TNFSF18

Summary

Gene Symbol: TNFSF18
Description: TNF superfamily member 18
Alias: AITRL, GITRL, TL6, TNLG2A, hGITRL, tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 18, AITR ligand, GITR ligand, activation-inducible TNF-related ligand, glucocorticoid-induced TNF-related ligand, glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related protein ligand, tumor necrosis factor (ligand) superfamily, member 18, tumor necrosis factor ligand 2A, tumor necrosis factor superfamily member 18
Species: human
Products:     TNFSF18

Top Publications

  1. Baumgartner Nielsen J, Vestergaard C, Thestrup Pedersen K, Deleuran M, Deleuran B. Glucocorticoid-induced tumour necrosis factor receptor (GITR) and its ligand (GITRL) in atopic dermatitis. Acta Derm Venereol. 2006;86:393-8 pubmed
    ..Binding of the GITR-ligand (GITRL) leads to downregulation of the regulatory function of Tregs...
  2. Wei S, Li J, Lian Z, Chen Y, Liu Z, You H, et al. Expression of glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor ligand in rat graft after liver transplantation. Transplant Proc. 2011;43:1971-5 pubmed publisher
    Costimulation between the glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor and its ligand (GITRL) breaks immunologic tolerance induced by regulatory T cells...
  3. Kwon B, Yu K, Ni J, Yu G, Jang I, Kim Y, et al. Identification of a novel activation-inducible protein of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily and its ligand. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:6056-61 pubmed
    ..The ligand for AITR (AITRL) was found to be an undescribed member of the TNF family, which is expressed in endothelial cells...
  4. Kim B, Li Z, Fariss R, Shen D, Mahesh S, Egwuagu C, et al. Constitutive and cytokine-induced GITR ligand expression on human retinal pigment epithelium and photoreceptors. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2004;45:3170-6 pubmed
    ..The current study was conducted to examine the expression of glucocorticoid-induced TNF-related receptor ligand (GITRL) and its regulation by ocular tissue...
  5. Baltz K, Krusch M, Baessler T, Schmiedel B, Bringmann A, Brossart P, et al. Neutralization of tumor-derived soluble glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related protein ligand increases NK cell anti-tumor reactivity. Blood. 2008;112:3735-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that determination of sGITRL levels might be implemented as a tumor marker in patients, and GITRL neutralization may be used to improve immunotherapeutic strategies relying on NK cell reactivity.
  6. Scherer S, Huhle D, Göbel T. Identification of Chicken GITR and GITR Ligand, Proof of Their Mutual Interaction, and Analysis of Chicken GITR Tissue Distribution by a Novel Antibody That Reveals Expression on Activated T Cells and Erythrocytes. Immunohorizons. 2018;2:324-337 pubmed publisher
    Glucocorticoid-induced TNFR (GITR) and its ligand, GITRL, belong to the costimulatory members of the TNF superfamily and are crucially involved in the formation and modulation of an effective immune response, comprising innate as well as ..
  7. Wang K, Chu K, Batista N, Watts T. Conserved and Differential Features of TNF Superfamily Ligand Expression on APC Subsets over the Course of a Chronic Viral Infection in Mice. Immunohorizons. 2018;2:407-417 pubmed publisher
    ..At day 2 of LCMV 13 infection, cDC preferentially express CD80 and CD86, whereas TNF superfamily ligands GITRL, 4-1BBL, CD70, and OX40L are preferentially induced by type I IFN on inflammatory monocyte-derived APC, with ..
  8. Tian J, Rui K, Hong Y, Wang X, Xiao F, Lin X, et al. Increased GITRL Impairs the Function of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells and Exacerbates Primary Sjögren Syndrome. J Immunol. 2019;202:1693-1703 pubmed publisher
    ..The ligand for glucocorticoid-induced TNFR family-related protein (GITRL) was increased along ESS progression, whereas the increased GITRL was found to attenuate the immunosuppressive ..
  9. Poulton L, Nolan K, Anastasaki C, Waldmann H, Patton E. A novel role for Glucocorticoid-Induced TNF Receptor Ligand (Gitrl) in early embryonic zebrafish development. Int J Dev Biol. 2010;54:815-25 pubmed publisher
    ..b>GITRL and its receptor GITR are well-described as co-regulators of the mammalian immune response...

More Information

Publications68

  1. Ray A, Khalil M, Pulakanti K, Burns R, Gurski C, Basu S, et al. Mature IgDlow/- B cells maintain tolerance by promoting regulatory T cell homeostasis. Nat Commun. 2019;10:190 pubmed publisher
    ..regulatory T cell homeostatic expansion via glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor ligand, or GITRL. Cell surface phenotyping, transcriptome analysis and developmental study data show that B cells expressing IgD at ..
  2. Jiang Y, Chen J, Bi E, Zhao Y, Qin T, Wang Y, et al. TNF-α enhances Th9 cell differentiation and antitumor immunity via TNFR2-dependent pathways. J Immunother Cancer. 2019;7:28 pubmed publisher
    ..TNF family members OX40L, TL1A and GITRL have been shown to promote the induction of Th9 cells and antitumor immunity...
  3. Ng S, Leno Durán E, Samanta D, Almo S, Strominger J. Genetically modified hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells that produce IL-10-secreting regulatory T cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019;116:2634-2639 pubmed publisher
    ..of glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor (GITR) (expressed at high levels by these cells) through its ligand GITRL. A mechanism for generation of cells with this specificity is proposed...
  4. Wu L, Dell Anno I, Lapidot M, Sekido Y, Chan M, Kohno M, et al. Progress of malignant mesothelioma research in basic science: A review of the 14th international conference of the international mesothelioma interest group (iMig2018). Lung Cancer. 2019;127:138-145 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, targeting mesothelioma stem cells by depleting M2-polarized macrophages in tumor microenvironment or blocking Tnfsf18 (GITRL)-GITR signalling might be translated into therapeutic modalities in mesothelioma treatment.
  5. Chu K, Batista N, Wang K, Zhou A, Watts T. GITRL on inflammatory antigen presenting cells in the lung parenchyma provides signal 4 for T-cell accumulation and tissue-resident memory T-cell formation. Mucosal Immunol. 2019;12:363-377 pubmed publisher
    ..Following influenza infection, GITR is expressed on lung T cells and GITRL is preferentially expressed on lung monocyte-derived inflammatory antigen presenting cells...
  6. Brandstetter B, Dalwigk K, Platzer A, Niederreiter B, Kartnig F, Fischer A, et al. FOXO3 is involved in the tumor necrosis factor-driven inflammatory response in fibroblast-like synoviocytes. Lab Invest. 2019;99:648-658 pubmed publisher
    ..of FOXO3 is important for the sustained pro-inflammatory interferon response to TNFα (CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, and TNFSF18)...
  7. Toka F, Dunaway K, Smaltz F, Szulc Dąbrowska L, Drnevich J, Mielcarska M, et al. Bacterial and viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns induce divergent early transcriptomic landscapes in a bovine macrophage cell line. BMC Genomics. 2019;20:15 pubmed publisher
    ..The highest DE genes in both stimulations belonged to the TNF superfamily, TNFSF18 (CpG) and TNFSF10 (poly(I:C)) and in both cases the lowest downregulated gene was CYP1A1...
  8. Kopru C, Cagnan I, Akar I, Esendagli G, Korkusuz P, Gunel Ozcan A. Dual Effect of Glucocorticoid-Induced Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Receptor Ligand Carrying Mesenchymal Stromal Cells on Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Preliminary in vitro Study. Cytotherapy. 2018;20:930-940 pubmed publisher
    ..receptor (GITR/TNFRSF18) activation by its ligand glucocorticoid-induced TNF-related receptor ligand (GITRL) have important roles in proliferation, death and differentiation of cells...
  9. Xiong B, Zhu M, Jin Q, Song F. [Construction and in vitro study of eukaryotic expression vector carrying GITRL and IL-21 gene]. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2014;22:1295-300 pubmed publisher
    ..construct the eukaryotic expression vector carrying glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor ligand (GITRL) and interleukin-21 (IL-21) gene for transfection into chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) dervied dendritic cell (DC), ..
  10. Kobayashi Y, Kiguchi N, Fukazawa Y, Saika F, Maeda T, Kishioka S. Macrophage-T cell interactions mediate neuropathic pain through the glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor ligand system. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:12603-13 pubmed publisher
    ..the actions of macrophages and T cells through glucocorticoid-induced tumor neurosis factor receptor ligand (GITRL) and its receptor (GITR) in neuropathic pain...
  11. Clouthier D, Zhou A, Watts T. Anti-GITR agonist therapy intrinsically enhances CD8 T cell responses to chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), thereby circumventing LCMV-induced downregulation of costimulatory GITR ligand on APC. J Immunol. 2014;193:5033-43 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we show that GITR ligand (GITRL) is maximally induced on APCs at day 2 post-lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) clone 13 infection,..
  12. Wang F, Wang Y, Li J, You X, Qiu X, Wang Y, et al. Increased antigen presentation but impaired T cells priming after upregulation of interferon-beta induced by lipopolysaccharides is mediated by upregulation of B7H1 and GITRL. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e105636 pubmed publisher
    ..Concomititantly, the upregulation of IFN-beta in DCs induces the up-regulation of coinhibitory molecules B7H1 and GITRL, which cause an impaired activation of naïve Ag-specific T cells and the induction of T cell tolerance by ..
  13. Pascutti M, Geerman S, Slot E, van Gisbergen K, Boon L, Arens R, et al. Enhanced CD8 T cell responses through GITR-mediated costimulation resolve chronic viral infection. PLoS Pathog. 2015;11:e1004675 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that constitutive expression of GITR-ligand (GITRL) confers protection against chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection, accelerating recovery ..
  14. Wu L, Blum W, Zhu C, Yun Z, Pecze L, Kohno M, et al. Putative cancer stem cells may be the key target to inhibit cancer cell repopulation between the intervals of chemoradiation in murine mesothelioma. BMC Cancer. 2018;18:471 pubmed publisher
    ..Upregulation of the gene transcripts Tnfsf18, Serpinb9b, Ly6a, and Nppb were confirmed...
  15. Rios Doria J, Harper J, Rothstein R, Wetzel L, Chesebrough J, MARRERO A, et al. Antibody-Drug Conjugates Bearing Pyrrolobenzodiazepine or Tubulysin Payloads Are Immunomodulatory and Synergize with Multiple Immunotherapies. Cancer Res. 2017;77:2686-2698 pubmed publisher
    ..Combinations of ADCs with immuno-oncology drugs, including PD-1 or PD-L1 antibodies, OX40 ligand, or GITR ligand fusion proteins, produced synergistic antitumor responses...
  16. Kim Y, Shin S, Choi B, Oh H, Kim C, Lee S, et al. Authentic GITR Signaling Fails To Induce Tumor Regression unless Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells Are Depleted. J Immunol. 2015;195:4721-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we generated a pentamerized form of the GITRL extracellular domain (pGITRL) for ligation to GITR and compared its effect on T cells with that of anti-GITR mAb...
  17. Zhang H, Li W, Xu X, Mu G, Xie X, Huang F. Structure and properties of type-II clathrate Cs8Na16-xTlxGe136. Dalton Trans. 2015;44:16937-45 pubmed publisher
    ..0 °C, 922.8 °C and 915.7 °C for Cs8Na14.76(3)Tl1.24(2)Ge136, Cs8Na9.94(2)Tl6.06(2)Ge136 and Cs8Na8.36(2)Tl7.64(2)Ge136 in Ar atmosphere, respectively. Cs8Na9.94(2)Tl6...
  18. Ma J, Feng D, Wei Y, Tian J, Tang X, Rui K, et al. Blockade of Glucocorticoid-Induced Tumor Necrosis Factor-Receptor-Related Protein Signaling Ameliorates Murine Collagen-Induced Arthritis by Modulating Follicular Helper T Cells. Am J Pathol. 2016;186:1559-67 pubmed publisher
    ..have shown that glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor-receptor-related protein (GITR) and its ligand (GITRL) are critically involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune arthritis, but the role of GITRL/GITR signaling in ..
  19. Robertson R, Guihéneuf F, Bahar B, Schmid M, Stengel D, Fitzgerald G, et al. The Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Algae-Derived Lipid Extracts on Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-Stimulated Human THP-1 Macrophages. Mar Drugs. 2015;13:5402-24 pubmed publisher
    ..revealed down-regulation of the expression of 14 pro-inflammatory genes (TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR8, TRAF5, TRAF6, TNFSF18, IL6R, IL23, CCR1, CCR4, CCL17, STAT3, MAP3K1) by the lipid extracts...
  20. Leyland R, Watkins A, Mulgrew K, Holoweckyj N, Bamber L, Tigue N, et al. A Novel Murine GITR Ligand Fusion Protein Induces Antitumor Activity as a Monotherapy That Is Further Enhanced in Combination with an OX40 Agonist. Clin Cancer Res. 2017;23:3416-3427 pubmed publisher
    b>Purpose: To generate and characterize a murine GITR ligand fusion protein (mGITRL-FP) designed to maximize valency and the potential to agonize the GITR receptor for cancer immunotherapy...
  21. Knee D, Hewes B, Brogdon J. Rationale for anti-GITR cancer immunotherapy. Eur J Cancer. 2016;67:1-10 pubmed publisher
    ..In preclinical tumour models, modulation of the Glucocorticoid induced TNF receptor (GITR)/GITR ligand (GITRL) axis suggests this pathway may provide the desired biological outcome of inhibiting Treg function while ..
  22. Nowakowska D, Kissler S. Ptpn22 Modifies Regulatory T Cell Homeostasis via GITR Upregulation. J Immunol. 2016;196:2145-52 pubmed publisher
    ..not their differentiation toward an effector phenotype, was dependent on GITR signaling, because blockade of GITR ligand prevented Treg cell expansion caused by Ptpn22 KD...
  23. Schmohl J, Nuebling T, Wild J, Kroell T, Kanz L, Salih H, et al. Expression of 4-1BB and its ligand on blasts correlates with prognosis of patients with AML. J Investig Med. 2016;64:1252-1260 pubmed
    ..study evaluated the clinical relevance of 4-1BBL, glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related protein (GITR) and ligand (GITRL), CD80, and CD86 in case of expression on AML blasts. 98 patients were evaluated at initial diagnosis...
  24. Durham N, Holoweckyj N, MacGill R, McGlinchey K, Leow C, Robbins S. GITR ligand fusion protein agonist enhances the tumor antigen-specific CD8 T-cell response and leads to long-lasting memory. J Immunother Cancer. 2017;5:47 pubmed publisher
    ..tumor necrosis factor receptor family-related receptor (GITR) is a co-stimulatory receptor that binds the GITR ligand (GITRL). Agonism of GITR can produce important signals that drive expansion of effector T cell populations...
  25. Meylan F, Siegel R. TNF superfamily cytokines in the promotion of Th9 differentiation and immunopathology. Semin Immunopathol. 2017;39:21-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Four TNF family cytokines have been identified as regulators for IL-9 production by T cells. OX40L, TL1A, and GITRL can promote Th9 formation but can also divert iTreg into Th9, while 4-1BBL seems to inhibit IL-9 production from ..
  26. Rios Doria J, Durham N, Wetzel L, Rothstein R, Chesebrough J, Holoweckyj N, et al. Doxil synergizes with cancer immunotherapies to enhance antitumor responses in syngeneic mouse models. Neoplasia. 2015;17:661-70 pubmed publisher
    ..including checkpoint blockers (anti-PD-L1, PD-1, and CTLA-4 mAbs) and TNF receptor agonists (OX40 and GITR ligand fusion proteins) in syngeneic mouse models...
  27. Meiler S, Smeets E, Winkels H, Shami A, Pascutti M, Nolte M, et al. Constitutive GITR Activation Reduces Atherosclerosis by Promoting Regulatory CD4+ T-Cell Responses-Brief Report. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2016;36:1748-52 pubmed publisher
    ..mice (Ldlr(-/-)) were lethally irradiated and reconstituted with either bone marrow from B-cell-restricted Gitrl transgenic mice or from wild-type controls and fed a high-cholesterol diet for 11 weeks...
  28. Pedroza Gonzalez A, Zhou G, Singh S, Boor P, Pan Q, Grunhagen D, et al. GITR engagement in combination with CTLA-4 blockade completely abrogates immunosuppression mediated by human liver tumor-derived regulatory T cells ex vivo. Oncoimmunology. 2015;4:e1051297 pubmed
    ..from colorectal cancer (LM-CRC) we show that treatment with a soluble form of the natural ligand of GITR (GITRL), or with blocking antibodies to CTLA-4, reduces the suppression mediated by human liver tumor-infiltrating CD4<..
  29. Tigue N, Bamber L, Andrews J, Ireland S, Hair J, Carter E, et al. MEDI1873, a potent, stabilized hexameric agonist of human GITR with regulatory T-cell targeting potential. Oncoimmunology. 2017;6:e1280645 pubmed publisher
    ..a novel hexameric human GITR agonist comprising an IgG1 Fc domain, a coronin 1A trimerization domain and the human GITRL extracellular domain (ECD)...
  30. Byrne A, Goleva E, Chouiali F, Kaplan M, Hamid Q, Leung D. Induction of GITRL expression in human keratinocytes by Th2 cytokines and TNF-?: implications for atopic dermatitis. Clin Exp Allergy. 2012;42:550-9 pubmed publisher
    Glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor-related protein ligand (GITRL), a ligand for the T cell co-stimulatory molecule GITR, is expressed by keratinocytes and involved in chemokine production...
  31. Wang W, Ji G, Chen Y, Wang J, Sun J, Tang G, et al. Changes in DNA Methylation of Glucocorticoid-Induced Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor and Its Ligand in Liver Transplantation. Transplant Proc. 2017;49:1824-1833 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigated the DNA methylation variations of GITR and GITR ligand (GITRL) using pyrosequencing by analyzing blood DNA samples of patients after LT...
  32. Mahesh S, Li Z, Liu B, Fariss R, Nussenblatt R. Expression of GITR ligand abrogates immunosuppressive function of ocular tissue and differentially modulates inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Eur J Immunol. 2006;36:2128-38 pubmed
    The glucocorticoid-induced TNF-related receptor ligand (GITRL) was previously shown to be constitutively expressed at low levels in human eye, including retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells...
  33. Gurney A, Marsters S, Huang R, Pitti R, Mark D, Baldwin D, et al. Identification of a new member of the tumor necrosis factor family and its receptor, a human ortholog of mouse GITR. Curr Biol. 1999;9:215-8 pubmed
    ..We have identified a new TNF-related ligand, designated human GITR ligand (hGITRL), and its human receptor (hGITR), an ortholog of the recently discovered murine glucocorticoid-induced ..
  34. Danila M, Laufer V, Reynolds R, Yan Q, Liu N, Gregersen P, et al. Dense Genotyping of Immune-Related Regions Identifies Loci for Rheumatoid Arthritis Risk and Damage in African Americans. Mol Med. 2017;23: pubmed publisher
    ..was the most strongly associated risk SNP for RA susceptibility; SNPs in AFF3, TNFSF11, and TNFSF18 loci were suggestively associated (10-4 < p < 3.1 × 10-6)...
  35. Moore T, Gonzaga L, Mather J, Messer R, Hasenkrug K. B Cell Requirement for Robust Regulatory T Cell Responses to Friend Retrovirus Infection. MBio. 2017;8: pubmed publisher
    ..stimulation of the Tregs through interactions between cell surface molecules: GITR interactions with its ligand (GITRL) on B cells and GITR on regulatory T cells...
  36. Zhang S, Gan Y, Ji W, Xu B, Hou B, Liu J. Mechanisms and Characterization of Trichoderma longibrachiatum T6 in Suppressing Nematodes (Heterodera avenae) in Wheat. Front Plant Sci. 2017;8:1491 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we used microscopic observations and bioassays to study the effect of T. longibrachiatum T6 (TL6) on the eggs and second stage juveniles (J2s) of H...
  37. Chattopadhyay K, Ramagopal U, Mukhopadhaya A, Malashkevich V, DiLorenzo T, Brenowitz M, et al. Assembly and structural properties of glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor ligand: Implications for function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:19452-7 pubmed
    ..Structural analysis reveals that the human GITRL (hGITRL) ectodomain self-assembles into an atypical expanded homotrimer with sparse monomer-monomer interfaces...
  38. Cui D, Wang S, Chen Y, Tong J, Ma J, Tang L, et al. An isoleucine-zipper motif enhances costimulation of human soluble trimeric GITR ligand. Cell Mol Immunol. 2010;7:316-22 pubmed publisher
    Glucocorticoid-induced tumor-necrosis factor receptor (GITR) and its ligand, GITRL, play significant roles in regulating immune responses...
  39. Placke T, Salih H, Kopp H. GITR ligand provided by thrombopoietic cells inhibits NK cell antitumor activity. J Immunol. 2012;189:154-60 pubmed publisher
    ..we show that megakaryocytes acquire expression of the TNF family member glucocorticoid-induced TNF-related ligand (GITRL) during differentiation, resulting in GITRL expression by platelets...
  40. Lacal P, Petrillo M, Ruffini F, Muzi A, Bianchini R, Ronchetti S, et al. Glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor family-related ligand triggering upregulates vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and promotes leukocyte adhesion. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2013;347:164-72 pubmed publisher
    ..of glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor-family related (GITR) protein with its ligand (GITRL) modulates different functions, including immune/inflammatory response...
  41. Yu K, Kim H, Song S, Min S, Jeong J, Youn B. Identification of a ligand for glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor constitutively expressed in dendritic cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;310:433-8 pubmed
    ..We isolated a cDNA encoding GITR ligand (GITRL) from mouse endothelioma cells...
  42. Van Der Werf N, Redpath S, Phythian Adams A, Azuma M, Allen J, Maizels R, et al. Th2 responses to helminth parasites can be therapeutically enhanced by, but are not dependent upon, GITR-GITR ligand costimulation in vivo. J Immunol. 2011;187:1411-20 pubmed publisher
    ..novel therapy for promoting protective immunity toward parasitic helminths, whereas blocking physiological GITR-GITR ligand (GITRL) interactions may provide a mechanism for dampening pathogenic Th2 inflammation...
  43. Nardelli B, Zaritskaya L, McAuliffe W, Ni Y, Lincoln C, Cho Y, et al. Osteostat/tumor necrosis factor superfamily 18 inhibits osteoclastogenesis and is selectively expressed by vascular endothelial cells. Endocrinology. 2006;147:70-8 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate that Osteostat is a novel regulator of osteoclast generation and substantiate the major role played by the endothelium in bone physiology. ..
  44. Gu L, Xu L, Zhang X, Tan W, Wang H, Zhang M. Correlation of circulating glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related protein ligand levels with disease activity in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Clin Dev Immunol. 2012;2012:265868 pubmed publisher
    ..the correlation of glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor- (TNFR-) related protein ligand (GITRL) with disease activity and organ involvement in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)...
  45. Chang Y, Wang K, Chu K, Clouthier D, Tran A, Torres Perez M, et al. Dichotomous Expression of TNF Superfamily Ligands on Antigen-Presenting Cells Controls Post-priming Anti-viral CD4+ T Cell Immunity. Immunity. 2017;47:943-958.e9 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that type I interferon (IFN-I) induced TNFSF ligands GITRL, 4-1BBL, OX40L, and CD70 predominantly on monocyte-derived APCs and CD80 and CD86 predominantly on classical ..
  46. Baltz K, Krusch M, Bringmann A, Brossart P, Mayer F, Kloss M, et al. Cancer immunoediting by GITR (glucocorticoid-induced TNF-related protein) ligand in humans: NK cell/tumor cell interactions. FASEB J. 2007;21:2442-54 pubmed
    ..However, the functional relevance of GITR and its ligand (GITRL) for non-T cells has yet to be fully explored...
  47. Bae E, Kim W, Suk K, Kang Y, Park J, Kim W, et al. Reverse signaling initiated from GITRL induces NF-kappaB activation through ERK in the inflammatory activation of macrophages. Mol Immunol. 2008;45:523-33 pubmed
    Glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor family related protein ligand (GITRL) is known to interact with its cognate receptor GITR...
  48. Tang X, Tian J, Ma J, Wang J, Qi C, Rui K, et al. GITRL modulates the activities of p38 MAPK and STAT3 to promote Th17 cell differentiation in autoimmune arthritis. Oncotarget. 2016;7:8590-600 pubmed publisher
    ..protein kinases (MAPK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling in GITRL-induced Th17 cells in autoimmune arthritis...
  49. Hanabuchi S, Watanabe N, Wang Y, Wang Y, Ito T, Shaw J, et al. Human plasmacytoid predendritic cells activate NK cells through glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor-ligand (GITRL). Blood. 2006;107:3617-23 pubmed
    ..virus or CpG-ODN preferentially express the ligand for the glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (GITRL), which was confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and flow cytometry analysis...
  50. Kim Y, Jung H, Choi J, Kwon B, Ham S, Jung A, et al. Expression of AITR and AITR ligand in breast cancer patients. Oncol Rep. 2007;18:1189-94 pubmed
    ..Its ligand (AITRL) is expressed in endothelial cells...
  51. Li L, Wen W, Jia R, Li Y, Liu X, Sun X, et al. GITRL is associated with increased autoantibody production in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Rheumatol. 2016;35:2195-202 pubmed publisher
    ..determine the serum level of glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor family-related protein ligand (GITRL) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and investigate its clinical significance...
  52. Garner C, Ahn R, Ding Y, Steele L, Stoven S, Green P, et al. Genome-wide association study of celiac disease in North America confirms FRMD4B as new celiac locus. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e101428 pubmed publisher
    ..Preliminary, suggestive statistical evidence for association with the two traits was found at chromosomes 3p21.31, 6q15, 6q25, 1q24.3 and 10p11.23, with future studies being required to validate the reported associations. ..
  53. Tuyaerts S, Van Meirvenne S, Bonehill A, Heirman C, Corthals J, Waldmann H, et al. Expression of human GITRL on myeloid dendritic cells enhances their immunostimulatory function but does not abrogate the suppressive effect of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. J Leukoc Biol. 2007;82:93-105 pubmed
    ..However, little is known about the role of the human GITR ligand (huGITRL)...
  54. Gan X, Feng X, Gu L, Tan W, Sun X, Lv C, et al. Correlation of increased blood levels of GITR and GITRL with disease severity in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome. Clin Dev Immunol. 2013;2013:340751 pubmed publisher
    ..After activated by its ligand GITRL, GITR could influence the activity of effector and regulatory T cells, participating in the development of several ..
  55. Chen M, Chen G, Deng S, Liu X, Hutton G, Hong J. IFN-? induces the proliferation of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells through upregulation of GITRL on dendritic cells in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimmunol. 2012;242:39-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The IFN-?-induced upregulation of GITRL on DC and downregulation of CTLA-4 on Treg cell work together to facilitate the proliferation of anergic Treg ..
  56. Zhou Z, Song X, Berezov A, Zhang G, Li Y, Zhang H, et al. Human glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor ligand regulates its signaling activity through multiple oligomerization states. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:5465-70 pubmed publisher
    ..the structural basis of GITRL function, we have expressed and purified the extracellular domain of human GITR ligand in Escherichia coli...
  57. Morillon Y, Hammond S, Durham N, Schlom J, Greiner J. Enhanced immunotherapy by combining a vaccine with a novel murine GITR ligand fusion protein. Oncotarget. 2017;8:73469-73482 pubmed publisher
    ..The murine GITR ligand fusion protein (mGITRL-FP) consisted of a mouse IgG2a Fc region, a yeast-derived coiled GCN4 pII and the ..
  58. Liu Y, Tang X, Tian J, Zhu C, Peng H, Rui K, et al. Th17/Treg cells imbalance and GITRL profile in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Int J Mol Sci. 2014;15:21674-86 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, there was an increased level of GITRL, which has been demonstrated to be correlated with the increassement of Th17 cells in the serum and thyroid glands ..
  59. Satoguina J, Adjobimey T, Arndts K, Hoch J, Oldenburg J, Layland L, et al. Tr1 and naturally occurring regulatory T cells induce IgG4 in B cells through GITR/GITR-L interaction, IL-10 and TGF-beta. Eur J Immunol. 2008;38:3101-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the mechanism of IgG4 induction by regulatory cells involves GITR-GITR-L interactions, IL-10 and TGF-beta. ..