Gene Symbol: TRIM28
Description: tripartite motif containing 28
Alias: KAP1, PPP1R157, RNF96, TF1B, TIF1B, transcription intermediary factor 1-beta, E3 SUMO-protein ligase TRIM28, KAP-1, KRAB [Kruppel-associated box domain]-associated protein 1, KRAB-interacting protein 1, KRIP-1, RING finger protein 96, RING-type E3 ubiquitin transferase TIF1-beta, TIF1-beta, nuclear corepressor KAP-1, protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 157, transcriptional intermediary factor 1-beta
Species: human
Products:     TRIM28

Top Publications

  1. Ryan R, Schultz D, Ayyanathan K, Singh P, Friedman J, Fredericks W, et al. KAP-1 corepressor protein interacts and colocalizes with heterochromatic and euchromatic HP1 proteins: a potential role for Krüppel-associated box-zinc finger proteins in heterochromatin-mediated gene silencing. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:4366-78 pubmed
    ..We speculate that gene-specific repression may be a consequence of the formation of such complexes, ultimately leading to silenced genes in newly formed heterochromatic chromosomal environments. ..
  2. Nielsen A, Ortiz J, You J, Oulad Abdelghani M, Khechumian R, Gansmuller A, et al. Interaction with members of the heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) family and histone deacetylation are differentially involved in transcriptional silencing by members of the TIF1 family. EMBO J. 1999;18:6385-95 pubmed
    ..The silencing activity of TIF1alpha appears to result chiefly from histone deacetylation, whereas that of TIF1beta may be mediated via both HP1 binding and histone deacetylation. ..
  3. Lee Y, Thomas S, Yang A, Ann D. Doxorubicin down-regulates Kruppel-associated box domain-associated protein 1 sumoylation that relieves its transcription repression on p21WAF1/CIP1 in breast cancer MCF-7 cells. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:1595-606 pubmed
    ..Transcriptional cofactor KRAB domain-associated protein 1 (KAP1) has been shown to complex with the KRAB zinc finger protein, ZBRK1, to repress the transcription of target genes...
  4. Hu C, Zhang S, Gao X, Gao X, Xu X, Lv Y, et al. Roles of Kruppel-associated Box (KRAB)-associated Co-repressor KAP1 Ser-473 Phosphorylation in DNA Damage Response. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:18937-52 pubmed publisher
    The Kruppel-associated box (KRAB)-associated co-repressor KAP1 is an essential nuclear co-repressor for the KRAB zinc finger protein superfamily of transcriptional factors...
  5. Kim S, Chen Y, O LEARY E, Witzgall R, Vidal M, Bonventre J. A novel member of the RING finger family, KRIP-1, associates with the KRAB-A transcriptional repressor domain of zinc finger proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:15299-304 pubmed
    ..Thus, KRIP-1 interacts with the KRAB-A region of C2H2 zinc finger proteins and may mediate or modulate KRAB-A transcriptional repressor activity. ..
  6. White D, Negorev D, Peng H, Ivanov A, Maul G, Rauscher F. KAP1, a novel substrate for PIKK family members, colocalizes with numerous damage response factors at DNA lesions. Cancer Res. 2006;66:11594-9 pubmed
    ..We have investigated the DNA damage-induced phosphorylation of the KRAB-ZFP-associated protein 1 (KAP1), the dedicated corepressor for Krüppel-associated box (KRAB) zinc finger protein (ZFP) proteins...
  7. Li X, Lee Y, Jeng J, Yen Y, Schultz D, Shih H, et al. Role for KAP1 serine 824 phosphorylation and sumoylation/desumoylation switch in regulating KAP1-mediated transcriptional repression. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:36177-89 pubmed
    As a multifunctional protein, KRAB domain-associated protein 1 (KAP1) is reportedly subjected to multiple protein posttranslational modifications, including phosphorylation and sumoylation...
  8. Ivanov A, Peng H, Yurchenko V, Yap K, Negorev D, Schultz D, et al. PHD domain-mediated E3 ligase activity directs intramolecular sumoylation of an adjacent bromodomain required for gene silencing. Mol Cell. 2007;28:823-37 pubmed
    ..We show that the PHD domain of the KAP1 corepressor functions as an intramolecular E3 ligase for sumoylation of the adjacent bromodomain...
  9. Frietze S, O Geen H, Blahnik K, Jin V, Farnham P. ZNF274 recruits the histone methyltransferase SETDB1 to the 3' ends of ZNF genes. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15082 pubmed publisher
    ..One current model is that SETDB1 is recruited to specific genomic locations via interaction with the corepressor TRIM28 (KAP1), which is in turn recruited to the genome via interaction with zinc finger transcription factors that ..

More Information


  1. Iyengar S, Ivanov A, Jin V, Rauscher F, Farnham P. Functional analysis of KAP1 genomic recruitment. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:1833-47 pubmed publisher
    b>TRIM28 (KAP1) is upregulated in many cancers and has been implicated in both transcriptional activation and repression...
  2. Lechner M, Begg G, Speicher D, Rauscher F. Molecular determinants for targeting heterochromatin protein 1-mediated gene silencing: direct chromoshadow domain-KAP-1 corepressor interaction is essential. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:6449-65 pubmed
    ..Together, these results strongly suggest that KAP-1 is a physiologically relevant target for HP1 function. ..
  3. Iyengar S, Farnham P. KAP1 protein: an enigmatic master regulator of the genome. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:26267-76 pubmed publisher
    ..apoptosis, DNA repair, and maintenance of genomic integrity, converge on the evolutionarily conserved protein KAP1, which is thought to regulate the dynamic organization of chromatin structure via its ability to influence ..
  4. Yokoe T, Toiyama Y, Okugawa Y, Tanaka K, Ohi M, Inoue Y, et al. KAP1 is associated with peritoneal carcinomatosis in gastric cancer. Ann Surg Oncol. 2010;17:821-8 pubmed publisher
    KRAB-associated protein 1 (KAP1) is a universal corepressor for Kruppel-associated box zinc finger proteins. Here we demonstrate the biological function and clinical significance of KAP1 expression in gastric cancer...
  5. Li Z, Wang D, Na X, Schoen S, Messing E, Wu G. The VHL protein recruits a novel KRAB-A domain protein to repress HIF-1alpha transcriptional activity. EMBO J. 2003;22:1857-67 pubmed
    ..Finally, we demonstrate that pVHL, VHLaK and KAP1/TIF-1beta can be recruited into a single complex, indicating that KAP1/TIF-1beta may participate in pVHL-mediated ..
  6. Gebelein B, Urrutia R. Sequence-specific transcriptional repression by KS1, a multiple-zinc-finger-Krüppel-associated box protein. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:928-39 pubmed
    ..Thus, this study provides the first direct evidence that a KRAB-ZFP binds DNA to regulate gene expression and provides insight into the mechanisms used by multiple-zinc-finger proteins to recognize DNA sequences. ..
  7. Nielsen A, Oulad Abdelghani M, Ortiz J, Remboutsika E, Chambon P, Losson R. Heterochromatin formation in mammalian cells: interaction between histones and HP1 proteins. Mol Cell. 2001;7:729-39 pubmed
    ..These results define a novel function for the conserved CD and suggest that HP1 self-association and histone binding may play a crucial role in HP1-mediated heterochromatin assembly. ..
  8. Zeng L, Yap K, Ivanov A, Wang X, Mujtaba S, Plotnikova O, et al. Structural insights into human KAP1 PHD finger-bromodomain and its role in gene silencing. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2008;15:626-33 pubmed publisher
    ..proteins, has an important role in gene silencing by the human co-repressor KRAB-associated protein 1 (KAP1). Here we report the three-dimensional solution structure of the tandem PHD finger-bromodomain of KAP1...
  9. Wang Y, Li L, Zhao Z, Wang H. Clinical utility of measuring expression levels of KAP1, TIMP1 and STC2 in peripheral blood of patients with gastric cancer. World J Surg Oncol. 2013;11:81 pubmed publisher
    We examined preoperative kinesin II-associated protein (KAP1), TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 1 (TIMP1) and stanniocalcin 2 (STC2) expression levels in patients with gastric cancers to assess their clinical application for diagnosing and ..
  10. Friedman J, Fredericks W, Jensen D, Speicher D, Huang X, Neilson E, et al. KAP-1, a novel corepressor for the highly conserved KRAB repression domain. Genes Dev. 1996;10:2067-78 pubmed
    ..We propose that KAP-1 may be a universal corepressor for the large family of KRAB domain-containing transcription factors. ..
  11. Sripathy S, Stevens J, Schultz D. The KAP1 corepressor functions to coordinate the assembly of de novo HP1-demarcated microenvironments of heterochromatin required for KRAB zinc finger protein-mediated transcriptional repression. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:8623-38 pubmed
    b>KAP1/TIF1beta is proposed to be a universal corepressor protein for the KRAB zinc finger protein (KRAB-zfp) superfamily of transcriptional repressors...
  12. Doyle J, Gao J, Wang J, Yang M, Potts P. MAGE-RING protein complexes comprise a family of E3 ubiquitin ligases. Mol Cell. 2010;39:963-74 pubmed publisher
    ..For example, MAGE-C2-TRIM28 is shown to target p53 for degradation in a proteasome-dependent manner, consistent with its tumorigenic functions...
  13. Chen L, Chen D, Kurtyka C, Rawal B, Fulp W, Haura E, et al. Tripartite motif containing 28 (Trim28) can regulate cell proliferation by bridging HDAC1/E2F interactions. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:40106-18 pubmed publisher
    b>Trim28 appears up-regulated in many cancers. In early stage lung tumors high Trim28 correlates with increased overall survival and Trim28 reduces cell proliferation in model lung cancer cell lines through E2F interactions...
  14. O Geen H, Squazzo S, Iyengar S, Blahnik K, Rinn J, Chang H, et al. Genome-wide analysis of KAP1 binding suggests autoregulation of KRAB-ZNFs. PLoS Genet. 2007;3:e89 pubmed
    ..SETDB1 is thought to be recruited to chromatin by complexes containing the KAP1 corepressor...
  15. Kubota S, Fukumoto Y, Aoyama K, Ishibashi K, Yuki R, Morinaga T, et al. Phosphorylation of KRAB-associated protein 1 (KAP1) at Tyr-449, Tyr-458, and Tyr-517 by nuclear tyrosine kinases inhibits the association of KAP1 and heterochromatin protein 1? (HP1?) with heterochromatin. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:17871-83 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we identify KRAB-associated protein 1 (KAP1/TIF1?/TRIM28), a component of heterochromatin, as a nuclear tyrosine-phosphorylated protein...
  16. Wang C, Rauscher F, Cress W, Chen J. Regulation of E2F1 function by the nuclear corepressor KAP1. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:29902-9 pubmed
    b>KAP1 is a nuclear corepressor with conserved domains for RING finger, B boxes, leucine zipper alpha helical coiled-coil region, plant homeo domain finger, and bromo domain...
  17. Moosmann P, Georgiev O, Le Douarin B, Bourquin J, Schaffner W. Transcriptional repression by RING finger protein TIF1 beta that interacts with the KRAB repressor domain of KOX1. Nucleic Acids Res. 1996;24:4859-67 pubmed
    ..Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we have isolated an 835 amino acid RING finger (C3HC4 zinc finger) protein, TIF1 beta (also named KAP-1), that specifically interacts with the KRAB domain of the human zinc finger factor KOX1/ZNF10...
  18. Nielsen A, Sanchez C, Ichinose H, Cerviño M, Lerouge T, Chambon P, et al. Selective interaction between the chromatin-remodeling factor BRG1 and the heterochromatin-associated protein HP1alpha. EMBO J. 2002;21:5797-806 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results demonstrate that mammalian HP1 proteins are biochemically distinct and suggest an entirely novel function for BRG1 in modulating HP1alpha-containing heterochromatic structures. ..
  19. Peng H, Begg G, Harper S, Friedman J, Speicher D, Rauscher F. Biochemical analysis of the Kruppel-associated box (KRAB) transcriptional repression domain. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:18000-10 pubmed
    ..These structural and dynamic parameters of the KRAB/KAP-1 interaction have implications for identifying downstream effectors of KAP-1 silencing and the de novo design of new repression domains. ..
  20. Schultz D, Friedman J, Rauscher F. Targeting histone deacetylase complexes via KRAB-zinc finger proteins: the PHD and bromodomains of KAP-1 form a cooperative unit that recruits a novel isoform of the Mi-2alpha subunit of NuRD. Genes Dev. 2001;15:428-43 pubmed
    ..These data suggest the KRAB-ZFP superfamily of repressors functions to target the histone deacetylase and chromatin remodeling activities of the NuRD complex to specific gene promoters in vivo. ..
  21. Satou A, Taira T, Iguchi Ariga S, Ariga H. A novel transrepression pathway of c-Myc. Recruitment of a transcriptional corepressor complex to c-Myc by MM-1, a c-Myc-binding protein. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:46562-7 pubmed
    ..were screened by the two-hybrid method with MM-1 as a bait using a human HeLa cDNA library, and a cDNA encoding TIF1 beta/KAP1, a transcriptional corepressor, was obtained...
  22. Peng H, Ivanov A, Oh H, Lau Y, Rauscher F. Epigenetic gene silencing by the SRY protein is mediated by a KRAB-O protein that recruits the KAP1 co-repressor machinery. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:35670-80 pubmed publisher
    ..been demonstrated to interact with SRY and hypothesized to function as an adaptor molecule for SRY by tethering the KAP1-NuRD-SETDB1-HP1 silencing machinery to repress SRY targets...
  23. Wang C, Ivanov A, Chen L, Fredericks W, Seto E, Rauscher F, et al. MDM2 interaction with nuclear corepressor KAP1 contributes to p53 inactivation. EMBO J. 2005;24:3279-90 pubmed
    ..Here, we present evidence that MDM2 interacts with the nuclear corepressor KAP1. The binding is mediated by the N-terminal coiled-coil domain of KAP1 and the central acidic domain of MDM2...
  24. Chang C, Chen Y, Lee S. Coactivator TIF1beta interacts with transcription factor C/EBPbeta and glucocorticoid receptor to induce alpha1-acid glycoprotein gene expression. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:5880-7 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that TIF1beta serves as a converging mediator of signal transduction pathways of glucocorticoids and some inflammatory cytokines. ..
  25. Pungaliya P, Kulkarni D, Park H, Marshall H, Zheng H, Lackland H, et al. TOPORS functions as a SUMO-1 E3 ligase for chromatin-modifying proteins. J Proteome Res. 2007;6:3918-23 pubmed
    ..Transfection studies confirmed mammalian Sin3A as a sumoylation substrate for TOPORS. These findings suggest that TOPORS may function as a tumor suppressor by regulating mSin3A and other proteins involved in chromatin modification. ..
  26. Groner A, Meylan S, Ciuffi A, Zangger N, Ambrosini G, Dénervaud N, et al. KRAB-zinc finger proteins and KAP1 can mediate long-range transcriptional repression through heterochromatin spreading. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000869 pubmed publisher
    ..KRAB-containing repressor to gene-trapping lentiviral vectors, we demonstrate that KRAB and its corepressor KAP1 can silence promoters located several tens of kilobases (kb) away from their DNA binding sites, with an efficiency ..
  27. Tsuruma R, Ohbayashi N, Kamitani S, Ikeda O, Sato N, Muromoto R, et al. Physical and functional interactions between STAT3 and KAP1. Oncogene. 2008;27:3054-9 pubmed
    ..the molecular mechanisms underlying the STAT activation, we performed yeast two-hybrid screening and identified KAP1/TIF1beta as a novel STAT-binding partner...
  28. Hsu S, Yang C, Sim K, Hentschel D, O LEARY E, Bonventre J. TRIP-Br: a novel family of PHD zinc finger- and bromodomain-interacting proteins that regulate the transcriptional activity of E2F-1/DP-1. EMBO J. 2001;20:2273-85 pubmed
  29. Li X, Lin H, Chen H, Xu X, Shih H, Ann D. SUMOylation of the transcriptional co-repressor KAP1 is regulated by the serine and threonine phosphatase PP1. Sci Signal. 2010;3:ra32 pubmed publisher
    Krüppel-associated box (KRAB) domain-associated protein 1 [KAP1, also known as transcription intermediary factor-1beta (TIF1beta)] is a ubiquitous transcriptional co-repressor that is susceptible to phosphorylation at Ser(824) by ataxia-..
  30. Lin Z, Yang H, Kong Q, Li J, Lee S, Gao B, et al. USP22 antagonizes p53 transcriptional activation by deubiquitinating Sirt1 to suppress cell apoptosis and is required for mouse embryonic development. Mol Cell. 2012;46:484-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study elucidates a molecular mechanism in suppression of cell apoptosis by stabilizing Sirt1 in response to DNA damage and reveals a critical physiological function of USP22 in mouse embryonic development. ..
  31. Seki Y, Kurisaki A, Watanabe Susaki K, Nakajima Y, Nakanishi M, Arai Y, et al. TIF1beta regulates the pluripotency of embryonic stem cells in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:10926-31 pubmed publisher
  32. Capili A, Schultz D, RauscherIII F, Borden K. Solution structure of the PHD domain from the KAP-1 corepressor: structural determinants for PHD, RING and LIM zinc-binding domains. EMBO J. 2001;20:165-77 pubmed
    ..From a comparison of this PHD structure with previously reported RING and LIM (Lin11/Isl-1/Mec-3) structures, we infer sequence determinants that allow discrimination among PHD, RING and LIM motifs. ..
  33. Underhill C, Qutob M, Yee S, Torchia J. A novel nuclear receptor corepressor complex, N-CoR, contains components of the mammalian SWI/SNF complex and the corepressor KAP-1. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:40463-70 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that N-CoR is found in distinct multiprotein complexes, which are involved in multiple pathways of transcriptional repression. ..
  34. Allouch A, Di Primio C, Alpi E, Lusic M, Arosio D, Giacca M, et al. The TRIM family protein KAP1 inhibits HIV-1 integration. Cell Host Microbe. 2011;9:484-95 pubmed publisher
    ..relevance of IN acetylation, we searched for cellular proteins that selectively bind acetylated IN and identified KAP1, a protein belonging to the TRIM family of antiviral proteins...
  35. Li X, Ito M, Zhou F, Youngson N, Zuo X, Leder P, et al. A maternal-zygotic effect gene, Zfp57, maintains both maternal and paternal imprints. Dev Cell. 2008;15:547-57 pubmed publisher
    ..The effects on genomic imprinting are consistent with the maternal-zygotic lethality of Zfp57 mutants. ..
  36. Rambaud J, Desroches J, Balsalobre A, Drouin J. TIF1beta/KAP-1 is a coactivator of the orphan nuclear receptor NGFI-B/Nur77. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:14147-56 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the actions of TIF1beta and SRC2 were mapped to different NGFI-B AF-1 subdomains. Taken together, these results indicate that TIF1beta is an important coactivator of NGFI-B-dependent transcription. ..
  37. Lee D, Goodarzi A, Adelmant G, Pan Y, Jeggo P, Marto J, et al. Phosphoproteomic analysis reveals that PP4 dephosphorylates KAP-1 impacting the DNA damage response. EMBO J. 2012;31:2403-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results define a new role for PP4-mediated dephosphorylation in the DDR, including the regulation of a previously undescribed function of KAP-1 in checkpoint response. ..
  38. Liu L, Zhao E, Li C, Huang L, Xiao L, Cheng L, et al. TRIM28, a new molecular marker predicting metastasis and survival in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer. Cancer Epidemiol. 2013;37:71-8 pubmed publisher
    b>TRIM28 is a universal corepressor for Kruppel-associated box zinc finger proteins. In this study, we demonstrated the expression of TRIM28 gene was significantly higher in cancerous tissues than in noncancerous tissues (P < 0.001)...
  39. Peng H, Feldman I, Rauscher F. Hetero-oligomerization among the TIF family of RBCC/TRIM domain-containing nuclear cofactors: a potential mechanism for regulating the switch between coactivation and corepression. J Mol Biol. 2002;320:629-44 pubmed
    ..The hetero-oligomerization between TIF1alpha and TIF1gamma implies a potential regulatory mechanism for transcriptional regulation. ..
  40. Silva F, Hamamoto R, Furukawa Y, Nakamura Y. TIPUH1 encodes a novel KRAB zinc-finger protein highly expressed in human hepatocellular carcinomas. Oncogene. 2006;25:5063-70 pubmed
    ..These data may contribute to a better understanding of liver neoplasia, and to the development of novel strategy for treatment of HCCs. ..
  41. White D, Rafalska Metcalf I, Ivanov A, Corsinotti A, Peng H, Lee S, et al. The ATM substrate KAP1 controls DNA repair in heterochromatin: regulation by HP1 proteins and serine 473/824 phosphorylation. Mol Cancer Res. 2012;10:401-14 pubmed publisher
    ..b>KAP1 is a heterochromatin protein and co-repressor that binds to HP1 during gene silencing but is also robustly ..
  42. Lin L, Li C, Wang W, Yang W, Wang D, Chang W, et al. Loss of ZBRK1 contributes to the increase of KAP1 and promotes KAP1-mediated metastasis and invasion in cervical cancer. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e73033 pubmed publisher
    ZBRK1, a zinc finger protein that interacts with breast cancer 1 (BRCA1) and KRAB-ZFP-associated protein 1 (KAP1), has been suggested to serve as a tumor suppressor via repression of tumor metastasis/invasion...
  43. Venturini L, You J, Stadler M, Galien R, Lallemand V, Koken M, et al. TIF1gamma, a novel member of the transcriptional intermediary factor 1 family. Oncogene. 1999;18:1209-17 pubmed
    ..Since deletion of a novel motif unique to the three TIF1 proteins, called TIF1 signature sequence (TSS), abrogates transcriptional repression by TIF1gamma, this motif likely participates in TIF1 dependent repression. ..
  44. Chang P, Fitzgerald L, Van Geelen A, Izumiya Y, Ellison T, Wang D, et al. Kruppel-associated box domain-associated protein-1 as a latency regulator for Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and its modulation by the viral protein kinase. Cancer Res. 2009;69:5681-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, the cellular transcriptional repressor KAP-1 plays a role in regulating KSHV latency, and viral protein kinase modulates the chromatin remodeling function of this repressor. ..
  45. Peng H, Gibson L, Capili A, Borden K, Osborne M, Harper S, et al. The structurally disordered KRAB repression domain is incorporated into a protease resistant core upon binding to KAP-1-RBCC domain. J Mol Biol. 2007;370:269-89 pubmed
    ..This is the first example of a structurally disordered repressor domain that is the most widely conserved silencing domain in tetrapods. ..
  46. Liao G, Huang J, Fixman E, Hayward S. The Epstein-Barr virus replication protein BBLF2/3 provides an origin-tethering function through interaction with the zinc finger DNA binding protein ZBRK1 and the KAP-1 corepressor. J Virol. 2005;79:245-56 pubmed
    ..The data also suggest that BBLF2/3 may serve as a contact interface for cell proteins involved in replication of EBV oriLyt. ..
  47. Xiao T, Bhatia N, Urrutia R, Lomberk G, Simpson A, Longley B. MAGE I transcription factors regulate KAP1 and KRAB domain zinc finger transcription factor mediated gene repression. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23747 pubmed publisher
    ..KZNFs bind the KAP1 protein and direct KAP1 to specific DNA sequences where it suppresses gene expression by inducing localized ..
  48. Barde I, Laurenti E, Verp S, Groner A, Towne C, Padrun V, et al. Regulation of episomal gene expression by KRAB/KAP1-mediated histone modifications. J Virol. 2009;83:5574-80 pubmed publisher
    b>KAP1 is an essential cofactor of KRAB zinc finger proteins, a family of vertebrate-specific epigenetic repressors of largely unknown functions encoded in the hundreds by the mouse and human genomes...
  49. Peng H, Begg G, Schultz D, Friedman J, Jensen D, Speicher D, et al. Reconstitution of the KRAB-KAP-1 repressor complex: a model system for defining the molecular anatomy of RING-B box-coiled-coil domain-mediated protein-protein interactions. J Mol Biol. 2000;295:1139-62 pubmed
    ..These observations provide the first principles for RBCC domain-mediated protein-protein interaction and have implications for identifying new ligands for RBCC domain proteins. ..
  50. Kamitani S, Ohbayashi N, Ikeda O, Togi S, Muromoto R, Sekine Y, et al. KAP1 regulates type I interferon/STAT1-mediated IRF-1 gene expression. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;370:366-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, we showed that KAP1 is a novel STAT-binding partner that regulates STAT3-mediated transactivation...
  51. Schultz D, Ayyanathan K, Negorev D, Maul G, Rauscher F. SETDB1: a novel KAP-1-associated histone H3, lysine 9-specific methyltransferase that contributes to HP1-mediated silencing of euchromatic genes by KRAB zinc-finger proteins. Genes Dev. 2002;16:919-32 pubmed
    ..Thus, KAP-1 is a molecular scaffold that is targeted by KRAB-ZFPs to specific loci and coordinates both histone methylation and the deposition of HP1 proteins to silence gene expression. ..
  52. Cammas F, Oulad Abdelghani M, Vonesch J, Huss Garcia Y, Chambon P, Losson R. Cell differentiation induces TIF1beta association with centromeric heterochromatin via an HP1 interaction. J Cell Sci. 2002;115:3439-48 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these data provide compelling evidence for a dynamic nuclear compartmentalization of TIF1beta that is regulated during cell differentiation through a mechanism that requires HP1 interaction. ..
  53. Okamoto K, Kitabayashi I, Taya Y. KAP1 dictates p53 response induced by chemotherapeutic agents via Mdm2 interaction. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;351:216-22 pubmed
    b>KAP1 recruits many proteins involved in gene silencing and functions as an integral part of co-repressor complex. KAP1 was identified as Mdm2-binding protein and shown to form a complex with Mdm2 and p53 in vivo...