Gene Symbol: TONSL
Description: tonsoku like, DNA repair protein
Alias: IKBR, NFKBIL2, tonsoku-like protein, I-kappa-B-related protein, NF-kappa-B inhibitor-like protein 2, ikappaBR, inhibitor of kappa B-related protein, nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor-like 2
Species: human
Products:     TONSL

Top Publications

  1. Ray P, Zhang D, Elias J, Ray A. Cloning of a differentially expressed I kappa B-related protein. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:10680-5 pubmed
    ..This new member of the I kappa B family of proteins, I kappa BR, may play an important role in regulation of NF-kappa B function in epithelial cells. ..
  2. Norman D, Barton P. Isolation, sequence, and chromosomal localisation of the human IkappaBR gene (NFKBIL2). Ann Hum Genet. 2000;64:15-23 pubmed
    The inhibitors of NF-kappaB (IkappaBs) play an important role in the regulation of the NF-kappaB pathway. IkappaBR (for IkappaB-Related) is proposed to be a novel member of this family...
  3. Duro E, Lundin C, Ask K, Sanchez Pulido L, MacArtney T, Toth R, et al. Identification of the MMS22L-TONSL complex that promotes homologous recombination. Mol Cell. 2010;40:632-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we identify a human Mms22-like protein (MMS22L) and an MMS22L-interacting protein, NF?BIL2/TONSL. Depletion of MMS22L or TONSL from human cells causes a high level of double-strand breaks (DSBs) during DNA ..
  4. O Connell B, Adamson B, Lydeard J, Sowa M, Ciccia A, Bredemeyer A, et al. A genome-wide camptothecin sensitivity screen identifies a mammalian MMS22L-NFKBIL2 complex required for genomic stability. Mol Cell. 2010;40:645-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Among numerous candidate genes are two previously unstudied proteins: the ankyrin repeat protein NFKBIL2 and C6ORF167 (MMS22L), distantly related to yeast replication stress regulator Mms22p...
  5. O Donnell L, Panier S, Wildenhain J, Tkach J, Al Hakim A, Landry M, et al. The MMS22L-TONSL complex mediates recovery from replication stress and homologous recombination. Mol Cell. 2010;40:619-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report the identification of a complex composed of MMS22L (C6ORF167) and TONSL (NFKBIL2) that participates in the recovery from replication stress...
  6. Piwko W, Olma M, Held M, Bianco J, Pedrioli P, Hofmann K, et al. RNAi-based screening identifies the Mms22L-Nfkbil2 complex as a novel regulator of DNA replication in human cells. EMBO J. 2010;29:4210-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Mms22L physically and functionally interacts with the scaffold-like protein Nfkbil2 that co-purifies with histones, several chromatin remodelling and DNA replication/repair factors...
  7. Chapman S, Khor C, Vannberg F, Rautanen A, Walley A, Segal S, et al. Common NFKBIL2 polymorphisms and susceptibility to pneumococcal disease: a genetic association study. Crit Care. 2010;14:R227 pubmed publisher
    ..The possible role of genetic variation in the atypical NF-κB inhibitor IκB-R, encoded by NFKBIL2, in susceptibility to invasive pneumococcal disease has not, to our knowledge, previously been reported upon...
  8. Ask K, Jasencakova Z, Menard P, Feng Y, Almouzni G, Groth A. Codanin-1, mutated in the anaemic disease CDAI, regulates Asf1 function in S-phase histone supply. EMBO J. 2012;31:2013-23 pubmed publisher
    ..This function is compromised by two CDAI mutations that impair complex formation with Asf1, providing insight into the molecular basis for CDAI disease. ..
  9. Saredi G, Huang H, Hammond C, Alabert C, Bekker Jensen S, Forne I, et al. H4K20me0 marks post-replicative chromatin and recruits the TONSL–MMS22L DNA repair complex. Nature. 2016;534:714-718 pubmed publisher
    ..histones incorporated during DNA replication provide a signature of post-replicative chromatin, read by the human TONSL–MMS22L homologous recombination complex...

More Information


  1. Piwko W, Mlejnkova L, Mutreja K, Ranjha L, Stafa D, Smirnov A, et al. The MMS22L-TONSL heterodimer directly promotes RAD51-dependent recombination upon replication stress. EMBO J. 2016;35:2584-2601 pubmed
    ..Using in vivo and in vitro approaches, we show that the MMS22L-TONSL heterodimer localizes to replication forks under unperturbed conditions and its recruitment is increased during ..