TMPRSS2

Summary

Gene Symbol: TMPRSS2
Description: transmembrane serine protease 2
Alias: PP9284, PRSS10, transmembrane protease serine 2, epitheliasin, serine protease 10, transmembrane protease, serine 2
Species: human
Products:     TMPRSS2

Top Publications

  1. Soller M, Isaksson M, Elfving P, Soller W, Lundgren R, Panagopoulos I. Confirmation of the high frequency of the TMPRSS2/ERG fusion gene in prostate cancer. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2006;45:717-9 pubmed
  2. Pettersson A, Graff R, Bauer S, Pitt M, Lis R, Stack E, et al. The TMPRSS2:ERG rearrangement, ERG expression, and prostate cancer outcomes: a cohort study and meta-analysis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2012;21:1497-509 pubmed publisher
    Whether the genomic rearrangement transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2):v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog (ERG) has prognostic value in prostate cancer is unclear...
  3. Böttcher Friebertshäuser E, Stein D, Klenk H, Garten W. Inhibition of influenza virus infection in human airway cell cultures by an antisense peptide-conjugated morpholino oligomer targeting the hemagglutinin-activating protease TMPRSS2. J Virol. 2011;85:1554-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we evaluated the effect of PPMO targeted to regions of the pre-mRNA or mRNA of the HA-cleaving protease TMPRSS2 on proteolytic activation and spread of influenza viruses in human Calu-3 airway epithelial cells...
  4. Paoloni Giacobino A, Chen H, Peitsch M, Rossier C, Antonarakis S. Cloning of the TMPRSS2 gene, which encodes a novel serine protease with transmembrane, LDLRA, and SRCR domains and maps to 21q22.3. Genomics. 1997;44:309-20 pubmed
    ..Using selected trapped exons, we have identified a novel gene (named TMPRSS2) that encodes a multimeric protein with a serine protease domain. The TMPRSS2 3...
  5. Wang J, Cai Y, Yu W, Ren C, Spencer D, Ittmann M. Pleiotropic biological activities of alternatively spliced TMPRSS2/ERG fusion gene transcripts. Cancer Res. 2008;68:8516-24 pubmed publisher
    b>TMPRSS2/ERG gene fusions are found in the majority of prostate cancers; however, there is significant heterogeneity in the 5' region of the alternatively spliced fusion gene transcripts...
  6. Darnel A, Lafargue C, Vollmer R, Corcos J, Bismar T. TMPRSS2-ERG fusion is frequently observed in Gleason pattern 3 prostate cancer in a Canadian cohort. Cancer Biol Ther. 2009;8:125-30 pubmed
    b>TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion was recently reported as the most common gene rearrangement in prostate cancer (PCA). In this cohort 41% of the patients showed positive gene fusion status in their PCA...
  7. Chaipan C, Kobasa D, Bertram S, Glowacka I, Steffen I, Tsegaye T, et al. Proteolytic activation of the 1918 influenza virus hemagglutinin. J Virol. 2009;83:3200-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Accordingly, coexpression of the 1918 HA with TMPRSS4 or the previously identified HA-processing protease TMPRSS2 allowed trypsin-independent infection by pseudotypes bearing the 1918 HA, indicating that these proteases might ..
  8. Winnes M, Lissbrant E, Damber J, Stenman G. Molecular genetic analyses of the TMPRSS2-ERG and TMPRSS2-ETV1 gene fusions in 50 cases of prostate cancer. Oncol Rep. 2007;17:1033-6 pubmed
    Recently, gene fusions between the androgen responsive gene TMPRSS2 and members of the ETS-family of DNA-binding transcription factor genes were found in prostate cancer...
  9. Mani R, Iyer M, Cao Q, Brenner J, Wang L, Ghosh A, et al. TMPRSS2-ERG-mediated feed-forward regulation of wild-type ERG in human prostate cancers. Cancer Res. 2011;71:5387-92 pubmed publisher
    Recurrent gene fusions involving ETS family genes are a distinguishing feature of human prostate cancers, with TMPRSS2-ERG fusions representing the most common subtype...

More Information

Publications81

  1. Chaux A, Albadine R, Toubaji A, Hicks J, Meeker A, Platz E, et al. Immunohistochemistry for ERG expression as a surrogate for TMPRSS2-ERG fusion detection in prostatic adenocarcinomas. Am J Surg Pathol. 2011;35:1014-20 pubmed publisher
    b>TMPRSS2-ERG fusions have been identified in about one-half of all prostatic adenocarcinomas (PCas)...
  2. Gopalan A, Leversha M, Satagopan J, Zhou Q, Al Ahmadie H, Fine S, et al. TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion is not associated with outcome in patients treated by prostatectomy. Cancer Res. 2009;69:1400-6 pubmed publisher
    ..have been shown to have recurrent chromosomal rearrangements resulting in the fusion of the androgen-regulated TMPRSS2 promoter to a member of the ETS transcription factor family, most commonly ERG...
  3. Mosquera J, Mehra R, Regan M, Perner S, Genega E, Bueti G, et al. Prevalence of TMPRSS2-ERG fusion prostate cancer among men undergoing prostate biopsy in the United States. Clin Cancer Res. 2009;15:4706-11 pubmed publisher
    Fusion of the TMPRSS2 prostate-specific gene with the ERG transcription factor is a putatively oncogenic gene rearrangement that is commonly found in prostate cancer tissue from men undergoing prostatectomy...
  4. Shulla A, Heald Sargent T, Subramanya G, Zhao J, Perlman S, Gallagher T. A transmembrane serine protease is linked to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus receptor and activates virus entry. J Virol. 2011;85:873-82 pubmed publisher
    ..ACE2 immunoprecipitation captured transmembrane protease/serine subfamily member 2 (TMPRSS2), a known human airway and alveolar protease...
  5. Jacquinet E, Rao N, Rao G, Zhengming W, Albertine K, Hoidal J. Cloning and characterization of the cDNA and gene for human epitheliasin. Eur J Biochem. 2001;268:2687-99 pubmed
    Previously, we reported cloning and characterization of the mouse gene, epitheliasin. In the present work we cloned the cDNA of the full-length human orthologue and characterized its gene including 2 kb of 5' flanking sequence...
  6. Tu J, Rohan S, Kao J, Kitabayashi N, Mathew S, Chen Y. Gene fusions between TMPRSS2 and ETS family genes in prostate cancer: frequency and transcript variant analysis by RT-PCR and FISH on paraffin-embedded tissues. Mod Pathol. 2007;20:921-8 pubmed
    Recurrent gene fusions between TMPRSS2 and ETS family genes have recently been shown to occur at a high frequency in prostate cancer...
  7. Mehra R, Han B, Tomlins S, Wang L, Menon A, Wasco M, et al. Heterogeneity of TMPRSS2 gene rearrangements in multifocal prostate adenocarcinoma: molecular evidence for an independent group of diseases. Cancer Res. 2007;67:7991-5 pubmed
    Recurrent gene fusions between the androgen-regulated gene TMPRSS2 and the ETS family transcription factors ERG, ETV1, and ETV4 have been identified in the majority of prostate adenocarcinomas (PCA)...
  8. Vaarala M, Porvari K, Kellokumpu S, Kyllönen A, Vihko P. Expression of transmembrane serine protease TMPRSS2 in mouse and human tissues. J Pathol. 2001;193:134-40 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to clarify the expression of TMPRSS2 in mice during development and to compare the tissue distribution of the transcripts in adult mouse and human tissues...
  9. Cerveira N, Ribeiro F, Peixoto A, Costa V, Henrique R, Jeronimo C, et al. TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion causing ERG overexpression precedes chromosome copy number changes in prostate carcinomas and paired HGPIN lesions. Neoplasia. 2006;8:826-32 pubmed
    b>TMPRSS2-ETS gene fusions have been found recurrently in prostate carcinomas, but not in the presumed precursor lesion, high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN)...
  10. Magi Galluzzi C, Tsusuki T, Elson P, Simmerman K, Lafargue C, Esgueva R, et al. TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion prevalence and class are significantly different in prostate cancer of Caucasian, African-American and Japanese patients. Prostate. 2011;71:489-97 pubmed publisher
    ..The underlying genetics is not well understood. TMPRSS2-ERG fusion is a common recurrent chromosomal aberration in PCa and is however not studied among different ethnic ..
  11. Mosquera J, Perner S, Genega E, Sanda M, Hofer M, Mertz K, et al. Characterization of TMPRSS2-ERG fusion high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and potential clinical implications. Clin Cancer Res. 2008;14:3380-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion that has recently been described in prostate cancer has also been shown to occur in a subset of ..
  12. Hofer M, Kuefer R, Maier C, Herkommer K, Perner S, Demichelis F, et al. Genome-wide linkage analysis of TMPRSS2-ERG fusion in familial prostate cancer. Cancer Res. 2009;69:640-6 pubmed publisher
    Fusion of the 5'-untranslated region of androgen-regulated TMPRSS2 promoter with ETS transcription factor family members is found frequently in prostate cancers, and recent work suggests that the most common TMPRSS2-ERG fusion is ..
  13. Salami S, Schmidt F, Laxman B, Regan M, Rickman D, Scherr D, et al. Combining urinary detection of TMPRSS2:ERG and PCA3 with serum PSA to predict diagnosis of prostate cancer. Urol Oncol. 2013;31:566-71 pubmed publisher
    We sought to develop a clinical algorithm combining serum PSA with detection of TMPRSS2:ERG fusion and PCA3 in urine collected after digital rectal exam (post-DRE urine) to predict prostate cancer on subsequent biopsy...
  14. Afar D, Vivanco I, Hubert R, Kuo J, Chen E, Saffran D, et al. Catalytic cleavage of the androgen-regulated TMPRSS2 protease results in its secretion by prostate and prostate cancer epithelia. Cancer Res. 2001;61:1686-92 pubmed
    We identified TMPRSS2 as a gene that is down-regulated in androgen-independent prostate cancer xenograft tissue derived from a bone metastasis...
  15. Saramäki O, Harjula A, Martikainen P, Vessella R, Tammela T, Visakorpi T. TMPRSS2:ERG fusion identifies a subgroup of prostate cancers with a favorable prognosis. Clin Cancer Res. 2008;14:3395-400 pubmed publisher
    Our aim was to assess the frequency of ERG overexpression and TMPRSS2:ERG rearrangement in prostate cancer and their association with clinicopathologic variables and outcome...
  16. Furusato B, Gao C, Ravindranath L, Chen Y, Cullen J, McLeod D, et al. Mapping of TMPRSS2-ERG fusions in the context of multi-focal prostate cancer. Mod Pathol. 2008;21:67-75 pubmed
    b>TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion leading to the androgenic induction of the ERG proto-oncogene expression is a highly prevalent oncogenic alteration in prostate tumor cells...
  17. Tomlins S, Mehra R, Rhodes D, Smith L, Roulston D, Helgeson B, et al. TMPRSS2:ETV4 gene fusions define a third molecular subtype of prostate cancer. Cancer Res. 2006;66:3396-400 pubmed
    ..Recently, using a novel bioinformatic approach, we identified recurrent gene fusions between TMPRSS2 and the ETS family members ERG or ETV1 in the majority of prostate cancers...
  18. Mwamukonda K, Chen Y, Ravindranath L, Furusato B, Hu Y, Sterbis J, et al. Quantitative expression of TMPRSS2 transcript in prostate tumor cells reflects TMPRSS2-ERG fusion status. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2010;13:47-51 pubmed publisher
    b>TMPRSS2-ERG fusion is the most common oncogenic rearrangement in prostate cancer (CaP)...
  19. Rostad K, Hellwinkel O, Haukaas S, Halvorsen O, Øyan A, Haese A, et al. TMPRSS2:ERG fusion transcripts in urine from prostate cancer patients correlate with a less favorable prognosis. APMIS. 2009;117:575-82 pubmed publisher
    ..upregulated in the majority of prostate cancers due to chromosomal fusion of the androgen responsive promoter of TMPRSS2 to the ERG reading frame...
  20. Hu Y, Dobi A, Sreenath T, Cook C, Tadase A, Ravindranath L, et al. Delineation of TMPRSS2-ERG splice variants in prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2008;14:4719-25 pubmed publisher
    ..High prevalence of ERG overexpression in prostate cancer cells due to TMPRSS2-ERG fusions suggest for causal roles of ERG protein in the neoplastic process...
  21. Glowacka I, Bertram S, M ller M, Allen P, Soilleux E, Pfefferle S, et al. Evidence that TMPRSS2 activates the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike protein for membrane fusion and reduces viral control by the humoral immune response. J Virol. 2011;85:4122-34 pubmed publisher
    ..We along with others could previously show that the type II transmembrane protease TMPRSS2 activates the influenza virus hemagglutinin and the human metapneumovirus F protein by cleavage...
  22. Bonaccorsi L, Nesi G, Nuti F, Paglierani M, Krausz C, Masieri L, et al. Persistence of expression of the TMPRSS2:ERG fusion gene after pre-surgery androgen ablation may be associated with early prostate specific antigen relapse of prostate cancer: preliminary results. J Endocrinol Invest. 2009;32:590-6 pubmed publisher
    The recently identified TMPRSS2: ERG fusion gene is a candidate oncogene for prostate cancer (PCa). We have tested for the presence of this gene in tumor samples from 84 patients who had radical prostatectomy in 1998-2000...
  23. Tomlins S, Rhodes D, Perner S, Dhanasekaran S, Mehra R, Sun X, et al. Recurrent fusion of TMPRSS2 and ETS transcription factor genes in prostate cancer. Science. 2005;310:644-8 pubmed
    ..We identified recurrent gene fusions of the 5' untranslated region of TMPRSS2 to ERG or ETV1 in prostate cancer tissues with outlier expression...
  24. Wilson S, Greer B, Hooper J, Zijlstra A, Walker B, Quigley J, et al. The membrane-anchored serine protease, TMPRSS2, activates PAR-2 in prostate cancer cells. Biochem J. 2005;388:967-72 pubmed
    b>TMPRSS2 is a type II transmembrane-bound serine protease that has gained interest owing to its highly localized expression in the prostate and its overexpression in neoplastic prostate epithelium...
  25. FitzGerald L, Agalliu I, Johnson K, Miller M, Kwon E, Hurtado Coll A, et al. Association of TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion with clinical characteristics and outcomes: results from a population-based study of prostate cancer. BMC Cancer. 2008;8:230 pubmed publisher
    The presence of the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion gene in prostate tumors has recently been associated with an aggressive phenotype, as well as recurrence and death from prostate cancer...
  26. Liu W, Ewing C, Chang B, Li T, Sun J, Turner A, et al. Multiple genomic alterations on 21q22 predict various TMPRSS2/ERG fusion transcripts in human prostate cancers. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2007;46:972-80 pubmed
    A number of TMPRSS2/ERG fusion transcripts have been reported since the discovery that recurrent genomic rearrangements result in the fusion of TMPRSS2 and ETS family member genes...
  27. Leinonen K, Tolonen T, Bracken H, Stenman U, Tammela T, Saramäki O, et al. Association of SPINK1 expression and TMPRSS2:ERG fusion with prognosis in endocrine-treated prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2010;16:2845-51 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the study was to examine whether TMPRSS2:ERG fusion or SPINK1 protein expression is associated with hormone responsiveness of prostate cancer and can thus be used as a biomarker...
  28. Lin B, Ferguson C, White J, Wang S, Vessella R, True L, et al. Prostate-localized and androgen-regulated expression of the membrane-bound serine protease TMPRSS2. Cancer Res. 1999;59:4180-4 pubmed
    ..cDNAs to profile transcripts regulated by androgens in prostate cancer cells and identified the serine protease TMPRSS2 as a gene exhibiting increased expression upon exposure to androgens...
  29. Pflueger D, Rickman D, Sboner A, Perner S, Lafargue C, Svensson M, et al. N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) is fused to ERG in prostate cancer. Neoplasia. 2009;11:804-11 pubmed
    ..of recurrent erythroblast transformation-specific rearrangements, most commonly fusing the androgen-regulated TMPRSS2 promoter to ERG. The TMPRSS2-ERG fusion is observed in around 90% of tumors that overexpress the oncogene ERG...
  30. Bertram S, Glowacka I, Blazejewska P, Soilleux E, Allen P, Danisch S, et al. TMPRSS2 and TMPRSS4 facilitate trypsin-independent spread of influenza virus in Caco-2 cells. J Virol. 2010;84:10016-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, we showed that engineered expression of the type II transmembrane serine proteases (TTSPs) TMPRSS2 and TMPRSS4 allows hemagglutinin (HA) cleavage...
  31. Helgeson B, Tomlins S, Shah N, Laxman B, Cao Q, Prensner J, et al. Characterization of TMPRSS2:ETV5 and SLC45A3:ETV5 gene fusions in prostate cancer. Cancer Res. 2008;68:73-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The most common fusions contain the 5' untranslated region of TMPRSS2 fused to ERG...
  32. Yoshimoto M, Joshua A, Chilton MacNeill S, Bayani J, Selvarajah S, Evans A, et al. Three-color FISH analysis of TMPRSS2/ERG fusions in prostate cancer indicates that genomic microdeletion of chromosome 21 is associated with rearrangement. Neoplasia. 2006;8:465-9 pubmed
    ..reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to detect six ERG-related gene fusion transcripts with TMPRSS2. No TMPRSS2/ETV1 chimeric fusion was detected in this series...
  33. Lubieniecka J, Cheteri M, Stanford J, Ostrander E. Met160Val polymorphism in the TRMPSS2 gene and risk of prostate cancer in a population-based case-control study. Prostate. 2004;59:357-9 pubmed
    ..The transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) gene encodes a type II transmembrane protein which, due to its cell surface localization, could be a potentially ..
  34. Böttcher E, Matrosovich T, Beyerle M, Klenk H, Garten W, Matrosovich M. Proteolytic activation of influenza viruses by serine proteases TMPRSS2 and HAT from human airway epithelium. J Virol. 2006;80:9896-8 pubmed
    ..Here we cloned two human type II transmembrane serine proteases with known airway localization, TMPRSS2 and HAT, into mammalian expression vector...
  35. Gu J, Chukhman M, Lu Y, Liu C, Liu S, Lu H. RNA-seq Based Transcription Characterization of Fusion Breakpoints as a Potential Estimator for Its Oncogenic Potential. Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:9829175 pubmed publisher
    ..And the most frequent prostate cancer fusion mutation, TMPRSS2-ERG, appears to have a remarkably higher iFCR value in all three independent patients...
  36. Yamaya M, Shimotai Y, Hatachi Y, Lusamba Kalonji N, Tando Y, Kitajima Y, et al. The serine protease inhibitor camostat inhibits influenza virus replication and cytokine production in primary cultures of human tracheal epithelial cells. Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2015;33:66-74 pubmed publisher
    ..mRNA encoding TMPRSS2, TMPRSS4 and TMPRSS11D was detectable in the cells, and the expression levels were not affected by camostat...
  37. Garten W, Braden C, Arendt A, Peitsch C, Baron J, Lu Y, et al. Influenza virus activating host proteases: Identification, localization and inhibitors as potential therapeutics. Eur J Cell Biol. 2015;94:375-83 pubmed publisher
    ..for processing by the trypsin-like serine proteases human airway trypsin-like protease (HAT) and transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2), albeit a minority of viruses possesses HA cleavage site motifs that are processed by other ..
  38. Todorova K, Metodiev M, Metodieva G, Mincheff M, Fernandez N, Hayrabedyan S. Micro-RNA-204 Participates in TMPRSS2/ERG Regulation and Androgen Receptor Reprogramming in Prostate Cancer. Horm Cancer. 2017;8:28-48 pubmed publisher
    ..progression is driven by genome instability incurred rearrangements such as transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2)/v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene (ERG) that could possibly turn some of the tumor suppressor micro-RNAs ..
  39. Fisher K, Zhang S, Wang M, Montironi R, Wang L, Baldrige L, et al. TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion is rare compared to PTEN deletions in stage T1a prostate cancer. Mol Carcinog. 2017;56:814-820 pubmed publisher
    ..The genomic status of ERG was determined using three colored FISH using an ERG-TMPRSS2 tri-color probe set...
  40. Filella X, Foj L. Prostate Cancer Detection and Prognosis: From Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) to Exosomal Biomarkers. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17: pubmed
    ..has emerged as a non-invasive way to identify new biomarkers in recent years, including the PCA3 and TMPRSS2:ERG fusion gene...
  41. Bu H, Narisu N, Schlick B, Rainer J, Manke T, Schafer G, et al. Putative Prostate Cancer Risk SNP in an Androgen Receptor-Binding Site of the Melanophilin Gene Illustrates Enrichment of Risk SNPs in Androgen Receptor Target Sites. Hum Mutat. 2016;37:52-64 pubmed publisher
    ..We integrated chromatin-immunoprecipitation-coupled sequencing and microarray expression profiling in TMPRSS2-ERG gene rearrangement positive DUCaP cells with the GWAS PCa risk SNPs catalog to identify disease ..
  42. Ko C, Huang C, Lin H, Juan C, Lan S, Shyu H, et al. Androgen-Induced TMPRSS2 Activates Matriptase and Promotes Extracellular Matrix Degradation, Prostate Cancer Cell Invasion, Tumor Growth, and Metastasis. Cancer Res. 2015;75:2949-60 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we show how the membrane-anchored serine protease TMPRSS2 stimulates a proteolytic cascade that mediates androgen-induced prostate cancer cell invasion, tumor growth, and ..
  43. Tomlins S, Day J, Lonigro R, Hovelson D, Siddiqui J, Kunju L, et al. Urine TMPRSS2:ERG Plus PCA3 for Individualized Prostate Cancer Risk Assessment. Eur Urol. 2016;70:45-53 pubmed publisher
    b>TMPRSS2:ERG (T2:ERG) and prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) are the most advanced urine-based prostate cancer (PCa) early detection biomarkers...
  44. Setlur S, Mertz K, Hoshida Y, Demichelis F, Lupien M, Perner S, et al. Estrogen-dependent signaling in a molecularly distinct subclass of aggressive prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008;100:815-25 pubmed publisher
    ..of prostate cancers harbor gene fusions of the 5'-untranslated region of the androgen-regulated transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) promoter with erythroblast transformation-specific transcription factor family members...
  45. Yates C, Long M, Campbell M, Sucheston Campbell L. miRNAs as drivers of TMPRSS2-ERG negative prostate tumors in African American men. Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2017;22:212-229 pubmed
    ..b>TMPRSS2 translocations, a common event in EA patients, are exploited in diagnostic and prognostic settings, whereas they ..
  46. Koo K, Wee E, Trau M. High-speed biosensing strategy for non-invasive profiling of multiple cancer fusion genes in urine. Biosens Bioelectron. 2017;89:715-720 pubmed publisher
    Aberrant chromosal rearrangements, such as the multiple variants of TMPRSS2:ERG fusion gene mutations in prostate cancer (PCa), are promising diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers due to their specific expression in cancerous tissue only...
  47. Deplus R, Delliaux C, Marchand N, Flourens A, Vanpouille N, Leroy X, et al. TMPRSS2-ERG fusion promotes prostate cancer metastases in bone. Oncotarget. 2017;8:11827-11840 pubmed publisher
    Bone metastasis is the major deleterious event in prostate cancer (PCa). TMPRSS2-ERG fusion is one of the most common chromosomic rearrangements in PCa. However, its implication in bone metastasis development is still unclear...
  48. Guo C, Zuo G, Cao D, Troncoso P, Czerniak B. Prostate cancer of transition zone origin lacks TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion. Mod Pathol. 2009;22:866-71 pubmed publisher
    ..a unique chromosomal rearrangement that leads to the fusion of 5'-transmembrane protein serine proteinase-2 (TMPRSS2) with the EST-related gene (ERG) in prostate cancer...
  49. Graff R, Pettersson A, Lis R, Ahearn T, Markt S, Wilson K, et al. Dietary lycopene intake and risk of prostate cancer defined by ERG protein expression. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016;103:851-60 pubmed publisher
    ..may be especially protective against diseases harboring the common gene fusion transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2):v-ets avian erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog (ERG)...
  50. Wang S, Kollipara R, Humphries C, Ma S, Hutchinson R, Li R, et al. The ubiquitin ligase TRIM25 targets ERG for degradation in prostate cancer. Oncotarget. 2016;7:64921-64931 pubmed publisher
    ..is a transcription factor that is overexpressed in 40% of prostate tumors due to a gene fusion between ERG and TMPRSS2. Because ERG functions as a driver of prostate carcinogenesis, understanding the mechanisms that influence its ..
  51. Börno S, Fischer A, Kerick M, Fälth M, Laible M, Brase J, et al. Genome-wide DNA methylation events in TMPRSS2-ERG fusion-negative prostate cancers implicate an EZH2-dependent mechanism with miR-26a hypermethylation. Cancer Discov. 2012;2:1024-35 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, global methylation patterns show significant differences based on the TMPRSS2-ERG rearrangement status...
  52. Sakai K, Ami Y, Nakajima N, Nakajima K, Kitazawa M, Anraku M, et al. TMPRSS2 Independency for Haemagglutinin Cleavage In Vivo Differentiates Influenza B Virus from Influenza A Virus. Sci Rep. 2016;6:29430 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies have revealed that the host protease TMPRSS2 plays an essential role for proteolytic activation of H1, H3, and H7 subtype strains of influenza A virus (IAV) ..
  53. Gan W, Dai X, Lunardi A, Li Z, Inuzuka H, Liu P, et al. SPOP Promotes Ubiquitination and Degradation of the ERG Oncoprotein to Suppress Prostate Cancer Progression. Mol Cell. 2015;59:917-30 pubmed publisher
    The ERG gene is fused to TMPRSS2 in approximately 50% of prostate cancers (PrCa), resulting in its overexpression. However, whether this is the sole mechanism underlying ERG elevation in PrCa is currently unclear...
  54. Shaikhibrahim Z, Lindstrot A, Buettner R, Wernert N. Analysis of laser-microdissected prostate cancer tissues reveals potential tumor markers. Int J Mol Med. 2011;28:605-11 pubmed publisher
    ..were down-regulated in the prostate carcinoma glands compared to the corresponding normal glands, whereas TFF3, TMPRSS2 and ERG were up-regulated...
  55. Knuuttila M, Mehmood A, Huhtaniemi R, Yatkin E, Häkkinen M, Oksala R, et al. Antiandrogens Reduce Intratumoral Androgen Concentrations and Induce Androgen Receptor Expression in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Xenografts. Am J Pathol. 2018;188:216-228 pubmed publisher
    ..Nonsignificant effects were observed in the expression of certain classic androgen-regulated genes, such as TMPRSS2 and KLK3, despite the low levels of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone...
  56. Chatterjee P, Choudhary G, Alswillah T, Xiong X, Heston W, Magi Galluzzi C, et al. The TMPRSS2-ERG Gene Fusion Blocks XRCC4-Mediated Nonhomologous End-Joining Repair and Radiosensitizes Prostate Cancer Cells to PARP Inhibition. Mol Cancer Ther. 2015;14:1896-906 pubmed publisher
    ..that radiosensitization by a PARP inhibitor (PARPi) was highly prominent in prostate cancer cells expressing the TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion protein...
  57. Powell K, Semaan L, Conley LaComb M, Asangani I, Wu Y, Ginsburg K, et al. ERG/AKR1C3/AR Constitutes a Feed-Forward Loop for AR Signaling in Prostate Cancer Cells. Clin Cancer Res. 2015;21:2569-79 pubmed publisher
    ..The TMPRSS2-ERG transcription factor has been shown to be present in primary prostate cancer tumors as well as CRPC tumors...
  58. Velaeti S, Dimitriadis E, Kontogianni Katsarou K, Savvani A, Sdrolia E, Pantazi G, et al. Detection of TMPRSS2-ERG fusion gene in benign prostatic hyperplasia. Tumour Biol. 2014;35:9597-602 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Transmembrane protease serine 2 and Ets-related gene fusion (TMPRSS2-ERG) is the most frequently identified chimeric gene and has ..
  59. Heurich A, Hofmann Winkler H, Gierer S, Liepold T, Jahn O, Pohlmann S. TMPRSS2 and ADAM17 cleave ACE2 differentially and only proteolysis by TMPRSS2 augments entry driven by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike protein. J Virol. 2014;88:1293-307 pubmed publisher
    The type II transmembrane serine proteases TMPRSS2 and HAT can cleave and activate the spike protein (S) of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) for membrane fusion...
  60. Zhou C, Young D, Yeboah E, Coburn S, Tettey Y, Biritwum R, et al. TMPRSS2:ERG Gene Fusions in Prostate Cancer of West African Men and a Meta-Analysis of Racial Differences. Am J Epidemiol. 2017;186:1352-1361 pubmed publisher
    The prevalence of fusions of the transmembrane protease, serine 2, gene (TMPRSS2) with the erythroblast transformation-specific-related gene (ERG), or TMPRSS2:ERG, in prostate cancer varies by race...
  61. Jäckle F, Schmidt F, Wichert R, Arnold P, Prox J, Mangold M, et al. Metalloprotease meprin β is activated by transmembrane serine protease matriptase-2 at the cell surface thereby enhancing APP shedding. Biochem J. 2015;470:91-103 pubmed publisher
    ..Maturation of full-length meprin β is required for its activity as a cell surface sheddase, releasing the ectodomains of transmembrane proteins, as previously shown for the amyloid precursor protein (APP). ..
  62. Jiang H, Mao X, Huang X, Zhao J, Wang L, Xu J, et al. TMPRSS2:ERG fusion gene occurs less frequently in Chinese patients with prostate cancer. Tumour Biol. 2016;37:12397-12402 pubmed
    ..The principal aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of TMPRSS2:ERG fusion in Chinese prostate cancer patients using immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription polymerase ..
  63. Li Y, Kong D, Wang Z, Ahmad A, Bao B, Padhye S, et al. Inactivation of AR/TMPRSS2-ERG/Wnt signaling networks attenuates the aggressive behavior of prostate cancer cells. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2011;4:1495-506 pubmed publisher
    ..cancers overexpress ERG (v-ets avian erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene related gene) due to AR-regulated TMPRSS2-ERG fusion gene. However, the reported roles of TMPRSS2-ERG fusion in cancer progression are not clear...
  64. Ratz L, Laible M, Kacprzyk L, Wittig Blaich S, Tolstov Y, Duensing S, et al. TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusion variants induce TGF-β signaling and epithelial to mesenchymal transition in human prostate cancer cells. Oncotarget. 2017;8:25115-25130 pubmed publisher
    b>TMPRSS2:ERG (T/E) gene fusions are present in approximately 50% of all prostate cancer (PCa) cases...
  65. Kolar Z, Burdova A, Jamaspishvili T, Bouchal J, Kucerova R, Bienova M, et al. Relation of ETS transcription factor family member ERG, androgen receptor and topoisomerase 2? expression to TMPRSS2-ERG fusion status in prostate cancer. Neoplasma. 2014;61:9-16 pubmed
    Fusion of TMPRSS2 with ERG in prostate cells is determined by double-strand DNA breaks induced by androgen signaling and transcription stress...
  66. Wang J, Cai Y, Shao L, Siddiqui J, Palanisamy N, Li R, et al. Activation of NF-{kappa}B by TMPRSS2/ERG Fusion Isoforms through Toll-Like Receptor-4. Cancer Res. 2011;71:1325-33 pubmed publisher
    The TMPRSS2/ERG (T/E) fusion gene is present and thought to be an oncogenic driver of approximately half of all prostate cancers...
  67. Rabaan A, Alahmed S, Bazzi A, Alhani H. A review of candidate therapies for Middle East respiratory syndrome from a molecular perspective. J Med Microbiol. 2017;66:1261-1274 pubmed publisher
    ..These include viral S protein targeting; inhibitors of host proteases, including TMPRSS2, cathepsin L and furin protease, and of viral M(pro) and the PL(pro) proteases; convalescent plasma; and vaccine ..
  68. Murphy S, Kosari F, Karnes R, Nasir A, Johnson S, Gaitatzes A, et al. Retention of Interstitial Genes between TMPRSS2 and ERG Is Associated with Low-Risk Prostate Cancer. Cancer Res. 2017;77:6157-6167 pubmed publisher
    i>TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusions occur in over 50% of prostate cancers, but their impact on clinical outcomes is not well understood...
  69. Urbinati G, Ali H, Rousseau Q, Chapuis H, Desmaële D, Couvreur P, et al. Antineoplastic Effects of siRNA against TMPRSS2-ERG Junction Oncogene in Prostate Cancer. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0125277 pubmed publisher
    b>TMPRSS2-ERG junction oncogene is present in more than 50% of patients with prostate cancer and its expression is frequently associated with poor prognosis...
  70. Shirato K, Kawase M, Matsuyama S. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection mediated by the transmembrane serine protease TMPRSS2. J Virol. 2013;87:12552-61 pubmed publisher
    ..In the current study, Vero cells constitutively expressing type II transmembrane serine protease (Vero-TMPRSS2 cells) showed larger syncytia at 18 h after infection with MERS-CoV than after infection with other coronaviruses...
  71. Lee K, Chae J, Kwak C, Ku J, Moon K. TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion and clinicopathologic characteristics of Korean prostate cancer patients. Urology. 2010;76:1268.e7-13 pubmed publisher
    To survey the status of TMPRSS2-ERG fusion in Korean prostate cancer patients, we assessed the differences in clinicopathologic characteristics and biochemical recurrence according to TMPRSS2-ERG fusion status...
  72. Mani R, Tomlins S, Callahan K, Ghosh A, Nyati M, Varambally S, et al. Induced chromosomal proximity and gene fusions in prostate cancer. Science. 2009;326:1230 pubmed publisher
    ..About 50% of human prostate cancers display a gene fusion involving the 5' untranslated region of TMPRSS2, an androgen-regulated gene, and the protein-coding sequences of ERG, which encodes an erythroblast ..