Gene Symbol: TRAK1
Description: trafficking kinesin protein 1
Alias: MILT1, OIP106, trafficking kinesin-binding protein 1, 106 kDa O-GlcNAc transferase-interacting protein, O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase interacting protein 106, OGT(O-Glc-NAc transferase)-interacting protein 106 KDa, milton homolog 1, trafficking protein, kinesin binding 1
Species: human
Products:     TRAK1

Top Publications

  1. Brickley K, Smith M, Beck M, Stephenson F. GRIF-1 and OIP106, members of a novel gene family of coiled-coil domain proteins: association in vivo and in vitro with kinesin. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:14723-32 pubmed
    ..44% amino acid sequence identity with O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase interacting protein 106, OIP106. Both proteins contain predicted coiled-coil domains and probably constitute a novel gene family...
  2. Gilbert S, Zhang L, Forster M, Anderson J, Iwase T, Soliven B, et al. Trak1 mutation disrupts GABA(A) receptor homeostasis in hypertonic mice. Nat Genet. 2006;38:245-50 pubmed
    ..We cloned the responsible gene, trafficking protein, kinesin binding 1 (Trak1), and showed that its protein product interacts with GABA(A) receptors...
  3. Fransson S, Ruusala A, Aspenstrom P. The atypical Rho GTPases Miro-1 and Miro-2 have essential roles in mitochondrial trafficking. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;344:500-10 pubmed
    ..Moreover, we show that Miro interacts with the Kinesin-binding proteins, GRIF-1 and OIP106, suggesting that the Miro GTPases form a link between the mitochondria and the trafficking apparatus of the ..
  4. Koutsopoulos O, Laine D, Osellame L, Chudakov D, Parton R, Frazier A, et al. Human Miltons associate with mitochondria and induce microtubule-dependent remodeling of mitochondrial networks. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1803:564-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the human Miltons are important mediators of the mitochondrial trafficking machinery. ..
  5. Wang X, Schwarz T. The mechanism of Ca2+ -dependent regulation of kinesin-mediated mitochondrial motility. Cell. 2009;136:163-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Disrupting Ca(2+)-dependent regulation diminishes neuronal resistance to excitotoxicity. ..
  6. Webber E, Li L, Chin L. Hypertonia-associated protein Trak1 is a novel regulator of endosome-to-lysosome trafficking. J Mol Biol. 2008;382:638-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, a spontaneous mutation in the gene encoding trafficking protein, kinesin-binding 1 (Trak1), was identified as the genetic defect that causes hypertonia in mice...
  7. Mao K, Ji F, BREEN P, Sewell A, Han M, Sadreyev R, et al. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in C. elegans Activates Mitochondrial Relocalization and Nuclear Hormone Receptor-Dependent Detoxification Genes. Cell Metab. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    ..of intestinal mitochondria, which requires the mitochondrial Rho GTPase miro-1 and its adaptor trak-1/TRAK1, but not nhr-45-regulated responses...
  8. Richter F, Gao F, Medvedeva V, Lee P, Bove N, Fleming S, et al. Chronic administration of cholesterol oximes in mice increases transcription of cytoprotective genes and improves transcriptome alterations induced by alpha-synuclein overexpression in nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Neurobiol Dis. 2014;69:263-75 pubmed publisher
    ..g. Prdx1, Prdx2, Glrx2, Hspa9, Pink1, Drp1, Trak1) and dopamine-related (Th, Ddc, Gch1, Dat, Vmat2, Drd2, Chnr6a) genes...
  9. Malavasi E, Economides K, Grünewald E, Makedonopoulou P, Gautier P, Mackie S, et al. DISC1 regulates N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor dynamics: abnormalities induced by a Disc1 mutation modelling a translocation linked to major mental illness. Transl Psychiatry. 2018;8:184 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that the NMDAR subunit GluN2B complexes with DISC1-associated trafficking factor TRAK1, while DISC1 interacts with the GluN1 subunit and regulates dendritic NMDAR motility in cultured mouse neurons...

More Information


  1. Xu Q, Yang J, Cao Y, Zhang L, Zeng X, Li F, et al. Acupuncture improves locomotor function by enhancing GABA receptor expression in transient focal cerebral ischemia rats. Neurosci Lett. 2015;588:88-94 pubmed publisher
    ..expressions of the two receptors were increased, but levels of GABA and trafficking protein, kinesin binding 1 (TRAK1), which plays a role in the intracellular transport of GABA receptors, were unchanged...
  2. Onodera Y, Nam J, Horikawa M, Shirato H, Sabe H. Arf6-driven cell invasion is intrinsically linked to TRAK1-mediated mitochondrial anterograde trafficking to avoid oxidative catastrophe. Nat Commun. 2018;9:2682 pubmed publisher
    ..Blockade of the RhoT1-TRAK1 machinery, rather than RhoT1-TRAK2, impairs cell invasion, but not two-dimensional random cell migration...
  3. Oeding S, Majstrowicz K, Hu X, Schwarz V, Freitag A, Honnert U, et al. Identification of Miro1 and Miro2 as mitochondrial receptors for myosin XIX. J Cell Sci. 2018;131: pubmed publisher
    ..are transported predominantly along microtubules by kinesin and dynein motors that bind indirectly via TRAK1 and TRAK2 to outer mitochondrial membrane proteins Miro1 and Miro2 (Miro1/2)...
  4. Rotroff D, Joubert B, Marvel S, Håberg S, Wu M, Nilsen R, et al. Maternal smoking impacts key biological pathways in newborns through epigenetic modification in Utero. BMC Genomics. 2016;17:976 pubmed
    ..06?×?10-7). Nine of the 15 genes (FCRLA, MIR641, SLC25A24, TRAK1, C1orf180, ITLN2, GLIS1, LRFN1, and MIR451) were associated with cotinine at the gene-level (q?<?0...
  5. Norkett R, Modi S, Birsa N, Atkin T, Ivankovic D, Pathania M, et al. DISC1-dependent Regulation of Mitochondrial Dynamics Controls the Morphogenesis of Complex Neuronal Dendrites. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:613-29 pubmed publisher
    ..and fusion machinery via interaction with the outer mitochondrial membrane GTPase proteins Miro1 and Miro2, the TRAK1 and TRAK2 mitochondrial trafficking adaptors, and the mitochondrial fusion proteins (mitofusins)...
  6. Ogawa F, Murphy L, Malavasi E, O Sullivan S, Torrance H, Porteous D, et al. NDE1 and GSK3? Associate with TRAK1 and Regulate Axonal Mitochondrial Motility: Identification of Cyclic AMP as a Novel Modulator of Axonal Mitochondrial Trafficking. ACS Chem Neurosci. 2016;7:553-64 pubmed publisher
    ..with mitochondrial trafficking complexes where it associates with the core kinesin and dynein adaptor molecule TRAK1. We now show that the DISC1 interactors NDE1 and GSK3? also associate robustly with TRAK1 and demonstrate that ..
  7. Johnsson M, Henriksen R, Höglund A, Fogelholm J, Jensen P, Wright D. Genetical genomics of growth in a chicken model. BMC Genomics. 2018;19:72 pubmed publisher
    ..Of these, the genes TRAK1, OSBPL8, YEATS4, CEP55, and PIP4K2B are identified as strong candidates for growth loci in the chicken...
  8. Xie J, Chen P, Zhang J, Gao Z, Neves H, Zhang S, et al. The prognostic significance of DAPK1 in bladder cancer. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0175290 pubmed publisher
    ..Further analysis of the 3 independent bladder cancer datasets have identified ACOX1, UPK2, TRAK1, PLEKHG6 and MT1X genes had their expression significantly correlated with that of DAPK1...
  9. López Doménech G, Covill Cooke C, Ivankovic D, Halff E, Sheehan D, Norkett R, et al. Miro proteins coordinate microtubule- and actin-dependent mitochondrial transport and distribution. EMBO J. 2018;37:321-336 pubmed publisher
    ..Unexpectedly, the TRAK1 and TRAK2 motor protein adaptors can still localise to the outer mitochondrial membrane to drive anterograde ..
  10. Lumsden A, Young R, Pezos N, Keating D. Huntingtin-associated protein 1: Eutherian adaptation from a TRAK-like protein, conserved gene promoter elements, and localization in the human intestine. BMC Evol Biol. 2016;16:214 pubmed
    ..HAP1 shares a conserved "HAP1_N" domain with TRAfficking Kinesin proteins TRAK1 and TRAK2 (vertebrate), Milton (Drosophila) and T27A3.1 (C. elegans)...
  11. Wang X, Dhawan K, Lin J, Satpathy A, Zhang P, Ji G, et al. Pathological feature of a giant ileal Meckel's diverticulum with ectopic gastric mucosa. Clin J Gastroenterol. 2010;3:92-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Helicobacter pylori; and the nuclear proliferation antigen Ki-67, the gastrointestinal cancer-associated biomarker TRAK1, synaptophysin, and neurofilament were used to precisely define the mucosa and neuronal and ganglion cell ..
  12. Rydzanicz M, Jagła M, Kosinska J, Tomasik T, Sobczak A, Pollak A, et al. KIF5A de novo mutation associated with myoclonic seizures and neonatal onset progressive leukoencephalopathy. Clin Genet. 2017;91:769-773 pubmed publisher
    ..The binding between KIF5A and its cargoes is mediated by kinesin adaptor proteins such as TRAK1 and TRAK2...
  13. Barel O, Malicdan M, Ben Zeev B, Kandel J, Pri Chen H, Stephen J, et al. Deleterious variants in TRAK1 disrupt mitochondrial movement and cause fatal encephalopathy. Brain. 2017;140:568-581 pubmed publisher
    ..Using whole exome sequencing, we identified homozygous truncating variants in TRAK1 (NM_001042646:c.287-2A > C), in six lethal encephalopathic patients from three unrelated families...
  14. Iyer S, Akimoto Y, Hart G. Identification and cloning of a novel family of coiled-coil domain proteins that interact with O-GlcNAc transferase. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:5399-409 pubmed
    ..L., Pollard, S., and Stephenson, F. A. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 30079-30090), and its novel homolog, OIP106 (KIAA1042), as novel OGT-interacting proteins...
  15. Anazi S, Maddirevula S, Salpietro V, Asi Y, Alsahli S, Alhashem A, et al. Expanding the genetic heterogeneity of intellectual disability. Hum Genet. 2017;136:1419-1429 pubmed publisher
    ..mechanism, some of these variants represent the first confirmatory disease-gene links following previous reports (TRAK1, GTF3C3, SPTBN4 and NKX6-2), some of which were based on single families...
  16. Ogawa F, Malavasi E, Crummie D, Eykelenboom J, Soares D, Mackie S, et al. DISC1 complexes with TRAK1 and Miro1 to modulate anterograde axonal mitochondrial trafficking. Hum Mol Genet. 2014;23:906-19 pubmed publisher
  17. Loss O, Stephenson F. Localization of the kinesin adaptor proteins trafficking kinesin proteins 1 and 2 in primary cultures of hippocampal pyramidal and cortical neurons. J Neurosci Res. 2015;93:1056-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous work has established that trafficking kinesin proteins (TRAKs),TRAK1 and TRAK2, are kinesin adaptor proteins that link mitochondria to kinesin motor proteins via an acceptor protein ..
  18. Ryynänen J, Neme A, Tuomainen T, Virtanen J, Voutilainen S, Nurmi T, et al. Changes in vitamin D target gene expression in adipose tissue monitor the vitamin D response of human individuals. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2014;58:2036-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Taking the genes DUSP10, TRAK1, NRIP1, and THBD as examples, we confirmed the predicted VDR binding sites upstream of their transcription start ..
  19. An Y, Zhou Y, Ren G, Tian Q, Lu Y, Li H, et al. Elevated expression of MGb2-Ag/TRAK1 is correlated with poor prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2011;26:1397-404 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, the potential role of MGb2-antigen/TRAK1 (MGb2-Ag/TRAK1) in colorectal cancer (CRC) is unclear...
  20. Li Y, Lim S, Hoffman D, Aspenstrom P, Federoff H, Rempe D. HUMMR, a hypoxia- and HIF-1alpha-inducible protein, alters mitochondrial distribution and transport. J Cell Biol. 2009;185:1065-81 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings have broad implications for maintenance of neuronal viability and function during physiological and pathological states. ..
  21. Zhang F, Ren G, Lu Y, Jin B, Wang J, Chen X, et al. Identification of TRAK1 (Trafficking protein, kinesin-binding 1) as MGb2-Ag: a novel cancer biomarker. Cancer Lett. 2009;274:250-8 pubmed publisher
    ..MS (matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry), MGb2-Ag was identified as TRAK1 (Trafficking protein, kinesin-binding 1), a new molecular gained limited recognition...
  22. Iyer S, Hart G. Roles of the tetratricopeptide repeat domain in O-GlcNAc transferase targeting and protein substrate specificity. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:24608-16 pubmed
    ..Here, we further investigated the role of the TPR domain in the O-GlcNAcylation of OIP106, one of the members of this OIP family...
  23. Lee C, Chin L, Li L. Hypertonia-linked protein Trak1 functions with mitofusins to promote mitochondrial tethering and fusion. Protein Cell. 2018;9:693-716 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic studies have identified a homozygous truncation mutation in Trak1 that causes hypertonia in mice...
  24. Pekkurnaz G, Trinidad J, Wang X, Kong D, Schwarz T. Glucose regulates mitochondrial motility via Milton modification by O-GlcNAc transferase. Cell. 2014;158:54-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that, by dynamically regulating Milton GlcNAcylation, OGT tailors mitochondrial dynamics in neurons based on nutrient availability. ..
  25. van Spronsen M, Mikhaylova M, Lipka J, Schlager M, van den Heuvel D, Kuijpers M, et al. TRAK/Milton motor-adaptor proteins steer mitochondrial trafficking to axons and dendrites. Neuron. 2013;77:485-502 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that TRAK family adaptor proteins, TRAK1 and TRAK2, which link mitochondria to microtubule-based motors, are required for axonal and dendritic ..
  26. Loss O, Stephenson F. Developmental changes in trak-mediated mitochondrial transport in neurons. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2017;80:134-147 pubmed publisher
    Previous studies established that the kinesin adaptor proteins, TRAK1 and TRAK2, play an important role in mitochondrial transport in neurons...