. Aleshcheva G, Wehland M, Sahana J, Bauer J, Corydon T, Hemmersbach R, et al. Moderate alterations of the cytoskeleton in human chondrocytes after short-term microgravity produced by parabolic flight maneuvers could be prevented by up-regulation of BMP-2 and SOX-9. FASEB J. 2015;29:2303-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The mRNAs were significantly up-regulated as follows: TUBB, 2-fold; VIM, 1.3-fold; KRT8, 1.8-fold; ACTB, 1.9-fold; ICAM1, 4.8-fold; OPN, 7-fold; ITGA10, 1.5-fold; ITGB1, 1...
  85. Xu H, Bionaz M, Sloboda D, Ehrlich L, Li S, Newnham J, et al. The dilution effect and the importance of selecting the right internal control genes for RT-qPCR: a paradigmatic approach in fetal sheep. BMC Res Notes. 2015;8:58 pubmed publisher
    ..The usefulness of RNA18S, ACTB, HPRT1, RPLP0, PPIA and TUBB as ICGs was analyzed according to effects of early dexamethasone (DEX) treatment, gender, and gestational age by ..
  86. Liu N, Xiong Y, Ren Y, Zhang L, He X, Wang X, et al. Proteomic Profiling and Functional Characterization of Multiple Post-Translational Modifications of Tubulin. J Proteome Res. 2015;14:3292-304 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings thus enlarge the repertoire of tubulin PTMs and foster our understanding of their versatile roles in the regulation of microtubule dynamics and cellular functions. ..
  87. Gizzie N, Adukwu E. Evaluation of Liquid-Based Swab Transport Systems against the New Approved CLSI M40-A2 Standard. J Clin Microbiol. 2016;54:1152-6 pubmed publisher
    Following revised information pertaining to newer swab types and testing protocols in the new CLSI M40-A2 standard, we evaluated three liquid swab transport systems for the recovery of aerobic, anaerobic, and fastidious organisms at room ..
  88. Boissel S, Fallet Bianco C, Chitayat D, Kremer V, Nassif C, Rypens F, et al. Genomic study of severe fetal anomalies and discovery of GREB1L mutations in renal agenesis. Genet Med. 2018;20:745-753 pubmed publisher
    ..g., MNX1-, RYR1-, or TUBB-related disorders)...
  89. Wiesen K, Xia S, Yang C, Horwitz S. Wild-type class I beta-tubulin sensitizes Taxol-resistant breast adenocarcinoma cells harboring a beta-tubulin mutation. Cancer Lett. 2007;257:227-35 pubmed
    ..Our results, plus the knowledge that Glu198 is the target for other anti-tubulin agents, suggest that glutamate198 in beta-tubulin is a critical determinant for microtubule stability and Taxol resistance. ..
  90. Bonanomi M, Mazzucchelli S, D Urzo A, Nardini M, Konarev P, Invernizzi G, et al. Interactions of ataxin-3 with its molecular partners in the protein machinery that sorts protein aggregates to the aggresome. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2014;51:58-64 pubmed publisher
    ..1-1?M. These results shed light on the interactions among the components of the transport machinery that sorts aggregate protein to the aggresome, and pave the way to in vivo studies aimed at further clarifying their roles. ..
  91. Olczyk P, Komosinska Vassev K, Ramos P, Mencner Å, Olczyk K, Pilawa B. Interactions of short-acting, intermediate-acting and pre-mixed human insulins with free radicals--Comparative EPR examination. Int J Pharm. 2015;490:9-15 pubmed publisher
    ..intermediate-acting insulins (Humulin N, Insuman Basal), and pre-mixed insulins (Humulin M3, Gensulin M50, Gensulin M40, Gensulin M30). The aim of an X-band (9...
  92. Niethammer M, Valtschanoff J, Kapoor T, Allison D, Weinberg R, Craig A, et al. CRIPT, a novel postsynaptic protein that binds to the third PDZ domain of PSD-95/SAP90. Neuron. 1998;20:693-707 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that CRIPT may regulate PSD-95 interaction with a tubulin-based cytoskeleton in excitatory synapses. ..