TNPO3

Summary

Gene Symbol: TNPO3
Description: transportin 3
Alias: IPO12, LGMD1F, MTR10A, TRN-SR, TRN-SR2, TRNSR, transportin-3, imp12, importin 12, limb girdle muscular dystrophy 1F (autosomal dominant), transportin-SR
Species: human
Products:     TNPO3

Top Publications

  1. Harley J, Alarcon Riquelme M, Criswell L, Jacob C, Kimberly R, Moser K, et al. Genome-wide association scan in women with systemic lupus erythematosus identifies susceptibility variants in ITGAM, PXK, KIAA1542 and other loci. Nat Genet. 2008;40:204-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that numerous genes, some with known immune-related functions, predispose to SLE. ..
  2. Krishnan L, Matreyek K, Oztop I, Lee K, Tipper C, Li X, et al. The requirement for cellular transportin 3 (TNPO3 or TRN-SR2) during infection maps to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 capsid and not integrase. J Virol. 2010;84:397-406 pubmed publisher
    Recent genome-wide screens have highlighted an important role for transportin 3 in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and preintegration complex (PIC) nuclear import...
  3. Shah V, Shi J, Hout D, Oztop I, Krishnan L, Ahn J, et al. The host proteins transportin SR2/TNPO3 and cyclophilin A exert opposing effects on HIV-1 uncoating. J Virol. 2013;87:422-32 pubmed publisher
    ..One such factor, transportin SR2 (TRN-SR2)/transportin 3 (TNPO3), promotes infection by HIV-1 and some other lentiviruses, and recent studies have genetically linked ..
  4. Thys W, De Houwer S, Demeulemeester J, Taltynov O, Vancraenenbroeck R, Gerard M, et al. Interplay between HIV entry and transportin-SR2 dependency. Retrovirology. 2011;8:7 pubmed publisher
    Transportin-SR2 (TRN-SR2, TNPO3, transportin 3) was previously identified as an interaction partner of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integrase and functions as a nuclear import factor of HIV-1...
  5. Price A, Fletcher A, Schaller T, Elliott T, Lee K, Kewalramani V, et al. CPSF6 defines a conserved capsid interface that modulates HIV-1 replication. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002896 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, mutations that prevent CPSF6 binding also relieve dependence on nuclear entry cofactors TNPO3 and RanBP2...
  6. De Iaco A, Luban J. Inhibition of HIV-1 infection by TNPO3 depletion is determined by capsid and detectable after viral cDNA enters the nucleus. Retrovirology. 2011;8:98 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies demonstrated that TNPO3 is required for full infectivity of HIV-1...
  7. Radstake T, Gorlova O, Rueda B, Martin J, Alizadeh B, Palomino Morales R, et al. Genome-wide association study of systemic sclerosis identifies CD247 as a new susceptibility locus. Nat Genet. 2010;42:426-9 pubmed publisher
    ..39 x 10(-9) in the combined analysis). Additionally, we confirm and firmly establish the role of the MHC (P = 2.31 x 10(-18)), IRF5 (P = 1.86 x 10(-13)) and STAT4 (P = 3.37 x 10(-9)) gene regions as SSc genetic risk factors. ..
  8. Hilditch L, Towers G. A model for cofactor use during HIV-1 reverse transcription and nuclear entry. Curr Opin Virol. 2014;4:32-6 pubmed publisher
    ..lifecycle by utilising cyclophilin A (CypA), cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor-6 (CPSF6), Nup358 and TNPO3 to orchestrate a coordinated process of DNA synthesis, capsid uncoating and integration targeting that evades ..
  9. Hirschfield G, Liu X, Han Y, Gorlov I, Lu Y, Xu C, et al. Variants at IRF5-TNPO3, 17q12-21 and MMEL1 are associated with primary biliary cirrhosis. Nat Genet. 2010;42:655-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Combined analysis of the genome-wide association and replication datasets identified IRF5-TNPO3 (combined P = 8.66 x 10(-13)), 17q12-21 (combined P = 3.50 x 10(-13)) and MMEL1 (combined P = 3...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Valle Casuso J, Di Nunzio F, Yang Y, Reszka N, Lienlaf M, Arhel N, et al. TNPO3 is required for HIV-1 replication after nuclear import but prior to integration and binds the HIV-1 core. J Virol. 2012;86:5931-6 pubmed publisher
    b>TNPO3 is a nuclear importer required for HIV-1 infection. Here, we show that depletion of TNPO3 leads to an HIV-1 block after nuclear import but prior to integration...
  2. Hom G, Graham R, Modrek B, Taylor K, Ortmann W, Garnier S, et al. Association of systemic lupus erythematosus with C8orf13-BLK and ITGAM-ITGAX. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:900-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified and then confirmed through replication two new genetic loci for SLE: a promoter-region allele associated with reduced expression of BLK and increased expression of C8orf13 and variants in the ITGAM-ITGAX region. ..
  3. Lai M, Lin R, Huang S, Tsai C, Tarn W. A human importin-beta family protein, transportin-SR2, interacts with the phosphorylated RS domain of SR proteins. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:7950-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, our results likely reflect a role of TRN-SR2 in the cellular trafficking of phosphorylated SR proteins. ..
  4. Taltynov O, Demeulemeester J, Christ F, De Houwer S, Tsirkone V, Gerard M, et al. Interaction of transportin-SR2 with Ras-related nuclear protein (Ran) GTPase. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:25603-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Transportin-SR2 (TRN-SR2, Transportin-3, TNPO3) is a cellular karyopherin implicated in nuclear import of HIV-1...
  5. Lee Y, Bae S, Choi S, Ji J, Song G. Genome-wide pathway analysis of genome-wide association studies on systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. Mol Biol Rep. 2012;39:10627-35 pubmed publisher
    ..In the non-HLA region, meta-analysis identified 6 SNPs associated with SLE with genome-wide significance (STAT4, TNPO3, BLK, FAM167A, and IRF5). ICSNPathway identified five candidate causal SNPs and 13 candidate causal pathways...
  6. Cribier A, Segeral E, Delelis O, Parissi V, Simon A, Ruff M, et al. Mutations affecting interaction of integrase with TNPO3 do not prevent HIV-1 cDNA nuclear import. Retrovirology. 2011;8:104 pubmed publisher
    ..HIV-1 IN also binds the karyopherin TNPO3, however the significance of this interaction during viral replication remains to be explored...
  7. Arhel N. Revisiting HIV-1 uncoating. Retrovirology. 2010;7:96 pubmed publisher
  8. Kataoka N, Bachorik J, Dreyfuss G. Transportin-SR, a nuclear import receptor for SR proteins. J Cell Biol. 1999;145:1145-52 pubmed
    ..TRN-SR has amino acid sequence similarity to several members of the importin beta/transportin family. These findings strongly suggest that TRN-SR is a nuclear import receptor for the SR protein family. ..
  9. Zhou L, Sokolskaja E, Jolly C, James W, Cowley S, Fassati A. Transportin 3 promotes a nuclear maturation step required for efficient HIV-1 integration. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002194 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that the karyopherin Transportin 3 (Tnp3) promotes HIV-1 integration in different cell types...
  10. Brass A, Dykxhoorn D, Benita Y, Yan N, Engelman A, Xavier R, et al. Identification of host proteins required for HIV infection through a functional genomic screen. Science. 2008;319:921-6 pubmed publisher
    ..previously unknown roles for retrograde Golgi transport proteins (Rab6 and Vps53) in viral entry, a karyopherin (TNPO3) in viral integration, and the Mediator complex (Med28) in viral transcription...
  11. Matreyek K, Engelman A. Viral and cellular requirements for the nuclear entry of retroviral preintegration nucleoprotein complexes. Viruses. 2013;5:2483-511 pubmed publisher
    ..capsid was found to be responsible for the viral requirement of various nuclear transport proteins, including transportin 3 and nucleoporins NUP153 and NUP358, during infection...
  12. Logue E, Taylor K, Goff P, Landau N. The cargo-binding domain of transportin 3 is required for lentivirus nuclear import. J Virol. 2011;85:12950-61 pubmed publisher
    ..nuclear import and nuclear pore components have been implicated as playing a role in nuclear import, including transportin 3 (TNPO3), a member of the importin-? family of nuclear import proteins...
  13. Levin A, Hayouka Z, Friedler A, Loyter A. Transportin 3 and importin ? are required for effective nuclear import of HIV-1 integrase in virus-infected cells. Nucleus. 2010;1:422-31 pubmed publisher
    ..import has been suggested to be mediated by the viral integrase protein (IN), via either the importin ? or transportin 3 (TNPO3/transportin-SR2) pathways...
  14. De Houwer S, Demeulemeester J, Thys W, Taltynov O, Zmajkovicova K, Christ F, et al. Identification of residues in the C-terminal domain of HIV-1 integrase that mediate binding to the transportin-SR2 protein. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:34059-68 pubmed publisher
    Transportin-SR2 (TRN-SR2 and TNPO3) is a cellular cofactor of HIV replication that has been implicated in the nuclear import of HIV...
  15. Palenzuela L, Andreu A, Gamez J, Vila M, Kunimatsu T, Meseguer A, et al. A novel autosomal dominant limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD 1F) maps to 7q32.1-32.2. Neurology. 2003;61:404-6 pubmed
    ..1-32.2. Within this chromosomal region, filamin C, a gene encoding actin binding protein highly expressed in muscle, was an obvious candidate gene; however, the authors did not detect any defects in filamin C or its protein product. ..
  16. Lai M, Lin R, Tarn W. Transportin-SR2 mediates nuclear import of phosphorylated SR proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:10154-9 pubmed
    ..Finally, we show that TRN-SR2 interacts with a nucleoporin and is targeted not only to the nuclear envelope but also to nuclear speckles in vitro. Thus, TRN-SR2 may perhaps escort SR protein cargoes to nuclear subdomains. ..
  17. Hirschfield G, Liu X, Xu C, Lu Y, Xie G, Lu Y, et al. Primary biliary cirrhosis associated with HLA, IL12A, and IL12RB2 variants. N Engl J Med. 2009;360:2544-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Twin and family aggregation data suggest that there is a significant genetic predisposition to primary biliary cirrhosis, but the susceptibility loci are unknown...
  18. Larue R, Gupta K, Wuensch C, Shkriabai N, Kessl J, Danhart E, et al. Interaction of the HIV-1 intasome with transportin 3 protein (TNPO3 or TRN-SR2). J Biol Chem. 2012;287:34044-58 pubmed publisher
    b>Transportin 3 (TNPO3 or TRN-SR2) has been shown to be an important cellular factor for early steps of lentiviral replication...
  19. Lai M, Kuo H, Chang W, Tarn W. A novel splicing regulator shares a nuclear import pathway with SR proteins. EMBO J. 2003;22:1359-69 pubmed
    ..Thus, a novel splicing regulator with opposite activities to SR proteins shares an identical import pathway with SR proteins to the nucleus. ..
  20. Fricke T, Valle Casuso J, White T, Brandariz Nuñez A, Bosche W, Reszka N, et al. The ability of TNPO3-depleted cells to inhibit HIV-1 infection requires CPSF6. Retrovirology. 2013;10:46 pubmed publisher
    Expression of the cellular karyopherin TNPO3/transportin-SR2/Tnp3 is necessary for HIV-1 infection. Depletion of TNPO3 expression in mammalian cells inhibits HIV-1 infection after reverse transcription but prior to integration...
  21. Ito I, Kawaguchi Y, Kawasaki A, Hasegawa M, Ohashi J, Hikami K, et al. Association of a functional polymorphism in the IRF5 region with systemic sclerosis in a Japanese population. Arthritis Rheum. 2009;60:1845-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Association of the rs2280714 genotype with messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of IRF5 and adjacently located transportin 3 (TNPO3) was examined using the GENEVAR database...
  22. De Iaco A, Santoni F, Vannier A, Guipponi M, Antonarakis S, Luban J. TNPO3 protects HIV-1 replication from CPSF6-mediated capsid stabilization in the host cell cytoplasm. Retrovirology. 2013;10:20 pubmed publisher
    Despite intensive investigation the mechanism by which HIV-1 reaches the host cell nucleus is unknown. TNPO3, a karyopherin mediating nuclear entry of SR-proteins, was shown to be required for HIV-1 infectivity...
  23. Schaller T, Ocwieja K, Rasaiyaah J, Price A, Brady T, Roth S, et al. HIV-1 capsid-cyclophilin interactions determine nuclear import pathway, integration targeting and replication efficiency. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002439 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings link HIV-1 engagement of cyclophilins with both integration targeting and replication efficiency and provide insight into the conservation of viral cyclophilin recruitment. ..
  24. Liu X, Invernizzi P, Lu Y, Kosoy R, Lu Y, Bianchi I, et al. Genome-wide meta-analyses identify three loci associated with primary biliary cirrhosis. Nat Genet. 2010;42:658-60 pubmed publisher
    ..9 x 10(-11), odds ratio (OR) = 1.46), IRF5-TNPO3 (P = 2.8 x 10(-10), OR = 1.63) and 17q12-21 (P = 1.7 x 10(-10), OR = 1.38).
  25. Allemand E, Dokudovskaya S, Bordonné R, Tazi J. A conserved Drosophila transportin-serine/arginine-rich (SR) protein permits nuclear import of Drosophila SR protein splicing factors and their antagonist repressor splicing factor 1. Mol Biol Cell. 2002;13:2436-47 pubmed
    ..Together, the results imply that the mechanism by which SR proteins are imported to the nucleus is conserved between Drosophila and humans. ..
  26. Christ F, Thys W, De Rijck J, Gijsbers R, Albanese A, Arosio D, et al. Transportin-SR2 imports HIV into the nucleus. Curr Biol. 2008;18:1192-202 pubmed publisher
    ..In comparison with control cell lines, the great majority of siRNA-treated cells did not contain any PIC in the nucleus. Our data clearly demonstrate that TRN-SR2 is the nuclear-import factor of HIV. ..
  27. Rain J, Cribier A, Gérard A, Emiliani S, Benarous R. Yeast two-hybrid detection of integrase-host factor interactions. Methods. 2009;47:291-7 pubmed publisher
    ..All tolled, our studies identified LEDGF/p75, Transportin-SR2 (TNPO3), von Hippel-Lindau binding protein 1 (VBP1), and sucrose non-fermenting 5 (SNF5) as cellular binding partners of ..
  28. Anguissola S, McCormack W, Morrin M, Higgins W, Fox D, Worrall D. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) interacts with transportin SR2, and active nuclear import is facilitated by a novel nuclear localization motif. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e26234 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest a novel NLS and mechanism for serpinF1 nuclear import, which may be critical for anti-angiogenic and neurotrophic function. ..
  29. Nakayama E, Shioda T. TRIM5? and Species Tropism of HIV/SIV. Front Microbiol. 2012;3:13 pubmed publisher
    ..As different TRIM5 genotypes of Rh showed different levels of simian immunodeficiency virus replication in vivo, the TRIM5 genotyping is thought to be important in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome monkey models. ..
  30. Kvaratskhelia M, Sharma A, Larue R, Serrao E, Engelman A. Molecular mechanisms of retroviral integration site selection. Nucleic Acids Res. 2014;42:10209-25 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss approaches to alter integration site selection that could potentially improve the safety of retroviral vectors in the clinic. ..
  31. Tsirkone V, Blokken J, De Wit F, Breemans J, De Houwer S, Debyser Z, et al. N-terminal half of transportin SR2 interacts with HIV integrase. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:9699-9710 pubmed publisher
    The karyopherin transportin SR2 (TRN-SR2, TNPO3) is responsible for shuttling specific cargoes such as serine/arginine-rich splicing factors from the cytoplasm to the nucleus...
  32. Gorlova O, Martin J, Rueda B, Koeleman B, Ying J, Teruel M, et al. Identification of novel genetic markers associated with clinical phenotypes of systemic sclerosis through a genome-wide association strategy. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002178 pubmed publisher
    ..Within the HLA region, HLA-DQB1, HLA-DPA1/B1, and NOTCH4 associations with SSc are likely confined to specific auto-antibodies. These data emphasize the differential genetic components of subphenotypes of SSc. ..
  33. Debyser Z, Christ F. On the cell biology of HIV integration from basic research to development of novel antiviral drugs. Verh K Acad Geneeskd Belg. 2010;72:219-37 pubmed
    ..In a broader perspective our research strongly supports the development of protein-protein interaction inhibitors as drugs. ..
  34. Di Nunzio F. New insights in the role of nucleoporins: a bridge leading to concerted steps from HIV-1 nuclear entry until integration. Virus Res. 2013;178:187-96 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, it will be reviewed both what is known and what is speculated about the link between HIV translocation through the nuclear pore and the proviral integration in the host chromatin. ..
  35. Taltynov O, Desimmie B, Demeulemeester J, Christ F, Debyser Z. Cellular cofactors of lentiviral integrase: from target validation to drug discovery. Mol Biol Int. 2012;2012:863405 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we will highlight recent advances in the design and the development of small-molecule inhibitors binding to the LEDGF/p75-binding pocket in IN (LEDGINs). ..
  36. Aida Y, Matsuda G. Role of Vpr in HIV-1 nuclear import: therapeutic implications. Curr HIV Res. 2009;7:136-43 pubmed
  37. Hultquist J, Schumann K, Woo J, Manganaro L, McGregor M, DOUDNA J, et al. A Cas9 Ribonucleoprotein Platform for Functional Genetic Studies of HIV-Host Interactions in Primary Human T Cells. Cell Rep. 2016;17:1438-1452 pubmed publisher
    ..with this method are resistant to HIV infection in a tropism-dependent manner, whereas knockout of LEDGF or TNPO3 results in a tropism-independent reduction in infection...
  38. Zhou J, Price A, Halambage U, James L, Aiken C. HIV-1 Resistance to the Capsid-Targeting Inhibitor PF74 Results in Altered Dependence on Host Factors Required for Virus Nuclear Entry. J Virol. 2015;89:9068-79 pubmed publisher
    ..inhibited capsid interactions with CPSF6 and Nup153 and altered HIV-1 dependence on these host factors and on TNPO3. Moreover, the replication of the mutant virus was markedly impaired in activated primary CD4(+) T cells and ..
  39. Erkmann J, Wagner E, Dong J, Zhang Y, Kutay U, Marzluff W. Nuclear import of the stem-loop binding protein and localization during the cell cycle. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:2960-71 pubmed
    ..In contrast, we were unable to identify an in vivo role for Transportin-SR2 in SLBP nuclear localization. Thus, only the Impalpha/Impbeta pathway contributes to SLBP nuclear import in HeLa cells. ..
  40. Peng K, Muranyi W, Glass B, Laketa V, Yant S, Tsai L, et al. Quantitative microscopy of functional HIV post-entry complexes reveals association of replication with the viral capsid. elife. 2014;3:e04114 pubmed publisher
    ..The newly developed system is ideally suited for studying retroviral post-entry events and the roles of host factors including DNA sensors and signaling molecules. ..
  41. Levin A, Loyter A, Bukrinsky M. Strategies to inhibit viral protein nuclear import: HIV-1 as a target. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1813:1646-53 pubmed publisher
    ..This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Regulation of Signaling and Cellular Fate through Modulation of Nuclear Protein Import. ..
  42. Ambrose Z, Aiken C. HIV-1 uncoating: connection to nuclear entry and regulation by host proteins. Virology. 2014;454-455:371-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding uncoating will be valuable toward developing novel antiretroviral therapies for HIV-infected individuals. ..
  43. Chin C, Perreira J, Savidis G, Portmann J, Aker A, Feeley E, et al. Direct Visualization of HIV-1 Replication Intermediates Shows that Capsid and CPSF6 Modulate HIV-1 Intra-nuclear Invasion and Integration. Cell Rep. 2015;13:1717-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We also find that CA's interaction with the host polyadenylation factor, CPSF6, enhances nuclear entry and potentiates HIV-1's depth of nuclear invasion, potentially aiding the virus's integration into gene-dense regions. ..
  44. Tedbury P, Freed E. HIV-1 gag: an emerging target for antiretroviral therapy. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2015;389:171-201 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we outline the advances made in targeting the Gag protein and its mature products, particularly capsid and nucleocapsid, and highlight possible targets for future pharmacological intervention. ..
  45. Kao Y, Tan E, Lim K, Ng C, Goh S. Yttrium-90 internal pair production imaging using first generation PET/CT provides high-resolution images for qualitative diagnostic purposes. Br J Radiol. 2012;85:1018-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We illustrate a case of (90)Y imaging using first generation PET/CT technology, producing high-quality images for qualitative diagnostic purposes...
  46. Finsterer J. [Limb girdle muscular dystrophies]. Nervenarzt. 2004;75:1153-66 pubmed
    ..2, LGMD1B), caveolin-3 (3p25, LGMD1C), unknown proteins (7q, LGMD1D, 6q23, LGMD1E, 7q32.1-32.2., LGMD1F), calpain-3 (15q15.1-21.1, LGMD2A), dysferlin (2p13.3-13...
  47. Armstrong D, Zidovetzki R, Alarcón Riquelme M, Tsao B, Criswell L, Kimberly R, et al. GWAS identifies novel SLE susceptibility genes and explains the association of the HLA region. Genes Immun. 2014;15:347-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The novel SLE-associated genes point to new directions for both the diagnosis and treatment of this debilitating autoimmune disease. ..
  48. Maertens G, Cook N, Wang W, Hare S, Gupta S, Oztop I, et al. Structural basis for nuclear import of splicing factors by human Transportin 3. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:2728-33 pubmed publisher
    b>Transportin 3 (Tnpo3, Transportin-SR2) is implicated in nuclear import of splicing factors and HIV-1 replication...
  49. Saito A, Henning M, Serrao E, Dubose B, Teng S, Huang J, et al. Capsid-CPSF6 Interaction Is Dispensable for HIV-1 Replication in Primary Cells but Is Selected during Virus Passage In Vivo. J Virol. 2016;90:6918-6935 pubmed publisher
    ..The A77V mutation rendered HIV-1 largely independent from TNPO3, NUP358, and NUP153 for infection and altered the integration site preference of HIV-1 without any discernible ..
  50. Jayappa K, Ao Z, Yao X. The HIV-1 passage from cytoplasm to nucleus: the process involving a complex exchange between the components of HIV-1 and cellular machinery to access nucleus and successful integration. Int J Biochem Mol Biol. 2012;3:70-85 pubmed
    ..Hereby we aim to further our understanding on molecular mechanism of HIV-1 nuclear import and its potential usefulness for anti-HIV-1 strategies. ..
  51. Chung S, Taylor K, Graham R, Nititham J, Lee A, Ortmann W, et al. Differential genetic associations for systemic lupus erythematosus based on anti-dsDNA autoantibody production. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1001323 pubmed publisher
    ..Lack of strong SNP associations may suggest that other types of genetic variation or non-genetic factors such as environmental exposures have a greater impact on susceptibility to anti-dsDNA - SLE. ..
  52. Craigie R, Bushman F. HIV DNA integration. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2012;2:a006890 pubmed publisher
    ..Models for some of the molecular mechanisms involved have been proposed, but important details remain to be clarified. ..
  53. Le Sage V, Mouland A, Valiente Echeverría F. Roles of HIV-1 capsid in viral replication and immune evasion. Virus Res. 2014;193:116-29 pubmed publisher
    ..The fact that CA engages in a number of different protein-protein interactions with the host makes it an interesting target for the development of new potent antiviral agents. ..