Gene Symbol: TPH1
Description: tryptophan hydroxylase 1
Alias: TPRH, TRPH, tryptophan 5-hydroxylase 1, L-tryptophan hydroxylase, indoleacetic acid-5-hydroxylase, tryptophan 5-monooxygenase 1, tryptophan hydroxylase (tryptophan 5-monooxygenase)
Species: human
Products:     TPH1

Top Publications

  1. Lalovic A, Turecki G. Meta-analysis of the association between tryptophan hydroxylase and suicidal behavior. Am J Med Genet. 2002;114:533-40 pubmed
    ..97-1.34 for the former and OR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.77-1.20 for the latter). The combined results from comparisons within both groups showed no overall association between suicidal behavior and an intron 7 polymorphism of the TPH gene. ..
  2. Lai T, Wu C, Tsai H, Lin Y, Sun H. Polymorphism screening and haplotype analysis of the tryptophan hydroxylase gene (TPH1) and association with bipolar affective disorder in Taiwan. BMC Med Genet. 2005;6:14 pubmed
    ..In a preliminary study, we found that TPH1 intron7 A218C polymorphism was associated with BPD...
  3. Buttenschøn H, Flint T, Foldager L, Qin P, Christoffersen S, Hansen N, et al. An association study of suicide and candidate genes in the serotonergic system. J Affect Disord. 2013;148:291-8 pubmed publisher
    ..within the Serotonin Transporter (SLC6A4), Monoamine Oxidase-A (MAOA) and the Tryptophan Hydroxylase I and II (TPH1 and TPH2) genes...
  4. Stefulj J, Kubat M, Balija M, Skavic J, Jernej B. Variability of the tryptophan hydroxylase gene: study in victims of violent suicide. Psychiatry Res. 2005;134:67-73 pubmed
    ..The association of the promoter (-7065CT) and intron 7 (218AC) polymorphisms, and the related haplotype, of the Tph1 gene with suicidal behavior was investigated in a sample of 160 victims of violent suicide and 284 healthy controls...
  5. Li D, He L. Meta-analysis shows association between the tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) gene and schizophrenia. Hum Genet. 2006;120:22-30 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first meta-analysis of association between the three genes and schizophrenia. ..
  6. Tang G, Ren D, Xin R, Qian Y, Wang D, Jiang S. Lack of association between the tryptophan hydroxylase gene A218C polymorphism and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in Chinese Han population. Am J Med Genet. 2001;105:485-8 pubmed
    ..Therefore, our data indicate that the TPH gene A218C polymorphism may not be a susceptibility factor of ADHD in the Chinese Han population. ..
  7. Hong C, Tsai S, Wang Y. Association between tryptophan hydroxylase gene polymorphism (A218C) and schizophrenic disorders. Schizophr Res. 2001;49:59-63 pubmed
    ..239). The positive finding in this study suggests that the TPH 218A allele is a risk factor for schizophrenic disorders or is in linkage disequilibrium with the putative schizophrenia susceptibility locus in Han Chinese population. ..
  8. Souery D, Van Gestel S, Massat I, Blairy S, Adolfsson R, Blackwood D, et al. Tryptophan hydroxylase polymorphism and suicidality in unipolar and bipolar affective disorders: a multicenter association study. Biol Psychiatry. 2001;49:405-9 pubmed
    ..Homozygosity for the short allele is significantly less frequent in a subgroup of UPAD patients with a history of suicide attempt than in control subjects. ..
  9. Suzuki A, Fukasawa T, Shiraishi H, Ishii G, Oshino S, Aoshima T, et al. No association between the TPH A218C polymorphism and personality traits in Japanese healthy subjects. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2007;31:395-8 pubmed
    ..The present study thus suggests that the TPH A218C polymorphism does not affect personality traits in Japanese healthy subjects. ..

More Information


  1. Monteleone P, Tortorella A, Martiadis V, Serino I, Di Filippo C, Maj M. Association between A218C polymorphism of the tryptophan-hydroxylase-1 gene, harm avoidance and binge eating behavior in bulimia nervosa. Neurosci Lett. 2007;421:42-6 pubmed
  2. Porter R, Mulder R, Joyce P, Miller A, Kennedy M. Tryptophan hydroxylase gene (TPH1) and peripheral tryptophan levels in depression. J Affect Disord. 2008;109:209-12 pubmed publisher
    Genetic variants have been discovered in two genes encoding for tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH)-TPH1 and TPH2. Low tryptophan (TRP) levels are associated with depression and may arise because of stress...
  3. Yoon H, Kim Y. Association between serotonin-related gene polymorphisms and suicidal behavior in depressive patients. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2008;32:1293-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results were in line with most previous studies. More work is needed to replicate these findings. Our future studies aim at identifying other genetic associations. ..
  4. Keltikangas Jarvinen L, Puttonen S, Kivimaki M, Elovainio M, Rontu R, Lehtimaki T. Tryptophan hydroxylase 1 gene haplotypes modify the effect of a hostile childhood environment on adulthood harm avoidance. Genes Brain Behav. 2007;6:305-13 pubmed
    We conducted a series of tests to determine whether there is any association between tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) and temperament in adulthood...
  5. Viana M, De Marco L, Boson W, Romano Silva M, Correa H. Investigation of A218C tryptophan hydroxylase polymorphism: association with familial suicide behavior and proband's suicide attempt characteristics. Genes Brain Behav. 2006;5:340-5 pubmed
  6. Gizatullin R, Zaboli G, Jonsson E, Asberg M, Leopardi R. Haplotype analysis reveals tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) 1 gene variants associated with major depression. Biol Psychiatry. 2006;59:295-300 pubmed
    ..Haplotype analysis indicates that TPH-1 associates with MD. The most common TPH-1 variants appear to carry no risk, while some of the less frequent variants might contribute to genetic predisposition to MD. ..
  7. Baud P, Perroud N, Courtet P, Jaussent I, Relecom C, Jollant F, et al. Modulation of anger control in suicide attempters by TPH-1. Genes Brain Behav. 2009;8:97-100 pubmed publisher
  8. Jernej B, Stefulj J, Hranilovic D, Balija M, Skavic J, Kubat M. Intronic polymorphism of tryptophan hydroxylase and serotonin transporter: indication for combined effect in predisposition to suicide. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2004;111:733-8 pubmed
    ..0046). Concurrent presence of the two, allegedly transcriptionally less active, variants of these genes seems to be in some kind of relation to the increased susceptibility to suicide. ..
  9. Peters E, Slager S, McGrath P, Knowles J, Hamilton S. Investigation of serotonin-related genes in antidepressant response. Mol Psychiatry. 2004;9:879-89 pubmed 110 SNPs and four repeat polymorphisms located in seven candidate genes (HTR1A, HTR2A, HTR2C, MAOA, SLC6A4, TPH1, and TPH2)...
  10. Bellivier F, Chaste P, Malafosse A. Association between the TPH gene A218C polymorphism and suicidal behavior: a meta-analysis. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2004;124B:87-91 pubmed
    ..Both analyses suggested that the A allele has a dose-dependent effect on the risk of suicidal behavior. ..
  11. Lee B, Lee H, Lee B, Pae C, Yoon B, Ryu S, et al. Impact of the tryptophan hydroxylase 1 gene A218C polymorphism on amygdala activity in response to affective facial stimuli in patients with major depressive disorder. Genes Brain Behav. 2009;8:512-8 pubmed publisher
    Tryptophan hydroxylase-1 (TPH1) is the rate-limiting enzyme in serotonin biosynthesis, and allelic variations at the TPH1 locus have been implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. Using 1...
  12. Pooley E, Houston K, Hawton K, Harrison P. Deliberate self-harm is associated with allelic variation in the tryptophan hydroxylase gene (TPH A779C), but not with polymorphisms in five other serotonergic genes. Psychol Med. 2003;33:775-83 pubmed
    ..Our data extend the evidence that allelic variation in the TPH gene is a risk factor for deliberate self-harm. No evidence was found to implicate the other polymorphisms. ..
  13. Viikki M, Kampman O, Illi A, Setälä Soikkeli E, Anttila S, Huuhka M, et al. TPH1 218A/C polymorphism is associated with major depressive disorder and its treatment response. Neurosci Lett. 2010;468:80-4 pubmed publisher
    The association between the tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) 218A/C polymorphism and (1) severity of major depressive disorder (MDD) and (2) response to treatment was studied...
  14. Staner L, Uyanik G, Correa H, Tremeau F, Monreal J, Crocq M, et al. A dimensional impulsive-aggressive phenotype is associated with the A218C polymorphism of the tryptophan hydroxylase gene: a pilot study in well-characterized impulsive inpatients. Am J Med Genet. 2002;114:553-7 pubmed
  15. Rujescu D, Giegling I, Sato T, Hartmann A, Moller H. Genetic variations in tryptophan hydroxylase in suicidal behavior: analysis and meta-analysis. Biol Psychiatry. 2003;54:465-73 pubmed
    ..Because this variation do not seem to alter functional properties of the TPH gene or protein, functional variations remain to be identified and subsequently tested for association with suicide-related behavior. ..
  16. Wilson S, Stanley B, Brent D, Oquendo M, Huang Y, Mann J. The tryptophan hydroxylase-1 A218C polymorphism is associated with diagnosis, but not suicidal behavior, in borderline personality disorder. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2009;150B:202-8 pubmed publisher
    While there is some preliminary evidence that the tryptophan hydroxylase I (TPH1) polymorphisms are related to Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD), it is not clear if this association is due to the high rates of suicidal behavior in ..
  17. Boularand S, Darmon M, Mallet J. The human tryptophan hydroxylase gene. An unusual splicing complexity in the 5'-untranslated region. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:3748-56 pubmed
  18. Zaboli G, Gizatullin R, Nilsonne A, Wilczek A, Jonsson E, Ahnemark E, et al. Tryptophan hydroxylase-1 gene variants associate with a group of suicidal borderline women. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2006;31:1982-90 pubmed
    ..We conclude that TPH-1 associates with BPD in suicidal women. Our data support the expectation that haplotype analysis is superior to single locus analysis in gene-disease, case-control association studies. ..
  19. Stefulj J, Kubat M, Balija M, Jernej B. TPH gene polymorphism and aging: indication of combined effect on the predisposition to violent suicide. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2006;141B:139-41 pubmed
    ..Association of Tph1 gene and suicidality, despite considerable research efforts, remains controversial...
  20. Koller G, Engel R, Preuss U, Karakesisoglou A, Zill P, Bondy B, et al. Tryptophan hydroxylase gene 1 polymorphisms are not associated with suicide attempts in alcohol-dependent individuals. Addict Biol. 2005;10:269-73 pubmed
    ..Our data do not support the hypothesis of A-6526G, G-5806T or A-779C polymorphisms to be associated with suicide attempts in alcohol-dependent individuals. ..
  21. Saetre P, Lundmark P, Wang A, Hansen T, Rasmussen H, Djurovic S, et al. The tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) gene, schizophrenia susceptibility, and suicidal behavior: a multi-centre case-control study and meta-analysis. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2010;153B:387-396 pubmed publisher
    ..TPH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of 5-HT, and sequence variation in intron 6 of the TPH1 gene has been associated with schizophrenia...
  22. Ohtani M, Shindo S, Yoshioka N. Polymorphisms of the tryptophan hydroxylase gene and serotonin 1A receptor gene in suicide victims among Japanese. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2004;202:123-33 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, no significant relation could be established statistically concerning the serotonin related genes between the suicide samples and control samples in Akita. ..
  23. Yoshida K, Naito S, Takahashi H, Sato K, Ito K, Kamata M, et al. Monoamine oxidase: A gene polymorphism, tryptophan hydroxylase gene polymorphism and antidepressant response to fluvoxamine in Japanese patients with major depressive disorder. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2002;26:1279-83 pubmed
    ..The present study fails to demonstrate that the genetic polymorphisms of MAOA-VNTR and TPH-A218C affect the antidepressant effect of fluvoxamine in Japanese patients with major depressive disorder. ..
  24. Serretti A, Mandelli L, Lorenzi C, Landoni S, Calati R, Insacco C, et al. Temperament and character in mood disorders: influence of DRD4, SERTPR, TPH and MAO-A polymorphisms. Neuropsychobiology. 2006;53:9-16 pubmed
  25. Ono H, Shirakawa O, Nishiguchi N, Nishimura A, Nushida H, Ueno Y, et al. Tryptophan hydroxylase gene polymorphisms are not associated with suicide. Am J Med Genet. 2000;96:861-3 pubmed
    ..We concluded neither the -6526A/G polymorphism nor the 218A/C polymorphism of the TPH gene is likely to have a major effect on the susceptibility of suicide. Am. J. Med. Genet. (Neuropsychiatr. Genet.) 96:861-863, 2000. ..
  26. Chen C, Glatt S, Tsuang M. The tryptophan hydroxylase gene influences risk for bipolar disorder but not major depressive disorder: results of meta-analyses. Bipolar Disord. 2008;10:816-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Further replication of these findings in additional large case-control and family-based association is needed before TPH can be designated a risk gene for bipolar disorder. ..
  27. Kato M, Serretti A. Review and meta-analysis of antidepressant pharmacogenetic findings in major depressive disorder. Mol Psychiatry. 2010;15:473-500 pubmed publisher
    ..Out of the 17 genes we reviewed, 8 genes were entered into the meta-analysis (SLC6A4, HTR1A, HTR2A, TPH1, gene encoding the beta-3 subunit, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), HTR3A and HTR3B)...
  28. Andreou D, Saetre P, Werge T, Andreassen O, Agartz I, Sedvall G, et al. Tryptophan hydroxylase gene 1 (TPH1) variants associated with cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid and homovanillic acid concentrations in healthy volunteers. Psychiatry Res. 2010;180:63-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated possible relationships between five TPH1 gene polymorphisms and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of the major serotonin metabolite 5-..
  29. Nielsen D, Barral S, Proudnikov D, Kellogg S, Ho A, Ott J, et al. TPH2 and TPH1: association of variants and interactions with heroin addiction. Behav Genet. 2008;38:133-50 pubmed publisher
    ..subjects, including normal volunteers and those with specific addictive diseases, six common TPH2 and one TPH1 variant were genotyped...
  30. Lin Y, Chao S, Chen T, Lai T, Chen J, Sun H. Association of functional polymorphisms of the human tryptophan hydroxylase 2 gene with risk for bipolar disorder in Han Chinese. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007;64:1015-24 pubmed
    ..statistical analysis was performed to study the interaction between the 2 TPH genes in 205 study participants with TPH1 and TPH2 genotype data. Significant haplotype association of TPH2 polymorphisms and BPD was identified (P < ...
  31. Wang G, Coon S, Kaufman S. Alternative splicing at the 3'-cDNA of human tryptophan hydroxylase. J Neurochem. 1998;71:1769-72 pubmed
    ..Analysis of various human tissues by RT-PCR revealed that the spliced TPH mRNA species was detected in all the postmortem tissues we tested, but the nonspliced species was expressed in only some tissues. ..
  32. Reuter M, Hennig J. Pleiotropic effect of the TPH A779C polymorphism on nicotine dependence and personality. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2005;134B:20-4 pubmed
    Recent studies from molecular genetics have suggested an association between the tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) gene and nicotine addiction indicating a dysfunction of the serotonergic (5-HT) system in smoking behavior...
  33. Zaboli G, Jonsson E, Gizatullin R, Asberg M, Leopardi R. Tryptophan hydroxylase-1 gene variants associated with schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry. 2006;60:563-9 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that TPH-1 associates with schizophrenia. It appears that specific combinations of promoter variants vis-à-vis gene transcript variants contribute to genetic predisposition to the disease. ..
  34. Ono H, Shirakawa O, Kitamura N, Hashimoto T, Nishiguchi N, Nishimura A, et al. Tryptophan hydroxylase immunoreactivity is altered by the genetic variation in postmortem brain samples of both suicide victims and controls. Mol Psychiatry. 2002;7:1127-32 pubmed
  35. Liu X, Li H, Qin W, He G, Li D, Shen Y, et al. Association of TPH1 with suicidal behaviour and psychiatric disorders in the Chinese population. J Med Genet. 2006;43:e4 pubmed
    ..To investigate the role in suicide of one of the isoforms, TPH1, we examined the association of five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter region and in intron 7 ..
  36. Illi A, Setälä Soikkeli E, Viikki M, Poutanen O, Huhtala H, Mononen N, et al. 5-HTR1A, 5-HTR2A, 5-HTR6, TPH1 and TPH2 polymorphisms and major depression. Neuroreport. 2009;20:1125-8 pubmed publisher
    ..single nucleotide polymorphisms [HTR1A (rs6295), HTR2A (rs6313, rs6311 and rs7997012), HTR6 (rs1805054), TPH1 (rs1800532) and TPH2 (rs1386494)] with major depressive disorder and/or treatment outcome with serotonin reuptake ..
  37. Zill P, Büttner A, Eisenmenger W, Muller J, Moller H, Bondy B. Predominant expression of tryptophan hydroxylase 1 mRNA in the pituitary: a postmortem study in human brain. Neuroscience. 2009;159:1274-82 pubmed publisher
    ..on the vulnerability to psychiatric disorders have clearly been demonstrated in several studies, the role of TPH1 on neuronal mechanisms, respectively on behavioral traits is still poorly understood...
  38. Craig S, Boularand S, Darmon M, Mallet J, Craig I. Localization of human tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) to chromosome 11p15.3----p14 by in situ hybridization. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1991;56:157-9 pubmed
    ..The human gene for tryptophan hydroxylase has been previously assigned to chromosome 11 by analysis of a panel of somatic cell hybrids. We report here on the refinement of this localization by in situ hybridization. ..
  39. Li D, He L. Further clarification of the contribution of the tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) gene to suicidal behavior using systematic allelic and genotypic meta-analyses. Hum Genet. 2006;119:233-40 pubmed
  40. Peters E, Slager S, Jenkins G, Reinalda M, Garriock H, Shyn S, et al. Resequencing of serotonin-related genes and association of tagging SNPs to citalopram response. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2009;19:1-10 pubmed publisher
    ..resequencing the exonic and putatively regulatory regions of five serotonin-related candidate genes (HTR1A, HTR2A, TPH1, TPH2, and MAOA) in our fluoxetine-treated sample to uncover novel variants; (ii) selecting tagging single ..
  41. Tsai S, Wang Y, Chen J, Hong C. Allelic variants of the tryptophan hydroxylase (A218C) and serotonin 1B receptor (A-161T) and personality traits. Neuropsychobiology. 2003;48:68-71 pubmed
    ..Our negative findings suggest that the TPH A218C and HTR1B polymorphisms do not play major roles in the determination of TPQ personality traits. ..
  42. Rujescu D, Giegling I, Bondy B, Gietl A, Zill P, Moller H. Association of anger-related traits with SNPs in the TPH gene. Mol Psychiatry. 2002;7:1023-9 pubmed
    ..These findings support the hypothesis that the A218C and the A779C SNP in the TPH gene may be associated with anger-related traits in German samples. ..
  43. Serretti A, Cristina S, Lilli R, Cusin C, Lattuada E, Lorenzi C, et al. Family-based association study of 5-HTTLPR, TPH, MAO-A, and DRD4 polymorphisms in mood disorders. Am J Med Genet. 2002;114:361-9 pubmed
    ..Our study did not support the involvement of 5-HTTLPR, TPH, MAO-A, or DRD4 polymorphisms in mood disorders. ..
  44. Abbar M, Courtet P, Bellivier F, Leboyer M, Boulenger J, Castelhau D, et al. Suicide attempts and the tryptophan hydroxylase gene. Mol Psychiatry. 2001;6:268-73 pubmed
    ..The results presented here, and those of previous studies, suggest that a genetic variant of the 3' part of the TPH gene may be a susceptibility factor for a phenotype combining suicidal behavior, mood disorder and impulsive aggression. ..
  45. Ha X, Peng J, Zhao H, Deng Z, Dong J, Fan H, et al. Enhancement of Gastric Ulcer Healing and Angiogenesis by Hepatocyte Growth Factor Gene Mediated by Attenuated Salmonella in Rats. J Korean Med Sci. 2017;32:186-194 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that TPH treatment significantly accelerates the healing of gastric ulcers via stimulating proliferation of gastric epithelial cells and enhancing angiogenesis on gastric ulcer site. ..
  46. Nikishin D, Alyoshina N, Shmukler Y. Synthesis and Membrane Transport of Serotonin in the Developing Ovarian Follicle of Mouse. Dokl Biochem Biophys. 2018;478:4-7 pubmed publisher
    Using RT-PCR, we showed the presence of Tph1 mRNA in follicular cells and Tph2 mRNA in oocytes isolated from primary multilayer ovarian follicles of mouse and the absence of Ddc expression, which indicates that serotonin cannot be ..
  47. Maddela N, Scalvenzi L, Venkateswarlu K. Microbial degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons in crude oil: a field-scale study at the low-land rainforest of Ecuador. Environ Technol. 2017;38:2543-2550 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results clearly suggest that the selected soil isolates of bacteria and fungi could be effectively used for large-scale bioremediation of sites contaminated with crude oil. ..
  48. Koshlaf E, Shahsavari E, Aburto Medina A, Taha M, Haleyur N, Makadia T, et al. Bioremediation potential of diesel-contaminated Libyan soil. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2016;133:297-305 pubmed publisher
    ..This study is the first to report successful oil bioremediation with pea straw in Libya. It demonstrates the effectiveness of pea straw in enhancing bioremediation of the diesel-contaminated Libyan soil. ..
  49. Ma J, Yang Y, Dai X, Chen Y, Deng H, Zhou H, et al. Effects of adding bulking agent, inorganic nutrient and microbial inocula on biopile treatment for oil-field drilling waste. Chemosphere. 2016;150:17-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Adding inorganic nutrients and bulking agents can significantly improve biopile performance while addition of microbial inocula had minimal positive impacts on contaminant removal. ..
  50. Boularand S, Darmon M, Ganem Y, Launay J, Mallet J. Complete coding sequence of human tryptophan hydroxylase. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990;18:4257 pubmed
  51. Brezo J, Bureau A, Merette C, Jomphe V, Barker E, Vitaro F, et al. Differences and similarities in the serotonergic diathesis for suicide attempts and mood disorders: a 22-year longitudinal gene-environment study. Mol Psychiatry. 2010;15:831-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Five genes showed significant adjusted effects (HTR2A, TPH1, HTR5A, SLC6A4 and HTR1A)...
  52. Zhou L, Li H, Zhang Y, Han S, Xu H. Sphingomonas from petroleum-contaminated soils in Shenfu, China and their PAHs degradation abilities. Braz J Microbiol. 2016;47:271-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to evaluate the relationship between PAHs contamination levels and culturable Sphingomonas in environmental samples. ..
  53. Piel J, Lett T, Wackerhagen C, Plichta M, Mohnke S, Grimm O, et al. The effect of 5-HTTLPR and a serotonergic multi-marker score on amygdala, prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex reactivity and habituation in a large, healthy fMRI cohort. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2018;28:415-427 pubmed publisher
    ..While effects of 5-HTTLPR and of a serotonergic multi-marker score (5-HTTLPR, TPH1(rs1800532), TPH2(rs4570625), HTR1A(rs6295) and HTR2A(rs6311)) on amygdala activation did not withstand correction ..
  54. Pawlak J, Dmitrzak Weglarz M, Wilkosc M, Szczepankiewicz A, Leszczynska Rodziewicz A, Zaremba D, et al. Suicide behavior as a quantitative trait and its genetic background. J Affect Disord. 2016;206:241-250 pubmed publisher
    ..The associations between polymorphisms of the TPH1 and 5-HTTLPR genes and violent suicidal behavior was revealed with the least inconsistencies...
  55. Gizer I, Ficks C, Waldman I. Candidate gene studies of ADHD: a meta-analytic review. Hum Genet. 2009;126:51-90 pubmed publisher
    ..g., ADHD subtype diagnoses, gender, exposure to environmental risk factors). We conclude with a discussion of these findings in relation to emerging themes relevant to future studies of the genetics of ADHD. ..
  56. Nielsen D, Dean M, Goldman D. Genetic mapping of the human tryptophan hydroxylase gene on chromosome 11, using an intronic conformational polymorphism. Am J Hum Genet. 1992;51:1366-71 pubmed
    ..This region contains loci for several important genes, including those for Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and tyrosine hydroxylase. ..
  57. Myung W, Song J, Lim S, Won H, Kim S, Lee Y, et al. Genetic association study of individual symptoms in depression. Psychiatry Res. 2012;198:400-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The GGCCGGGC haplotype in the first haplotype block of TPH1 was significantly associated with middle insomnia...
  58. Bukh J, Bock C, Vinberg M, Werge T, Gether U, Kessing L. No interactions between genetic polymorphisms and stressful life events on outcome of antidepressant treatment. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2010;20:327-35 pubmed publisher
    ..We found no evidence that the effects of the genetic polymorphisms on treatment outcome were dependent on stressful life events experienced by the individual prior to onset of depression. ..
  59. Bi J, Zhang S, Du Z, Zhang J, Deng Y, Liu C, et al. Peripheral serotonin regulates postoperative intra-abdominal adhesion formation in mice. Sci Rep. 2017;7:10001 pubmed publisher
    ..The caecum-rubbing operations were conducted for intra-abdominal adhesion formation modelling in wild-type and Tph1-/- mice...
  60. Goldberg D, De Lombaert S, Aiello R, Bourassa P, Barucci N, Zhang Q, et al. Optimization of spirocyclic proline tryptophan hydroxylase-1 inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2017;27:413-419 pubmed publisher
    As a follow-up to the discovery of our spirocyclic proline-based TPH1 inhibitor lead, we describe the optimization of this scaffold...
  61. Gross Margolis K, Vittorio J, Talavera M, Gluck K, Li Z, Iuga A, et al. Enteric serotonin and oxytocin: endogenous regulation of severity in a murine model of necrotizing enterocolitis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2017;313:G386-G398 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, genetic deletion of tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1), which is responsible for 5-HT biosynthesis in enterochromaffin (EC) cells of the intestinal mucosa, and TPH ..
  62. Errington I, King C, Wilkins D, Spedding T, Hose G. Ecosystem effects and the management of petroleum-contaminated soils on subantarctic islands. Chemosphere. 2018;194:200-210 pubmed publisher