TRIM21

Summary

Gene Symbol: TRIM21
Description: tripartite motif containing 21
Alias: RNF81, RO52, Ro/SSA, SSA, SSA1, E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase TRIM21, 52 kDa Ro protein, 52 kDa ribonucleoprotein autoantigen Ro/SS-A, RING finger protein 81, RING-type E3 ubiquitin transferase TRIM21, SS-A, Sicca syndrome antigen A, Sjogren syndrome antigen A1 (52kDa, ribonucleoprotein autoantigen SS-A/Ro), ro(SS-A), sjoegren syndrome type A antigen, tripartite motif-containing protein 21
Species: human
Products:     TRIM21

Top Publications

  1. James L, Keeble A, Khan Z, Rhodes D, Trowsdale J. Structural basis for PRYSPRY-mediated tripartite motif (TRIM) protein function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:6200-5 pubmed
    ..70 members, including HIV restriction factor TRIM5alpha and disease-associated proteins TRIM20 (pyrin) and TRIM21. TRIM proteins have conserved domain architecture but diverse cellular roles...
  2. Kong H, Anderson D, Lee C, Jang M, Tamura T, Tailor P, et al. Cutting edge: autoantigen Ro52 is an interferon inducible E3 ligase that ubiquitinates IRF-8 and enhances cytokine expression in macrophages. J Immunol. 2007;179:26-30 pubmed
    ..Immunopurification and mass spectrometry analysis found that IRF-8 interacted with Ro52 in murine macrophages upon IFN-gamma and TLR stimulation...
  3. Higgs R, Lazzari E, Wynne C, Ní Gabhann J, Espinosa A, Wahren Herlenius M, et al. Self protection from anti-viral responses--Ro52 promotes degradation of the transcription factor IRF7 downstream of the viral Toll-Like receptors. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11776 pubmed publisher
    b>Ro52 is a member of the TRIM family of single-protein E3 ligases and is also a target for autoantibody production in systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjögren's syndrome...
  4. Young J, Sermwittayawong D, Kim H, Nandu S, An N, Erdjument Bromage H, et al. Fas-associated death domain (FADD) and the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase TRIM21 interact to negatively regulate virus-induced interferon production. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:6521-31 pubmed publisher
    ..described as an apoptotic protein, is involved in regulating IFN-? production through a novel interaction with TRIM21. TRIM21 is a member of a large family of proteins that can impart ubiquitin modification onto its cellular targets...
  5. Chan E, Hamel J, Buyon J, Tan E. Molecular definition and sequence motifs of the 52-kD component of human SS-A/Ro autoantigen. J Clin Invest. 1991;87:68-76 pubmed
  6. Ishii T, Ohnuma K, Murakami A, Takasawa N, Yamochi T, Iwata S, et al. SS-A/Ro52, an autoantigen involved in CD28-mediated IL-2 production. J Immunol. 2003;170:3653-61 pubmed
    An autoantibody against SS-A/Ro52 (Ro52) is most frequently found in the sera of patients with Sjögren's syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, and congenital heart block from anti-Ro52 Ab-positive mother...
  7. Rhodes D, Trowsdale J. TRIM21 is a trimeric protein that binds IgG Fc via the B30.2 domain. Mol Immunol. 2007;44:2406-14 pubmed
    ..Auto-antibodies to TRIM21 (Ro52) are a common serological feature of patients with Sjogren's syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)...
  8. Yamauchi K, Wada K, Tanji K, Tanaka M, Kamitani T. Ubiquitination of E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM5 alpha and its potential role. FEBS J. 2008;275:1540-55 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to the self-ubiquitination, we show that TRIM5alpha is ubiquitinated by another E3 ubiquitin ligase, Ro52, and deubiquitinated by YopJ, one of the pathogenic proteins derived from Yersinia species...
  9. Keeble A, Khan Z, Forster A, James L. TRIM21 is an IgG receptor that is structurally, thermodynamically, and kinetically conserved. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:6045-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that TRIM21, which mediates the autoimmune diseases rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and Sjögren's ..

More Information

Publications118 found, 100 shown here

  1. Espinosa A, Oke V, Elfving A, Nyberg F, Covacu R, Wahren Herlenius M. The autoantigen Ro52 is an E3 ligase resident in the cytoplasm but enters the nucleus upon cellular exposure to nitric oxide. Exp Cell Res. 2008;314:3605-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Sjögrens's syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus often have autoantibodies against the intracellular protein Ro52. Ro52 is an E3 ligase dependent on the ubiquitin conjugation enzymes UBE2D1 and UBE2E1...
  2. Kim J, Ozato K. The sequestosome 1/p62 attenuates cytokine gene expression in activated macrophages by inhibiting IFN regulatory factor 8 and TNF receptor-associated factor 6/NF-kappaB activity. J Immunol. 2009;182:2131-40 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that p62 interacts with IFN regulatory factor 8 and Ro52, the transcription factor and ubiquitin E3 ligase that are important for IL-12p40 expression...
  3. Niida M, Tanaka M, Kamitani T. Downregulation of active IKK beta by Ro52-mediated autophagy. Mol Immunol. 2010;47:2378-87 pubmed publisher
    ..But the active IKK beta is conjugated with a monoubiquitin by the E3 ubiquitin ligase Ro52, and the IKK beta-induced NF-kappaB signaling is downregulated...
  4. Ohmine S, Sakuma R, Sakuma T, Thatava T, Takeuchi H, Ikeda Y. The antiviral spectra of TRIM5? orthologues and human TRIM family proteins against lentiviral production. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16121 pubmed publisher
    ..When select human TRIM family proteins were examined, TRIM21 and 22 were efficiently incorporated into HIV-1 VLPs, while only TRIM22 reduced HIV-1 titers up to 5-fold...
  5. McEwan W, Hauler F, Williams C, Bidgood S, Mallery D, Crowther R, et al. Regulation of virus neutralization and the persistent fraction by TRIM21. J Virol. 2012;86:8482-91 pubmed publisher
    ..of adenovirus type 5, a prevalent nonenveloped human virus, are dependent upon the intracellular antibody receptor TRIM21. Cells with insufficient amounts of TRIM21 are readily infected, even at saturating concentrations of neutralizing ..
  6. Espinosa A, Zhou W, Ek M, Hedlund M, Brauner S, Popovic K, et al. The Sjogren's syndrome-associated autoantigen Ro52 is an E3 ligase that regulates proliferation and cell death. J Immunol. 2006;176:6277-85 pubmed
    ..Sjögren's syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) carry autoantibodies to an intracellular protein denoted Ro52. Although the serologic presence of Ro52 autoantibodies is used clinically for diagnostic purposes, the function of ..
  7. Zhang F, Hatziioannou T, Perez Caballero D, Derse D, Bieniasz P. Antiretroviral potential of human tripartite motif-5 and related proteins. Virology. 2006;353:396-409 pubmed
    ..However, endogenous owl monkey TRIMCyp potently inhibited an SIV(AGM) strain. Overall, sporadic examples of intrinsic antiretroviral activity exist in this panel of TRIM proteins...
  8. Li X, Gold B, O hUigin C, Diaz Griffero F, Song B, Si Z, et al. Unique features of TRIM5alpha among closely related human TRIM family members. Virology. 2007;360:419-33 pubmed
    ..In contrast to the other TRIM genes examined, TRIM5 exhibited evidence of positive selection. The unique features of TRIM5alpha among its TRIM relatives underscore its special status as an antiviral factor. ..
  9. Higgs R, Ní Gabhann J, Ben Larbi N, Breen E, Fitzgerald K, Jefferies C. The E3 ubiquitin ligase Ro52 negatively regulates IFN-beta production post-pathogen recognition by polyubiquitin-mediated degradation of IRF3. J Immunol. 2008;181:1780-6 pubmed
    ..In this study, we provide evidence that the E3 ligase Ro52 (TRIM21) targets IRF3 for degradation post-pathogen recognition receptor activation...
  10. Yang K, Shi H, Liu X, Shan Y, Wei B, Chen S, et al. TRIM21 is essential to sustain IFN regulatory factor 3 activation during antiviral response. J Immunol. 2009;182:3782-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein we report that TRIM21 (tripartite motif-containing 21) is significantly induced and interacts with IRF3 upon RNA virus infection...
  11. Mallery D, McEwan W, Bidgood S, Towers G, Johnson C, James L. Antibodies mediate intracellular immunity through tripartite motif-containing 21 (TRIM21). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:19985-90 pubmed publisher
    ..We have discovered that cells possess a cytosolic IgG receptor, tripartite motif-containing 21 (TRIM21), which binds to antibodies with a higher affinity than any other IgG receptor in the human body...
  12. Stacey K, Breen E, Jefferies C. Tyrosine phosphorylation of the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM21 positively regulates interaction with IRF3 and hence TRIM21 activity. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34041 pubmed publisher
    ..b>TRIM21, an autoantigen associated with SLE, has been identified as an ubiquitin E3 ligase that targets the transcription ..
  13. Darmawan G, Hamijoyo L, Oehadian A, Bandiara R, Amalia L. Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Acta Med Indones. 2018;50:343-345 pubmed
    ..Further examination revealed positive for ANA, anti-SSA, and diagnosis of SLE was established...
  14. Jin J, Sun F, Wang G, Yang J, Luo G, Ma H, et al. [The clinical characteristics of 26 cases of hypophosphatemia osteomalacia misdiagnosed as spondyloarthritis]. Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi. 2014;53:847-51 pubmed
    ..Positive antinuclear antibodies (ANA) (titer ≥ 1: 320), anti-SSA/SSB antibodies were found in patients with Sjogren's syndrome...
  15. Filho J, Ogawa M, de Souza Andrade T, de Andrade Cordeiro Gadelha S, Fernandes P, Queiroz A, et al. Spectrum of acute kidney injury associated with cocaine use: report of three cases. BMC Nephrol. 2019;20:99 pubmed publisher
    ..Coombs test, and negative serologies for hepatitis B, C and HIV, as well as negative anti-double-stranded DNA, Anti-SSA and Anti-SSB...
  16. Izugbara C. Single motherhood and neonatal and infant mortality in Sierra Leone, Burkina Faso and Burundi. Public Health. 2016;135:122-30 pubmed publisher
    Childhood mortality is a stubborn problem and remains highest in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)...
  17. Vogelsang P, Karlsen M, Brun J, Jonsson R, Appel S. Altered phenotype and Stat1 expression in Toll-like receptor 7/8 stimulated monocyte-derived dendritic cells from patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome. Arthritis Res Ther. 2014;16:R166 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of Ro/Sjögren's syndrome-associated autoantigen A (Ro52/SSA), interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF-8), Bim, signal transduction and activators of transcription (Stat) 1, p-..
  18. Minato H, Kinoshita E, Nakada S, Nojima T, Tanaka M, Usuda K, et al. Thymic lymphoid hyperplasia with multilocular thymic cysts diagnosed before the Sjögren syndrome diagnosis. Diagn Pathol. 2015;10:103 pubmed publisher
    ..tests for the presence of autoantibodies were positive for antinuclear antibodies, rheumatic factor, and anti-SSA/Ro antibodies. The Schirmer's, chewing gum, and Saxon tests showed decreased salivary and lacrimal secretion...
  19. Zhang P, Zhang Y, Zhang C, Shi Y, Liu J, Liu Q, et al. [Subtype classification and clinicopathological characteristics of gastric neuroendocrine neoplasms: an analysis of 241 cases]. Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2016;19:1241-1246 pubmed
    ..grading as NET G1; most of them received endoscopic surgery treatment and follow-up; somatostatin analogs(SSA) was used in patients with multiple lesions and repeated recurrence after endoscopic treatment...
  20. Clancy R, Markham A, Jackson T, Rasmussen S, Blumenberg M, Buyon J. Cardiac fibroblast transcriptome analyses support a role for interferogenic, profibrotic, and inflammatory genes in anti-SSA/Ro-associated congenital heart block. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2017;313:H631-H640 pubmed publisher
    The signature lesion of SSA/Ro autoantibody-associated congenital heart block (CHB) is fibrosis and a macrophage infiltrate, supporting an experimental focus on cues influencing the fibroblast component...
  21. Alima Yanda A, Nansseu J, Mbassi Awa H, Tatah S, Seungue J, Eposse C, et al. Burden and spectrum of bacterial infections among sickle cell disease children living in Cameroon. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17:211 pubmed publisher
    ..infections (BIs), there is a dreadful lack of data related to the burden and spectrum of BIs in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the highest affected region with SCD...
  22. Wang J, Wu W, Huang T, Wong M, Kwak K, Ozato K, et al. Roles of Fc Domain and Exudation in L2 Antibody-Mediated Protection against Human Papillomavirus. J Virol. 2018;92: pubmed publisher
    ..However, levels of in vitro neutralization by WW1 IgG were similar in TRIM21 knockout and wild-type cells, indicating that Fc does not contribute to antibody-dependent intracellular ..
  23. Choga W, Anderson M, Zumbika E, Moyo S, Mbangiwa T, Phinius B, et al. Molecular characterization of hepatitis B virus in blood donors in Botswana. Virus Genes. 2019;55:33-42 pubmed publisher
    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) poses a significant threat to blood transfusion safety in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) where allogeneic blood donations are screened serologically, and more sensitive nucleic acid tests (NATs) are utilized ..
  24. Kashif M, Arya D, Niazi M, Khaja M. A Rare Case of Necrotizing Myopathy and Fibrinous and Organizing Pneumonia with Anti-EJ Antisynthetase Syndrome and SSA Antibodies. Am J Case Rep. 2017;18:448-453 pubmed
    ..It is important to recognize the rare association of anti-EJ autoantibodies with necrotizing myopathy and interstitial lung disease, which responds well to methylprednisolone and intravenous immunoglobulin...
  25. Lopes V, Lourenço D, Guariento A, Trindade M, Avancini J, Silva C. Borderline tuberculoid leprosy in childhood onset systemic lupus erythematosus patient. Lupus. 2015;24:1448-51 pubmed publisher
    ..ulcers, lymphopenia, proteinuria, positive antinuclear antibodies, anti-double-stranded DNA, anti-Sm and anti-Ro/SSA autoantibodies...
  26. Ruocco L, Treno C, Gironi Carnevale U, Arra C, Boatto G, Pagano C, et al. Immunization with DISC1 protein in an animal model of ADHD influences behavior and excitatory amino acids in prefrontal cortex and striatum. Amino Acids. 2015;47:637-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Non-selective (NSA) and selective spatial attention (SSA) were monitored in the Làt and in the Olton maze by duration of rearings and working memory, respectively...
  27. Geng Y, Zhao Y, Zhang Z. Tubulointerstitial nephritis-induced hypophosphatemic osteomalacia in Sjögren's syndrome: a case report and review of the literature. Clin Rheumatol. 2018;37:257-263 pubmed publisher
    ..morphology, and function of the salivary glands by sonography and scintigraphy, together with positive anti-SSA and anti-SSB, confirmed the diagnosis of SS. The TIN indicated SS as the underlying cause of osteomalacia...
  28. Cheng W, Zhao H, Yu H, Xin J, Wang J, Zeng L, et al. Efficient generation of GGTA1-null Diannan miniature pigs using TALENs combined with somatic cell nuclear transfer. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2016;14:77 pubmed
    ..The targeting activity was evaluated using a luciferase SSA recombination assay...
  29. Tanaka M, Kamitani T. Cytoplasmic relocation of Daxx induced by Ro52 and FLASH. Histochem Cell Biol. 2010;134:297-306 pubmed publisher
    The RING-finger protein Ro52/TRIM21 is known to be an autoantigen and is recognized by anti-Ro/SSA antibodies, which are commonly found in patients with Sjögren's syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus...
  30. Rohwer A, Pfadenhauer L, Burns J, Brereton L, Gerhardus A, Booth A, et al. Series: Clinical Epidemiology in South Africa. Paper 3: Logic models help make sense of complexity in systematic reviews and health technology assessments. J Clin Epidemiol. 2017;83:37-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Examples from systematic reviews with specific relevance to Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and other low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) illustrate its usefulness...
  31. Cutolo M, Melsens K, Wijnant S, Ingegnoli F, Thevissen K, De Keyser F, et al. Nailfold capillaroscopy in systemic lupus erythematosus: A systematic review and critical appraisal. Autoimmun Rev. 2018;17:344-352 pubmed publisher
    ..In two studies a possible correlation between anti-SSA antibodies and lower density of capillaries is withheld...
  32. Chen Y, Li C, Lan K. Sample size adjustment based on promising interim results and its application in confirmatory clinical trials. Clin Trials. 2015;12:584-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Many approaches for sample size adjustment (SSA) require certain modifications to the conventional statistical method, such as changing critical values or using a ..
  33. Baer A, Medrano L, McAdams DeMarco M, Gniadek T. Association of Anticentromere Antibodies With More Severe Exocrine Glandular Dysfunction in Sjögren's Syndrome: Analysis of the Sjögren's International Collaborative Clinical Alliance Cohort. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2016;68:1554-9 pubmed publisher
    ..with a unique phenotype, including features of limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis and a lower frequency of anti-SSA/SSB antibodies...
  34. Ottosen L, Jensen P, Kirkelund G. Phosphorous recovery from sewage sludge ash suspended in water in a two-compartment electrodialytic cell. Waste Manag. 2016;51:142-148 pubmed publisher
    ..This investigation is focused on P recovery from sewage sludge ash (SSA) by a two-compartment electrodialytic separation (EDS) technique...
  35. Bauhammer J, Blank N, Max R, Lorenz H, Wagner U, Krause D, et al. Rituximab in the Treatment of Jo1 Antibody-associated Antisynthetase Syndrome: Anti-Ro52 Positivity as a Marker for Severity and Treatment Response. J Rheumatol. 2016;43:1566-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Detection of anti-Ro52 antibodies (43%) was significantly associated with acute-onset ILD (p = 0...
  36. Boutjdir M, Lazzerini P, Capecchi P, Laghi Pasini F, El Sherif N. Potassium Channel Block and Novel Autoimmune-Associated Long QT Syndrome. Card Electrophysiol Clin. 2016;8:373-84 pubmed publisher
    This article reviews advances in the pathogenesis of anti-SSA/Ro antibody-induced corrected QT (QTc) prolongation in patients with autoimmune diseases; particularly connective tissue disease (CTD)...
  37. Barchi F, Little M. National ethics guidance in Sub-Saharan Africa on the collection and use of human biological specimens: a systematic review. BMC Med Ethics. 2016;17:64 pubmed
    ..biospecimens (HBS) for research forms an essential component of national health systems in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where rapid advances in genetic- and genomic-based technologies are fueling clinical trials involving HBS and the ..
  38. Stanley C, van der Gronde T, Westmoreland K, Salima A, Amuquandoh A, Itimu S, et al. Risk factors and reasons for treatment abandonment among children with lymphoma in Malawi. Support Care Cancer. 2018;26:967-973 pubmed publisher
    Lymphoma is the commonest pediatric cancer in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Frequent treatment abandonment contributes to suboptimal outcomes. We examined risk factors and reasons for treatment abandonment for this population in Malawi...
  39. Punchak M, Abdelgadir J, Obiga O, Itait M, Najjuma J, Haglund M, et al. Mechanism of Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury in Southwestern Uganda: A Prospective Cohort of 100 Patients. World Neurosurg. 2018;114:e396-e402 pubmed publisher
    ..Conducting a public awareness and education campaign on the necessity of child supervision is critical to decreasing pediatric head injuries in Uganda. ..
  40. Sarfo F, Sarfo Kantanka O, Adamu S, Obese V, Voeks J, Tagge R, et al. Stroke Minimization through Additive Anti-atherosclerotic Agents in Routine Treatment (SMAART): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2018;19:181 pubmed publisher
    There is an unprecedented rise in the prevalence of stroke in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)...
  41. Perel S, Schwartz A, Ventura V. Automatic scan test for detection of functional connectivity between cortex and muscles. J Neurophysiol. 2014;112:490-9 pubmed publisher
    ..J Neurosci Methods 79: 143-150, 1998) and SSA (Perel S, Schwartz AB, Ventura V...
  42. Koga M, Hayashi M, Kaida D. Splicing inhibition decreases phosphorylation level of Ser2 in Pol II CTD. Nucleic Acids Res. 2015;43:8258-67 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we found that splicing inhibition by potent splicing inhibitors spliceostatin A (SSA) and pladienolide B or by antisense oligos against snRNAs decreased phospho-Ser2 level, but had little or no ..
  43. Maksymiuk C, Balakrishnan A, Bryk R, Rhee K, Nathan C. E1 of α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase defends Mycobacterium tuberculosis against glutamate anaplerosis and nitroxidative stress. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:E5834-43 pubmed publisher
    ..former role, HOAS acts to prevent accumulation of aldehydes, including growth-inhibitory succinate semialdehyde (SSA)...
  44. Li L, Zhang D, Yang S, Song S, Li J, Wang Q, et al. Effects of Glycosylation on Biodistribution and Imaging Quality of Necrotic Myocardium of Iodine-131-Labeled Sennidins. Mol Imaging Biol. 2016;18:877-886 pubmed
    ..Sennidin A (SA), sennidin B (SB), sennoside A (SSA), and sennoside B (SSB) were labeled with I-131...
  45. Lei T, Zhang D, Guo K, Li M, Lv C, Wang J, et al. Validated UPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous quantification of eight saikosaponins in rat plasma: Application to a comparative pharmacokinetic study in depression rats after oral administration of extracts of raw and vinegar-baked Bupleuri Radix. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2017;1060:231-239 pubmed publisher
    ..and efficient UPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of eight saikosaponins (SSa, SSb1, SSb2, SSb3, SSb4, SSc, SSd and SSf) in rat plasma...
  46. Duan L, Zhu H, Xing B, Gu F. Prolonged preoperative treatment of acromegaly with Somatostatin analogs may improve surgical outcome in patients with invasive pituitary macroadenoma (Knosp grades 1-3): a retrospective cohort study conducted at a single center. BMC Endocr Disord. 2017;17:55 pubmed publisher
    ..The preoperative medical therapy group (81 patients) received SSA treatment for at least 3 months prior to surgery, while the primary surgery group (277 patients) underwent ..
  47. Novellasdemunt L, Foglizzo V, Cuadrado L, Antas P, Kucharska A, Encheva V, et al. USP7 Is a Tumor-Specific WNT Activator for APC-Mutated Colorectal Cancer by Mediating ?-Catenin Deubiquitination. Cell Rep. 2017;21:612-627 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, the Wnt-activating role of USP7 is specific to APC mutations; thus, it can be used as a tumor-specific therapeutic target for most CRCs. ..
  48. Iwase Y, Horie Y, Honda S, Daiko Y, Iwamoto Y. Microporosity and COâ‚‚ Capture Properties of Amorphous Silicon Oxynitride Derived from Novel Polyalkoxysilsesquiazanes. Materials (Basel). 2018;11: pubmed publisher
    ..within the micropore size range (<2 nm) and the total micropore volume, as well as the specific surface area (SSA) of the Si-O-N, increased consistently with the molecular size estimated for the alkene formed in-situ during the ..
  49. Sarfo F, Adusei N, Ampofo M, Kpeme F, Ovbiagele B. Pilot trial of a tele-rehab intervention to improve outcomes after stroke in Ghana: A feasibility and user satisfaction study. J Neurol Sci. 2018;387:94-97 pubmed publisher
    Tele-rehabilitation after stroke holds promise for under-resourced settings, especially sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), with its immense stroke burden and severely limited physical therapy services...
  50. Meroni P, Penatti A. Epigenetics and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Unmet Needs. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2016;50:367-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Anti-DNA, anti-phospholipid, and anti-Ro/SSA autoantibodies are thought to be pathogenic for glomerulonephritis, recurrent thrombosis and miscarriages, and ..
  51. Salminen A, Jouhten P, Sarajärvi T, Haapasalo A, Hiltunen M. Hypoxia and GABA shunt activation in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Neurochem Int. 2016;92:13-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) is a key enzyme in the GABA shunt, converting succinic semialdehyde (SSA) into succinate, a Krebs cycle intermediate...
  52. Guggino G, Ciccia F, Raimondo S, Giardina G, Alessandro R, Dieli F, et al. Invariant NKT cells are expanded in peripheral blood but are undetectable in salivary glands of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2016;34:25-31 pubmed
    ..Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence analysis for autoreactive B lymphocytes and ELISA for anti-SSA antibodies (Ab) detection were also performed...
  53. Demott P, Hill T, McCluskey C, Prather K, Collins D, Sullivan R, et al. Sea spray aerosol as a unique source of ice nucleating particles. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:5797-803 pubmed publisher
    ..A source of INPs from oceans within sea spray aerosol (SSA) emissions has been suggested in previous studies but remained unconfirmed...
  54. Ibáñez Costa A, Rivero Cortés E, Vázquez Borrego M, Gahete M, Jimenez Reina L, Venegas Moreno E, et al. Octreotide and pasireotide (dis)similarly inhibit pituitary tumor cells in vitro. J Endocrinol. 2016;231:135-145 pubmed
    Somatostatin analogs (SSA) are the mainstay of pharmacological treatment for pituitary adenomas...
  55. Ochiai H, Yamamoto T. Construction and Evaluation of Zinc Finger Nucleases. Methods Mol Biol. 2017;1630:1-24 pubmed publisher
    ..This article introduces a ZFN construction protocol that uses bacterial one-hybrid (B1H) selection and single-stranded annealing (SSA) assay.
  56. Bos J, Mistício M, Nunguiane G, Mathot R, van Hest R, Prins J. Paracetamol clinical dosing routine leads to paracetamol underexposure in an adult severely ill sub-Saharan African hospital population: a drug concentration measurement study. BMC Res Notes. 2017;10:671 pubmed publisher
    Hospitals in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) continue to receive high numbers of severely ill (HIV-infected) patients with physical pain that may suffer from hepatic and renal dysfunction...
  57. Sullivan R, Levy R, da Silva A, Pryor S. Developing and diagnosing climate change indicators of regional aerosol optical properties. Sci Rep. 2017;7:18093 pubmed publisher
    ..exponent, AE), and relative magnitude of radiation scattering versus absorption (single scattering albedo, SSA), along with metrics of the structure of the spatial field of these properties...
  58. Mugerwa H, Seal S, Wang H, Patel M, Kabaalu R, Omongo C, et al. African ancestry of New World, Bemisia tabaci-whitefly species. Sci Rep. 2018;8:2734 pubmed publisher
    ..We report here the discovery of five new Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) B...
  59. Rakebrandt N, Lentes S, Neumann H, James L, Neumann Staubitz P. Antibody- and TRIM21-dependent intracellular restriction of Salmonella enterica. Pathog Dis. 2014;72:131-7 pubmed publisher
    b>TRIM21 ('tripartite motif-containing protein 21', Ro52) is a ubiquitously expressed cytosolic Fc receptor, which has a potent role in protective immunity against nonenveloped viruses...
  60. Zhao X, Ren L, Guo D, Wu W, Ji X, Huang H. CFD investigation of Schizochytrium sp. impeller configurations on cell growth and docosahexaenoic acid synthesis. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng. 2016;39:1297-304 pubmed publisher
    ..Simulated results showed that configuration SSA consisting of upper two 6-SBDT and one bottom 6-ABDT possessed the worst oxygen supply capacity...
  61. Fazel A, Kashef S, Aleyasin S, Harsini S, Karamizadeh Z, Zoghi S, et al. Novel AICDA mutation in a case of autosomal recessive hyper-IgM syndrome, growth hormone deficiency and autoimmunity. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 2017;45:82-86 pubmed publisher
    ..benign cervical lymphadenopathy, as well as elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, positive autoantibodies to SSA-Ro, and severely dry eyes, which partially responded to both the punctate occlusion and systemic corticosteroids, ..
  62. Pastakia S, Manyara S, Vedanthan R, Kamano J, Menya D, Andama B, et al. Impact of Bridging Income Generation with Group Integrated Care (BIGPIC) on Hypertension and Diabetes in Rural Western Kenya. J Gen Intern Med. 2017;32:540-548 pubmed publisher
    Rural settings in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) consistently report low participation in non-communicable disease (NCD) treatment programs and poor outcomes...
  63. Valdez Jiménez L, López Guzmán O, Cervantes Flores M, Costilla Salazar R, Calderón Hernández J, Alcaraz Contreras Y, et al. In utero exposure to fluoride and cognitive development delay in infants. Neurotoxicology. 2017;59:65-70 pubmed publisher
    ..1mg/l and 3.7±1.0mg/l respectively; above to 80% of the samples exceeded the reference value of 1.5mg/l (NOM-127-SSA1-1994). Regarding F in maternal urine, mean values were 1.9±1.0mg/l, 2.0±1.1mg/l and 2.7±1...
  64. Wehner S, Stieglbauer G, Traoré C, Sie A, Becher H, Müller O. Malaria incidence during early childhood in rural Burkina Faso: Analysis of a birth cohort protected with insecticide-treated mosquito nets. Acta Trop. 2017;175:78-83 pubmed publisher
    Even in the high transmission areas of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the incidence of falciparum malaria varies greatly depending on factors such as age, rainfall pattern, distance to breeding places, quality of houses, and existing vector ..
  65. Dornic N, Ficheux A, Bernard A, Roudot A. Adequacy of the default values for skin surface area used for risk assessment and French anthropometric data by a probabilistic approach. Food Chem Toxicol. 2017;106:386-392 pubmed publisher
    ..This contains useful data for risk assessment such as default values for Skin Surface Area (SSA). A more in-depth study of anthropometric data across Europe reveals considerable variations...
  66. Akombi B, Agho K, Hall J, Wali N, Renzaho A, Merom D. Stunting, Wasting and Underweight in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017;14: pubmed publisher
    ..One third of all undernourished children globally reside in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)...
  67. Sato K, Banshodani M, Nishihara M, Nambu J, Kawaguchi Y, Shimamoto F, et al. Sessile serrated adenoma/polyp leading to acute appendicitis with multiple pyogenic liver abscesses: A case report. Int J Surg Case Rep. 2018;42:38-43 pubmed publisher
    ..appendicitis is a common disease, appendicitis concurrent with liver abscesses and sessile serrated adenoma/polyp (SSA/P) is rare. A 69-year-old man presented with symptoms of abdominal pain and fever...
  68. Woolf King S, Fatch R, Cheng D, Muyindike W, Ngabirano C, Kekibiina A, et al. Alcohol Use and Unprotected Sex Among HIV-Infected Ugandan Adults: Findings from an Event-Level Study. Arch Sex Behav. 2018;47:1937-1948 pubmed publisher
    While alcohol is a known risk factor for HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), studies designed to investigate the temporal relationship between alcohol use and unprotected sex are lacking...
  69. Fukuda Kamitani T, Kamitani T. Ubiquitination of Ro52 autoantigen. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;295:774-8 pubmed
    ..The autoantibodies recognize a RING-finger protein, Ro52/SSA (52 kDa), whose function is still unknown. In this study, the ubiquitination of Ro52 was investigated...
  70. McEwan W, Falcon B, Vaysburd M, Clift D, Oblak A, Ghetti B, et al. Cytosolic Fc receptor TRIM21 inhibits seeded tau aggregation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:574-579 pubmed publisher
    ..a danger response mediated by tau-associated antibodies and the cytosolic Fc receptor tripartite motif protein 21 (TRIM21)...
  71. Chan E, Di Donato F, Hamel J, Tseng C, Buyon J. 52-kD SS-A/Ro: genomic structure and identification of an alternatively spliced transcript encoding a novel leucine zipper-minus autoantigen expressed in fetal and adult heart. J Exp Med. 1995;182:983-92 pubmed
    ..26 (87%) of 30 sera tested from mothers whose children were known to have neonatal lupus immunoprecipitated the 52 beta form.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) ..
  72. Di Donato F, Chan E, Askanase A, Miranda Carus M, Buyon J. Interaction between 52 kDa SSA/Ro and deubiquitinating enzyme UnpEL: a clue to function. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2001;33:924-34 pubmed
    ..of isolated heart block in utero strongly predicts the presence of maternal autoantibodies reactive with 52 kDa SSA/Ro. The mechanisms that underlie this observation may be elucidated by defining the function of the target antigen...
  73. Imanishi T, Morinobu A, Hayashi N, Kanagawa S, Koshiba M, Kondo S, et al. A novel polymorphism of the SSA1 gene is associated with anti-SS-A/Ro52 autoantibody in Japanese patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2005;23:521-4 pubmed
    To investigate the association of polymorphisms of the SSA1 gene (OMIM 109092) with primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and anti-SS-A/Ro52 antibody production...
  74. Fritsch C, Hoebeke J, Dali H, Ricchiuti V, Isenberg D, Meyer O, et al. 52-kDa Ro/SSA epitopes preferentially recognized by antibodies from mothers of children with neonatal lupus and congenital heart block. Arthritis Res Ther. 2006;8:R4 pubmed
    ..The 52-kDa Ro/SSA antigen (Ro52) ribonucleoprotein represents an antigenic target strongly associated with the autoimmune response in mothers whose ..
  75. Hennig J, Bresell A, Sandberg M, Hennig K, Wahren Herlenius M, Persson B, et al. The fellowship of the RING: the RING-B-box linker region interacts with the RING in TRIM21/Ro52, contains a native autoantigenic epitope in Sjögren syndrome, and is an integral and conserved region in TRIM proteins. J Mol Biol. 2008;377:431-49 pubmed publisher
    b>Ro52 is a major autoantigen that is targeted in the autoimmune disease Sjögren syndrome and belongs to the tripartite motif (TRIM) protein family...
  76. Coussement P, Bauwens D, Maertens J, De Mey M. Direct Combinatorial Pathway Optimization. ACS Synth Biol. 2017;6:224-232 pubmed publisher
    ..contribution, we introduce a new combinatorial multigene pathway assembly scheme based on Single Strand Assembly (SSA) methods and Golden Gate Assembly, exploiting the strengths of both assembly techniques...
  77. Lorrai I, Maccioni P, Carai M, Capra A, Castelli M, Riva A, et al. Suppressing effect of saikosaponin A, an active ingredient of Bupleurum falcatum, on chocolate self-administration and reinstatement of chocolate seeking in rats. Neurosci Lett. 2017;638:211-217 pubmed publisher
    Recent lines of experimental evidence have indicated that saikosaponin A (SSA) - a bioactive ingredient of the medicinal plant, Bupleurum falcatum L. - suppressed alcohol, morphine, and cocaine self-administration in rats...
  78. Santos F, Maciel C, Newland P. Pre-processing and transfer entropy measures in motor neurons controlling limb movements. J Comput Neurosci. 2017;43:159-171 pubmed publisher
    ..propose a method to overcome this difficulty by using a preprocessing step based on Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA) to remove nonlinear trends and discontinuities...
  79. Tocko Marabena B, Silla S, Simiand C, Zinga I, Legg J, Reynaud B, et al. Genetic diversity of Bemisia tabaci species colonizing cassava in Central African Republic characterized by analysis of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182749 pubmed publisher
    ..tabaci and agro-ecological zone. Phylogenetic analysis of the whitefly mtCOI sequences indicated that SSA1 (-SG1, -SG2), SSA3, MED, MEAM1 and Indian Ocean (IO) putative species occur in CAR...
  80. Nishioka H, Fukuhara N, Yamaguchi Okada M, Takeshita A, Takeuchi Y, Yamada S. Pitfalls in early biochemical evaluation after transsphenoidal surgery in patients with acromegaly. Endocr J. 2017;64:1073-1078 pubmed publisher
    ..49 patients (38.3%) were preoperatively treated with somatostatin analog (SSA). Follow-up period ranged from 52 to 75 (63) months...
  81. Sharma D, Srivastava A, Ram K, Singh A, Singh D. Temporal variability in aerosol characteristics and its radiative properties over Patiala, northwestern part of India: Impact of agricultural biomass burning emissions. Environ Pollut. 2017;231:1030-1041 pubmed publisher
    ..The average single scattering albedo (SSA at 500 nm) values are 0.70, 0.72, 0.82 and 0.75 during PoM, winter, PrM and monsoon seasons, respectively...
  82. Temu T, Lane K, Shen C, Ng ang a L, Akwanalo C, Chen P, et al. Clinical characteristics and 12-month outcomes of patients with valvular and non-valvular atrial fibrillation in Kenya. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0185204 pubmed publisher
    ..The clinical profile and outcomes of AF patients with valvular heart diseases in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) have not been adequately described...
  83. Tian L, He G, Cai Y, Wu S, Su Y, Yan H, et al. Co3O4 based nonenzymatic glucose sensor with high sensitivity and reliable stability derived from hollow hierarchical architecture. Nanotechnology. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..The high sensitivity could be attributed to the large specific surface area (SSA), ample unimpeded penetration diffusion paths and high electron transfer rate originated from the unique two-..
  84. Igarashi T, Itoh Y, Fukunaga Y, Yamamoto M. Stress-induced cell surface expression and antigenic alteration of the Ro/SSA autoantigen. Autoimmunity. 1995;22:33-42 pubmed
    ..There are two isoform families; the 60 kD forms (Ro60) and the 52 kD forms (Ro52). Recently we have found that autoantibodies to the Ro/SSA proteins are conformation dependent...
  85. Reddy B, van der Knaap J, Bot A, Mohd Sarip A, Dekkers D, Timmermans M, et al. Nucleotide biosynthetic enzyme GMP synthase is a TRIM21-controlled relay of p53 stabilization. Mol Cell. 2014;53:458-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Intriguingly, cytoplasmic sequestration of GMPS requires ubiquitylation by TRIM21, a ubiquitin ligase associated with autoimmune disease...
  86. Kimura T, Jain A, Choi S, Mandell M, Johansen T, Deretic V. TRIM-directed selective autophagy regulates immune activation. Autophagy. 2017;13:989-990 pubmed publisher
    ..MEFV/TRIM20, and TRIM21 act as autophagic receptors recognizing their cognate targets and delivering them for autophagic degradation...
  87. Jones A, Acharya Y, Galway L. Urbanicity Gradients Are Associated with the Household- and Individual-Level Double Burden of Malnutrition in Sub-Saharan Africa. J Nutr. 2016;146:1257-67 pubmed publisher
    The nutrition transition is advancing throughout sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, the nutritional risk across urbanicity gradients associated with this transition is not clear...
  88. Schmitz L. Do working conditions at older ages shape the health gradient?. J Health Econ. 2016;50:183-197 pubmed publisher
    ..Information Network (O*NET), and mid-career earnings records from the Social Security Administration's (SSA) Master Earnings File (MEF)...
  89. Huang K, Nakigudde J, Rhule D, Gumikiriza Onoria J, Abura G, Kolawole B, et al. Transportability of an Evidence-Based Early Childhood Intervention in a Low-Income African Country: Results of a Cluster Randomized Controlled Study. Prev Sci. 2017;18:964-975 pubmed publisher
    Children in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are burdened by significant unmet mental health needs...
  90. Bode G, Hammer T, Karvouniaris N, Feucht M, Konstantinidis L, Südkamp N, et al. Patellar tendinopathy in young elite soccer- clinical and sonographical analysis of a German elite soccer academy. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2017;18:344 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, sonographical examinations (Aplio SSA-770A/80; Toshiba, Tokyo, Japan) with 12-MHz multifrequency linear transducers (8-14 MHz) of both patellar ..
  91. Gueler A, Vanobberghen F, Rice B, Egger M, Mugglin C. The HIV Care Cascade from HIV diagnosis to viral suppression in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis protocol. Syst Rev. 2017;6:172 pubmed publisher
    ..the different methodological approaches used to define the steps in the HIV care cascade in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where most people with HIV live, and to assess the proportion of participants retained at each step...
  92. Morgana S, Estévez Calvar N, Gambardella C, Faimali M, Garaventa F. A short-term swimming speed alteration test with nauplii of Artemia franciscana. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2018;147:558-564 pubmed publisher
    ..The proposed bioassay consisted in the evaluation of the swimming speed alteration (SSA) of nauplii of Artemia franciscana incubated at 39°C (± 1) for 6h, using a Swimming Behavior Recorder system (..