Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: TRA2B
Description: transformer 2 beta homolog
Alias: Htra2-beta, PPP1R156, SFRS10, SRFS10, TRA2-BETA, TRAN2B, transformer-2 protein homolog beta, TRA-2 beta, protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 156, splicing factor, arginine/serine-rich 10 (transformer 2 homolog, Drosophila), transformer-2 protein homolog B
- Tran Q, Coleman T, Roesser J. Human transformer 2beta and SRp55 interact with a calcitonin-specific splice enhancer. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2003;1625:141-52 pubmed..Binding of SRp55 to an ESE required for calcitonin mRNA splicing suggests that the different levels of SRp55 present in different cell types may regulate calcitonin/CGRP alternative splicing. ..
- Beil B, Screaton G, Stamm S. Molecular cloning of htra2-beta-1 and htra2-beta-2, two human homologs of tra-2 generated by alternative splicing. DNA Cell Biol. 1997;16:679-90 pubmed..The ratio of these two isoforms changes after stimulation of primary human T-cell and primary rat spleen cell cultures, indicating that alternative splicing is involved in regulation of htra2-beta activity. ..
- Ouyang Y, zur Hausen A, Orlowska Volk M, Jager M, Bettendorf H, Hirschfeld M, et al. Expression levels of hnRNP G and hTra2-beta1 correlate with opposite outcomes in endometrial cancer biology. Int J Cancer. 2011;128:2010-9 pubmed publisher..Our results indicate that the antagonistic functional effects of hnRNP G and hTra2-beta1 on alternative splicing correlate directly to their opposite clinical effects on EC patient outcome. ..
- Generous A, Thorson M, Barcus J, Jacher J, Busch M, Sleister H. Identification of putative interactions between swine and human influenza A virus nucleoprotein and human host proteins. Virol J. 2014;11:228 pubmed publisher..channel formation (KCTD9), zinc transporter function (SLC30A9), Na+/K+ ATPase function (ATP1B1), and RNA splicing (TRA2B). Ten human proteins were identified as interacting with IAV NP in a Y2H screen...
- Bruch J, Xu H, de Andrade A, HÃ¶glinger G. Mitochondrial complex 1 inhibition increases 4-repeat isoform tau by SRSF2 upregulation. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e113070 pubmed publisher..We also found SRSF2, as well as another tau splicing factor, TRA2B, to be increased in brains of PSP patients...
- Fu H, Ding X, Zhang W, Kang Y. Profiling of nuclear copper-binding proteins under hypoxic condition. Biometals. 2019;32:329-341 pubmed publisher..Four of the 17 proteins were CuBPs, including ILF2 and TRA2B, both were downregulated, and LMNA and HSPB1, both were upregulated...
- Meerson A, Eliraz Y, Yehuda H, Knight B, Crundwell M, Ferguson D, et al. Obesity impacts the regulation of miR-10b and its targets in primary breast tumors. BMC Cancer. 2019;19:86 pubmed publisher..miR-10b and miR-30c and the mRNA levels of cancer-relevant target genes SRSF1, PIEZO1, MAPRE1, CDKN2A, TP-53 and TRA2B, as well as tumor grade...
- Wong J, Gao D, Nguyen T, Kwok C, van Geldermalsen M, Middleton R, et al. Intron retention is regulated by altered MeCP2-mediated splicing factor recruitment. Nat Commun. 2017;8:15134 pubmed publisher..MeCP2 binding near splice junctions facilitates IR via reduced recruitment of splicing factors, including Tra2b, and increased RNA polymerase II stalling...
- Dichmann D, Walentek P, Harland R. The alternative splicing regulator Tra2b is required for somitogenesis and regulates splicing of an inhibitory Wnt11b isoform. Cell Rep. 2015;10:527-36 pubmed publisher..transformer-2b (tra2b) encodes a splicing regulator whose endogenous function is poorly understood...
- Moussavi Nik S, Newman M, Ganesan S, Chen M, Martins R, Verdile G, et al. Hypoxia alters expression of zebrafish microtubule-associated protein tau (mapta, maptb) gene transcripts. BMC Res Notes. 2014;7:767 pubmed publisher..Expression of the zebrafish orthologue of human TRA2B, tra2b, that encodes a protein binding to MAPT transcripts and regulating splicing, was reduced under hypoxic ..
- Patel R, Carter G, Cooper D, Apostolatos H, Patel N. Transformer 2β homolog (Drosophila) (TRA2B) regulates protein kinase C δI (PKCδI) splice variant expression during 3T3L1 preadipocyte cell cycle. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:31662-72 pubmed publisher..Our results show TRA2B increased PKCδI expression...
- Bi L, Jiang Z, Zhou J. The role of lipin-1 in the pathogenesis of alcoholic fatty liver. Alcohol Alcohol. 2015;50:146-51 pubmed publisher..lipin-1 through the AMPK-SREBP-1 signaling and dramatically increase the ratio of Lpin1Î² to Lpin1Î± by SIRT1-SFRS10-Lpin1Î²/Î± axis in the liver...
- Li F, Fang Z, Zhang J, Li C, Liu H, Xia J, et al. Identification of TRA2B-DNAH5 fusion as a novel oncogenic driver in human lung squamous cell carcinoma. Cell Res. 2016;26:1149-1164 pubmed publisher..Through exon array analyses, molecular analyses and functional studies, we here identify the TRA2B-DNAH5 fusion as a novel oncogenic driver in lung SCC...
- Bidkhori G, Narimani Z, Hosseini Ashtiani S, Moeini A, Nowzari Dalini A, Masoudi Nejad A. Reconstruction of an integrated genome-scale co-expression network reveals key modules involved in lung adenocarcinoma. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e67552 pubmed publisher..PIK3CA, TAF15, XIAP, VAPB, Appl1, Rab5a, ARF4, CLPTM1L, SP4, ZNF124, LPP, FOXP1, SOX18, MSX2, NFE2L2, SMARCC1, TRA2B, CBX3, PRPF6, ATP6V1C1, MYBBP1A, MACF1, GRM2, TBXA2R, PRKAR2A, PTK2, PGF and MYO10 are among the genes that belong ..
- Kaminska D, Käkelä P, Nikkola E, Venesmaa S, Ilves I, Herzig K, et al. Regulation of alternative splicing in human obesity loci. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2016;24:2033-7 pubmed publisher..Interestingly, differential splicing of TRA2B, BAG6, and MSH5 was observed between lean individuals with normoglycemia and overweight individuals with type 2 ..
- Liu T, Sun H, Zhu D, Dong X, Liu F, Liang X, et al. TRA2A Promoted Paclitaxel Resistance and Tumor Progression in Triple-Negative Breast Cancers via Regulating Alternative Splicing. Mol Cancer Ther. 2017;16:1377-1388 pubmed publisher..Human AS factor TRA2 has two separate gene paralogs encoding TRA2A and TRA2B proteins. TRA2B is associated with cancer cell survival and therapeutic sensitivity...
- Wang J, Gao Q, Wang Y, Lafyatis R, Stamm S, Andreadis A. Tau exon 10, whose missplicing causes frontotemporal dementia, is regulated by an intricate interplay of cis elements and trans factors. J Neurochem. 2004;88:1078-90 pubmed..Lastly, we identified the domains of regulators SWAP and hnRNPG, which are required for regulation of exon 10 splicing. ..
- Lai M, Lin R, Huang S, Tsai C, Tarn W. A human importin-beta family protein, transportin-SR2, interacts with the phosphorylated RS domain of SR proteins. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:7950-7 pubmed..Thus, our results likely reflect a role of TRN-SR2 in the cellular trafficking of phosphorylated SR proteins. ..
- Liu X, Li H, Su J, Ding F, Zhao J, Chai F, et al. Regulation of RAGE splicing by hnRNP A1 and Tra2Î²-1 and its potential role in AD pathogenesis. J Neurochem. 2015;133:187-98 pubmed publisher..We proposed here a hypothetic model to illustrate that impaired glucose metabolism in AD brain may increase the expression of splicing protein hnRNP A1 and reduce Tra2Î²-1, which cause the imbalanced expression of mRAGE and esRAGE. ..
- Adams D, van der Weyden L, Mayeda A, Stamm S, Morris B, Rasko J. ZNF265--a novel spliceosomal protein able to induce alternative splicing. J Cell Biol. 2001;154:25-32 pubmed..Alignment with other RS domain-containing proteins revealed a high degree of SR dipeptide conservation. These data show that ZNF265 functions as a novel component of the mRNA processing machinery. ..
- Platt C, Calimano M, Nemet J, Bubenik J, Cochrane A. Differential Effects of Tra2ÃŸ Isoforms on HIV-1 RNA Processing and Expression. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0125315 pubmed publisher..Together, the findings indicate that Tra2Î±/Î² can play important roles in regulating HIV-1 RNA metabolism and expression. ..
- Akaike Y, Masuda K, Kuwano Y, Nishida K, Kajita K, Kurokawa K, et al. HuR regulates alternative splicing of the TRA2? gene in human colon cancer cells under oxidative stress. Mol Cell Biol. 2014;34:2857-73 pubmed publisher..Our findings revealed the potential role of nuclear HuR in the regulation of alternative splicing programs under oxidative stress. ..
- Nayler O, Stratling W, Bourquin J, Stagljar I, Lindemann L, Jasper H, et al. SAF-B protein couples transcription and pre-mRNA splicing to SAR/MAR elements. Nucleic Acids Res. 1998;26:3542-9 pubmed
- Kajita K, Kuwano Y, Kitamura N, Satake Y, Nishida K, Kurokawa K, et al. Ets1 and heat shock factor 1 regulate transcription of the Transformer 2? gene in human colon cancer cells. J Gastroenterol. 2013;48:1222-33 pubmed publisher..Our results suggest that oxidative stress-responsive Tra2? may play an important role in colon cancer growth. ..
- Hirschfeld M, Ouyang Y, Jaeger M, Erbes T, Orlowska Volk M, zur Hausen A, et al. HNRNP G and HTRA2-BETA1 regulate estrogen receptor alpha expression with potential impact on endometrial cancer. BMC Cancer. 2015;15:86 pubmed publisher..034). Our study demonstrates antagonistic regulatory effects of HNRNPG and HTRA2-BETA1 on ERa exon7 splicing with potential impact on type 1 EC clinical outcome due to the consecutively variable expression levels of the ERa isoform D7. ..
- Venables J, Elliott D, Makarova O, Makarov E, Cooke H, Eperon I. RBMY, a probable human spermatogenesis factor, and other hnRNP G proteins interact with Tra2beta and affect splicing. Hum Mol Genet. 2000;9:685-94 pubmed..The RNA-binding domain of RBM affected 5' splice site selection. We conclude that the hnRNP G family of proteins is involved in pre-mRNA splicing and infer that RBM may be involved in Tra2beta-dependent splicing in spermatocytes. ..
- Li Y, Zhou J. Roles of silent information regulator 1-serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 10-lipin 1 axis in the pathogenesis of alcohol fatty liver disease. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2017;242:1117-1125 pubmed publisher..Recently, serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 10 (SFRS10), a specific molecule functioning in alternative splicing of lipin 1 (LPIN1) pre-mRNAs, has emerged as the central ..
- Chen X, Guo L, Lin W, Xu P. Expression of Tra2beta isoforms is developmentally regulated in a tissue- and temporal-specific pattern. Cell Biol Int. 2003;27:491-6 pubmed..This study indicates that Tra2beta-regulated splicing may contribute to the regulation of mammalian development in a tissue- and temporal-specific pattern. ..
- Nasim M, Chernova T, Chowdhury H, Yue B, Eperon I. HnRNP G and Tra2beta: opposite effects on splicing matched by antagonism in RNA binding. Hum Mol Genet. 2003;12:1337-48 pubmed
- Hofmann Y, Wirth B. hnRNP-G promotes exon 7 inclusion of survival motor neuron (SMN) via direct interaction with Htra2-beta1. Hum Mol Genet. 2002;11:2037-49 pubmed..Finally, we suggest a model of how the exon 7 mRNA processing is regulated by the splicing factors identified so far. ..
- Pihlajamaki J, Lerin C, Itkonen P, Boes T, Floss T, Schroeder J, et al. Expression of the splicing factor gene SFRS10 is reduced in human obesity and contributes to enhanced lipogenesis. Cell Metab. 2011;14:208-18 pubmed publisher..We evaluated a representative splicing factor, SFRS10, downregulated in both obese human liver and muscle and in high-fat-fed mice, and determined metabolic impact of ..
- Pulkownik A, Walker G. Metabolism of the reserve polysaccharide of Streptococcus mitior (mitis): is there a second alpha-1,4-glucan phosphorylase?. J Bacteriol. 1976;127:281-90 pubmed..The enzyme acts as a glycogen phosphorylase in the particulate state and as a maltodextrin phosphorylase when soluble. The equilibrium between the two forms is related to the glycogen content of the cells. ..
- Diao Y, Wu D, Dai Z, Kang H, Wang Z, Wang X. Prognostic value of transformer 2Î² expression in prostate cancer. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015;8:6967-73 pubmed..We show that Tra2Î² was significantly upregulated in PCa patients after radical prostatectomy, and multivariate analysis confirmed Tra2Î² as an independent prognostic factor. ..
- Imai Y, Matsuo N, Ogawa S, Tohyama M, Takagi T. Cloning of a gene, YT521, for a novel RNA splicing-related protein induced by hypoxia/reoxygenation. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1998;53:33-40 pubmed..These results suggest that YT521 is a novel candidate for RNA splicing-related protein. ..
- Liu Y, Nie H, Liu C, Zhai X, Sang Q, Wang Y, et al. Angulin proteins ILDR1 and ILDR2 regulate alternative pre-mRNA splicing through binding to splicing factors TRA2A, TRA2B, or SRSF1. Sci Rep. 2017;7:7466 pubmed publisher..In the present work, we show that ILDR1 binds to splicing factors TRA2A, TRA2B, and SRSF1, and translocates into the nuclei when the splicing factors are present...
- Thorleifsson G, Walters G, Gudbjartsson D, Steinthorsdottir V, Sulem P, Helgadottir A, et al. Genome-wide association yields new sequence variants at seven loci that associate with measures of obesity. Nat Genet. 2009;41:18-24 pubmed publisher..6 x 10(-7). This includes previously identified variants close to or in the FTO, MC4R, BDNF and SH2B1 genes, in addition to variants at seven loci not previously connected with obesity. ..
- Young P, DiDonato C, Hu D, Kothary R, Androphy E, Lorson C. SRp30c-dependent stimulation of survival motor neuron (SMN) exon 7 inclusion is facilitated by a direct interaction with hTra2 beta 1. Hum Mol Genet. 2002;11:577-87 pubmed..We have previously shown that transient expression of an SR-like splicing factor, hTra2 beta 1, stimulates inclusion of exon 7 in SMN2-derived mini-gene transcripts through an interaction with the AG-rich ..
- Jiang Z, Tang H, Havlioglu N, Zhang X, Stamm S, Yan R, et al. Mutations in tau gene exon 10 associated with FTDP-17 alter the activity of an exonic splicing enhancer to interact with Tra2 beta. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:18997-9007 pubmed..This exonic enhancer element interacts with human Tra2 beta protein...
- Dettwiler S, Aringhieri C, Cardinale S, Keller W, Barabino S. Distinct sequence motifs within the 68-kDa subunit of cleavage factor Im mediate RNA binding, protein-protein interactions, and subcellular localization. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:35788-97 pubmed..However, CF I(m)68 does not concentrate in splicing speckles but in foci that partially colocalize with paraspeckles, a subnuclear component in which other proteins involved in transcriptional control and RNA processing have been found. ..
- Gabriel B, zur Hausen A, Bouda J, Boudova L, Koprivova M, Hirschfeld M, et al. Significance of nuclear hTra2-beta1 expression in cervical cancer. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2009;88:216-21 pubmed publisher..The observed shuttle process of this splicing factor with higher concentrations in the nucleus should have pronounced effects on the cellular function and tumor biology of the affected tumors, leading to the worse patient outcome. ..
- Benderska N, Becker K, Girault J, Becker C, Andreadis A, Stamm S. DARPP-32 binds to tra2-beta1 and influences alternative splicing. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1799:448-53 pubmed publisher..DARPP-32 changes the usage of tra2-beta1 dependent alternative exons in a concentration-dependent manner, suggesting that the DARPP-32:tra2-beta1 interaction is a molecular link between signaling pathways and pre-mRNA processing. ..
- Karunakaran D, Banday A, Wu Q, Kanadia R. Expression analysis of an evolutionarily conserved alternative splicing factor, Sfrs10, in age-related macular degeneration. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e75964 pubmed publisher..of a known stress response gene and an alternative splicing factor called Serine-Arginine rich splicing factor 10 (Sfrs10)...
- Erkelenz S, Poschmann G, Theiss S, Stefanski A, Hillebrand F, Otte M, et al. Tra2-mediated recognition of HIV-1 5' splice site D3 as a key factor in the processing of vpr mRNA. J Virol. 2013;87:2721-34 pubmed publisher..Therefore, we propose that splicing at 3'ss A2 occurs temporally between the binding of U1 snRNA and splicing at D3. ..
- Helmken C, Wirth B. Exclusion of Htra2-beta1, an up-regulator of full-length SMN2 transcript, as a modifying gene for spinal muscular atrophy. Hum Genet. 2000;107:554-8 pubmed..Based on these data, we suggest that the intrafamilial phenotypic variability in SMA families is not caused by polymorphic variants or transcription differences within Htra2-beta1. ..
- Yang L, Tao T, Wang Y, Bao Z, He X, Cui G. Knocking down the expression of TRA2Î² inhibits the proliferation and migration of human glioma cells. Pathol Res Pract. 2015;211:731-9 pubmed publisherTRA2Î² protein is encoded by the TRA2B gene (also called SFRS10) on human chromosome 3. It functions as a sequence-specific serine/arginine splicing factor that plays a role in mRNA processing, splicing patterns, and gene expression...
- Ji L, Ni T, Shen Y, Xue Q, Liu Y, Chen B, et al. Transformer 2? (Tra2?/SFRS10) positively regulates the progression of NSCLC via promoting cell proliferation. J Mol Histol. 2014;45:573-82 pubmed publisher..Our results indicated that Tra2? was involved in the tumorigenesis of NSCLC and might be a potential therapeutic target of NSCLC. ..
- Shin C, Feng Y, Manley J. Dephosphorylated SRp38 acts as a splicing repressor in response to heat shock. Nature. 2004;427:553-8 pubmed..SRp38 thus plays a crucial role in cell survival under stress conditions by inhibiting the splicing machinery. ..
- Helmken C, Hofmann Y, Schoenen F, Oprea G, Raschke H, Rudnik Schoneborn S, et al. Evidence for a modifying pathway in SMA discordant families: reduced SMN level decreases the amount of its interacting partners and Htra2-beta1. Hum Genet. 2003;114:11-21 pubmed..Further insights into the molecular pathway and the identification of SMA modifying gene(s) may help to find additional targets for a therapy approach. ..
- Paz S, Krainer A, Caputi M. HIV-1 transcription is regulated by splicing factor SRSF1. Nucleic Acids Res. 2014;42:13812-23 pubmed..Whereas in the later stages, Tat substitutes for SRSF1 by promoting release of the stalled polymerase and more efficient transcriptional elongation. ..
- Lennon G, Auffray C, Polymeropoulos M, Soares M. The I.M.A.G.E. Consortium: an integrated molecular analysis of genomes and their expression. Genomics. 1996;33:151-2 pubmed
- Best A, James K, Dalgliesh C, Hong E, Kheirolahi Kouhestani M, Curk T, et al. Human Tra2 proteins jointly control a CHEK1 splicing switch among alternative and constitutive target exons. Nat Commun. 2014;5:4760 pubmed publisher..We conclude Tra2 proteins jointly control constitutive and alternative splicing patterns via paralog compensation to control pathways essential to the maintenance of cell viability. ..
- Kuwano Y, Nishida K, Kajita K, Satake Y, Akaike Y, Fujita K, et al. Transformer 2Î² and miR-204 regulate apoptosis through competitive binding to 3' UTR of BCL2 mRNA. Cell Death Differ. 2015;22:815-25 pubmed publisher..Taken together, our findings suggest that Tra2Î² regulates apoptosis by modulating Bcl-2 expression through its competition with miR-204. This novel function may have a crucial role in tumor growth. ..
- Sakashita E, Tatsumi S, Werner D, Endo H, Mayeda A. Human RNPS1 and its associated factors: a versatile alternative pre-mRNA splicing regulator in vivo. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:1174-87 pubmed..factors were identified: p54 (also called SRp54; a member of the SR protein family), human transformer 2 beta (hTra2 beta; an exonic splicing enhancer-binding protein), hLucA (a potential component of U1 snRNP), and pinin (also called ..