TMEM173

Summary

Gene Symbol: TMEM173
Description: transmembrane protein 173
Alias: ERIS, MITA, MPYS, NET23, SAVI, STING, STING-beta, hMITA, hSTING, stimulator of interferon genes protein, N-terminal methionine-proline-tyrosine-serine plasma membrane tetraspanner, endoplasmic reticulum IFN stimulator, endoplasmic reticulum interferon stimulator, mitochondrial mediator of IRF3 activation, stimulator of interferon protein
Species: human
Products:     TMEM173

Top Publications

  1. Jin L, Waterman P, Jonscher K, Short C, Reisdorph N, Cambier J. MPYS, a novel membrane tetraspanner, is associated with major histocompatibility complex class II and mediates transduction of apoptotic signals. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:5014-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we describe a novel plasma membrane tetraspanner (MPYS) that is associated with MHC-II and mediates its transduction of death signals...
  2. Zhong B, Yang Y, Li S, Wang Y, Li Y, Diao F, et al. The adaptor protein MITA links virus-sensing receptors to IRF3 transcription factor activation. Immunity. 2008;29:538-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we identified MITA as a critical mediator of virus-triggered type I IFN signaling by expression cloning...
  3. Jin L, Xu L, Yang I, Davidson E, Schwartz D, Wurfel M, et al. Identification and characterization of a loss-of-function human MPYS variant. Genes Immun. 2011;12:263-9 pubmed publisher
    MPYS, also known as STING and MITA, is an interferon (IFN)? stimulator essential for host defense against RNA, DNA viruses and intracellular bacteria. MPYS also facilitates the adjuvant activity of DNA vaccines...
  4. Huang Y, Liu X, Du X, Jiang Z, Su X. The structural basis for the sensing and binding of cyclic di-GMP by STING. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2012;19:728-30 pubmed publisher
    b>STING (stimulator of interferon genes) is an essential signaling adaptor that mediates cytokine production in response to microbial invasion by directly sensing bacterial secondary messengers such as the cyclic dinucleotide bis-(3'-5')-..
  5. Holm C, Jensen S, Jakobsen M, Cheshenko N, Horan K, Moeller H, et al. Virus-cell fusion as a trigger of innate immunity dependent on the adaptor STING. Nat Immunol. 2012;13:737-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The fusion-dependent response was dependent on the stimulator of interferon genes STING but was independent of DNA, RNA and viral capsid...
  6. Shang G, Zhu D, Li N, Zhang J, Zhu C, Lu D, et al. Crystal structures of STING protein reveal basis for recognition of cyclic di-GMP. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2012;19:725-7 pubmed publisher
    b>STING functions as both an adaptor protein signaling cytoplasmic double-stranded DNA and a direct immunosensor of cyclic diguanylate monophosphate (c-di-GMP)...
  7. Zhang J, Hu M, Wang Y, Shu H. TRIM32 protein modulates type I interferon induction and cellular antiviral response by targeting MITA/STING protein for K63-linked ubiquitination. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:28646-55 pubmed publisher
    ..MITA (also called STING) is a critical adaptor protein that links virus-sensing receptors to IRF3 activation upon infection by both RNA ..
  8. Nitta S, Sakamoto N, Nakagawa M, Kakinuma S, Mishima K, Kusano Kitazume A, et al. Hepatitis C virus NS4B protein targets STING and abrogates RIG-I-mediated type I interferon-dependent innate immunity. Hepatology. 2013;57:46-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, the stimulator of interferon genes (STING) was identified as an activator of RIG-I signaling...
  9. Chen H, Sun H, You F, Sun W, Zhou X, Chen L, et al. Activation of STAT6 by STING is critical for antiviral innate immunity. Cell. 2011;147:436-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Viruses or cytoplasmic nucleic acids trigger STING (also named MITA/ERIS) to recruit STAT6 to the endoplasmic reticulum, leading to STAT6 phosphorylation on Ser(407) ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Burdette D, Monroe K, Sotelo Troha K, Iwig J, Eckert B, Hyodo M, et al. STING is a direct innate immune sensor of cyclic di-GMP. Nature. 2011;478:515-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, a transmembrane protein called STING (stimulator of IFN genes; also known as MITA, ERIS, MPYS and TMEM173) functions as an essential signalling adaptor, linking the cytosolic detection of DNA to the TBK1-IRF3 signalling ..
  2. Ding Q, Cao X, Lu J, Huang B, Liu Y, Kato N, et al. Hepatitis C virus NS4B blocks the interaction of STING and TBK1 to evade host innate immunity. J Hepatol. 2013;59:52-8 pubmed publisher
    ..NS4B interacts with STING/MITA, an important molecule that mediates the HCV PAMP induced interferon signaling...
  3. Konno H, Konno K, Barber G. Cyclic dinucleotides trigger ULK1 (ATG1) phosphorylation of STING to prevent sustained innate immune signaling. Cell. 2013;155:688-98 pubmed publisher
    Activation of the stimulator of interferon genes (STING) pathway by microbial or self-DNA, as well as cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs), results in the induction of numerous genes that suppress pathogen replication and facilitate adaptive ..
  4. Liu Y, Jesus A, Marrero B, Yang D, Ramsey S, Sanchez G, et al. Activated STING in a vascular and pulmonary syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2014;371:507-518 pubmed publisher
    ..We sequenced a candidate gene, TMEM173, encoding the stimulator of interferon genes (STING), in this patient and in five unrelated children with similar ..
  5. Ishikawa H, Barber G. STING is an endoplasmic reticulum adaptor that facilitates innate immune signalling. Nature. 2008;455:674-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report the identification, following expression cloning, of a molecule (STING; stimulator of interferon genes) that appears essential for effective innate immune signalling processes...
  6. Zhang L, Mo J, Swanson K, Wen H, Petrucelli A, Gregory S, et al. NLRC3, a member of the NLR family of proteins, is a negative regulator of innate immune signaling induced by the DNA sensor STING. Immunity. 2014;40:329-41 pubmed publisher
    Stimulator of interferon genes (STING, also named MITA, MYPS, or ERIS) is an intracellular DNA sensor that induces type I interferon through its interaction with TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1)...
  7. Abe T, Harashima A, Xia T, Konno H, Konno K, Morales A, et al. STING recognition of cytoplasmic DNA instigates cellular defense. Mol Cell. 2013;50:5-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that STING (stimulator of interferon genes), an endoplasmic reticulum translocon-associated transmembrane protein, acts to ..
  8. Ablasser A, Goldeck M, Cavlar T, Deimling T, Witte G, Röhl I, et al. cGAS produces a 2'-5'-linked cyclic dinucleotide second messenger that activates STING. Nature. 2013;498:380-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The endoplasmic-reticulum-resident protein STING is critically required for the initiation of type I interferon signalling upon detection of cytosolic DNA of both ..
  9. Chen X, Yang X, Zheng Y, Yang Y, Xing Y, Chen Z. SARS coronavirus papain-like protease inhibits the type I interferon signaling pathway through interaction with the STING-TRAF3-TBK1 complex. Protein Cell. 2014;5:369-81 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that expression of the membrane-anchored PLpro domain (PLpro-TM) from SARS-CoV inhibits STING/TBK1/IKK?-mediated activation of type I IFNs and disrupts the phosphorylation and dimerization of IRF3, which are ..
  10. Yin Q, Tian Y, Kabaleeswaran V, Jiang X, Tu D, Eck M, et al. Cyclic di-GMP sensing via the innate immune signaling protein STING. Mol Cell. 2012;46:735-45 pubmed publisher
    Detection of foreign materials is the first step of successful immune responses. Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) was shown to directly bind cyclic diguanylate monophosphate (c-di-GMP), a bacterial second messenger, and to elicit ..
  11. Tanaka Y, Chen Z. STING specifies IRF3 phosphorylation by TBK1 in the cytosolic DNA signaling pathway. Sci Signal. 2012;5:ra20 pubmed publisher
    ..the production of type I interferon (IFN) through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident adaptor protein STING (stimulator of IFN genes), which activates the transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3); however,..
  12. Zhong B, Zhang L, Lei C, Li Y, Mao A, Yang Y, et al. The ubiquitin ligase RNF5 regulates antiviral responses by mediating degradation of the adaptor protein MITA. Immunity. 2009;30:397-407 pubmed publisher
    ..MITA (also known as STING) has recently been identified as an adaptor that links virus-sensing receptors to IRF3 activation...
  13. Li Y, Li C, Xue P, Zhong B, Mao A, Ran Y, et al. ISG56 is a negative-feedback regulator of virus-triggered signaling and cellular antiviral response. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:7945-50 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we identified ISG56 as a virus-induced protein associated with MITA, an adapter protein involved in virus-triggered induction of type I IFNs...
  14. Zhang Z, Yuan B, Bao M, Lu N, Kim T, Liu Y. The helicase DDX41 senses intracellular DNA mediated by the adaptor STING in dendritic cells. Nat Immunol. 2011;12:959-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Overexpression of both DDX41 and the membrane-associated adaptor STING together had a synergistic effect in promoting Ifnb promoter activity...
  15. Tsuchida T, Zou J, Saitoh T, Kumar H, Abe T, Matsuura Y, et al. The ubiquitin ligase TRIM56 regulates innate immune responses to intracellular double-stranded DNA. Immunity. 2010;33:765-76 pubmed publisher
    ..TRIM56 interacted with STING and targeted it for lysine 63-linked ubiquitination...
  16. Sun W, Li Y, Chen L, Chen H, You F, Zhou X, et al. ERIS, an endoplasmic reticulum IFN stimulator, activates innate immune signaling through dimerization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:8653-8 pubmed publisher
    ..ERIS (also known as STING or MITA) resided exclusively on ER membrane...
  17. Shu C, Yi G, Watts T, Kao C, Li P. Structure of STING bound to cyclic di-GMP reveals the mechanism of cyclic dinucleotide recognition by the immune system. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2012;19:722-4 pubmed publisher
    b>STING (stimulator of interferon genes) is an innate immune sensor of cyclic dinucleotides that regulates the induction of type I interferons...
  18. Diner E, Burdette D, Wilson S, Monroe K, Kellenberger C, Hyodo M, et al. The innate immune DNA sensor cGAS produces a noncanonical cyclic dinucleotide that activates human STING. Cell Rep. 2013;3:1355-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we identify natural variants of human STING (hSTING) that are poorly responsive to cGAMP yet, unexpectedly, are normally responsive to DNA and cGAS signaling...
  19. Unterholzner L, Keating S, Baran M, Horan K, Jensen S, Sharma S, et al. IFI16 is an innate immune sensor for intracellular DNA. Nat Immunol. 2010;11:997-1004 pubmed publisher
    ..IFI16 directly associated with IFN-?-inducing viral DNA motifs. STING, a critical mediator of IFN-? responses to DNA, was recruited to IFI16 after DNA stimulation...
  20. Conlon J, Burdette D, Sharma S, Bhat N, Thompson M, Jiang Z, et al. Mouse, but not human STING, binds and signals in response to the vascular disrupting agent 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid. J Immunol. 2013;190:5216-25 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we identify stimulator of IFN gene (STING) as a direct receptor for DMXAA leading to TANK-binding kinase 1 and IFN regulatory factor 3 signaling...
  21. Aguirre S, Maestre A, Pagni S, Patel J, Savage T, Gutman D, et al. DENV inhibits type I IFN production in infected cells by cleaving human STING. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002934 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present report we identify the human adaptor molecule STING as a target of the NS2B3 protease complex...
  22. Sun L, Xing Y, Chen X, Zheng Y, Yang Y, Nichols D, et al. Coronavirus papain-like proteases negatively regulate antiviral innate immune response through disruption of STING-mediated signaling. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30802 pubmed publisher
    ..acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) CoV papain-like proteases (PLP) antagonize innate immune signaling mediated by STING (stimulator of interferon genes, also known as MITA/ERIS/MYPS)...
  23. Yu C, Chang T, Liang J, Chiang R, Lee Y, Liao C, et al. Dengue virus targets the adaptor protein MITA to subvert host innate immunity. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002780 pubmed publisher
    ..adaptor protein in type I interferon pathway, human mediator of IRF3 activation (MITA) but not the murine homologue MPYS, was cleaved in cells infected with DEN-1 or DEN-2 and with expression of the enzymatically active protease NS2B3...
  24. Worm M, Sturm G, Kleine Tebbe J, Cichocka Jarosz E, Cardona V, Maris I, et al. New trends in anaphylaxis. Allergo J Int. 2017;26:295-300 pubmed publisher
    ..data on the efficacy of insect venom immunotherapy is limited, the occurrence of severe reactions upon repeated sting events can be prevented and patients' quality of life improved...
  25. Munoz J, Rodière M, Jeremiah N, Rieux Laucat F, Oojageer A, Rice G, et al. Stimulator of Interferon Genes-Associated Vasculopathy With Onset in Infancy: A Mimic of Childhood Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis. JAMA Dermatol. 2015;151:872-7 pubmed publisher
    ..of interferon genes-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy (SAVI) caused by gain-of-function mutations in TMEM173. We describe a male child who, from the age of 2 months, had significant cutaneous disease that manifested as red ..
  26. Radoshevich L, Impens F, Ribet D, Quereda J, Nam Tham T, Nahori M, et al. ISG15 counteracts Listeria monocytogenes infection. elife. 2015;4: pubmed publisher
    ..independent and depends on the cytosolic surveillance pathway, which senses bacterial DNA and signals through STING, TBK1, IRF3 and IRF7...
  27. da Silva M, Noll F, Carpenter J. The Usefulness of the Sting Apparatus in Phylogenetic Reconstructions in Vespids, with Emphasis on the Epiponini: More Support for the Single Origin of Eusociality in the Vespidae. Neotrop Entomol. 2014;43:134-42 pubmed publisher
    This study aimed at testing the utility of characters derived from chitinous structures of the sting apparatus for elucidating relationships among the genera of Epiponini...
  28. Francica B, Ghasemzadeh A, Desbien A, Theodros D, Sivick K, Reiner G, et al. TNFα and Radioresistant Stromal Cells Are Essential for Therapeutic Efficacy of Cyclic Dinucleotide STING Agonists in Nonimmunogenic Tumors. Cancer Immunol Res. 2018;6:422-433 pubmed publisher
    The cGAS-STING cytosolic DNA sensing pathway may play an integral role in the initiation of antitumor immune responses...
  29. Gao M, Huang S, Li J, Zou Y, Xu P, Kang R, et al. [A novel pathogenic mutation of CRYGD gene in a congenital cataract family]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi. 2016;33:515-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The nonsense mutation was predicted to be "disease causing" by Mutation t@sting program. The nonsense mutation c...
  30. Su C, Zheng C. Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Abrogates the cGAS/STING-Mediated Cytosolic DNA-Sensing Pathway via Its Virion Host Shutoff Protein, UL41. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..DNA sensor capable of detecting microbial DNA and activating the adaptor protein stimulator of interferon genes (STING), leading to interferon (IFN) production and host antiviral responses...
  31. Fu Y, Su S, Gao Y, Wang P, Huang Z, Hu M, et al. Human Cytomegalovirus Tegument Protein UL82 Inhibits STING-Mediated Signaling to Evade Antiviral Immunity. Cell Host Microbe. 2017;21:231-243 pubmed publisher
    Recognition of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) DNA by the cytosolic sensor cGAS initiates STING-dependent innate antiviral responses. HCMV can antagonize host immune responses to promote latency infection...
  32. Yoshida S, Shime H, Takeda Y, Nam J, Takashima K, Matsumoto M, et al. Toll-like receptor 3 signal augments radiation-induced tumor growth retardation in a murine model. Cancer Sci. 2018;109:956-965 pubmed publisher
    ..DNA, a representative DAMP in radiotherapy, activates the stimulator of interferon genes (STING) pathway which enhances the immune response...
  33. Chia J, Eroğlu F, Özen S, Orhan D, Montealegre Sanchez G, de Jesus A, et al. Failure to thrive, interstitial lung disease, and progressive digital necrosis with onset in infancy. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2016;74:186-9 pubmed publisher
    Key teaching points • SAVI is a recently described interferonopathy resulting from constitutive action of STING and up-regulation of IFN-β signaling...
  34. Jakobs C, Perner S, Hornung V. AIM2 Drives Joint Inflammation in a Self-DNA Triggered Model of Chronic Polyarthritis. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0131702 pubmed publisher
    ..While pro-inflammatory gene expression is non-redundantly linked to the presence of STING in these mice, the contribution of the inflammasome pathway has not been explored...
  35. Górska A, Gruchała Niedoszytko M, Niedoszytko M, Maciejewska A, Chełmińska M, Skrzypski M, et al. The Role of TRAF4 and B3GAT1 Gene Expression in the Food Hypersensitivity and Insect Venom Allergy in Mastocytosis. Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz). 2016;64:497-503 pubmed
    ..003) in patients with IVA compared to patients without insect sting anaphylaxis in the medical history...
  36. Lemos H, Mohamed E, Huang L, Ou R, Pacholczyk G, Arbab A, et al. STING Promotes the Growth of Tumors Characterized by Low Antigenicity via IDO Activation. Cancer Res. 2016;76:2076-81 pubmed publisher
    ..is an important process during the innate immune response that activates the stimulator of interferon genes (STING) adaptor and induces IFN-I...
  37. Kato K, Ishii R, Goto E, Ishitani R, Tokunaga F, Nureki O. Structural and functional analyses of DNA-sensing and immune activation by human cGAS. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e76983 pubmed publisher
    ..identified cytosolic DNA receptor that produces cyclic GMP-AMP, which activates stimulator of interferon genes (STING), resulting in TBK1-IRF3 pathway activation followed by the production of type I interferons...
  38. Chen Y, Yin S, Li M, Chen R, Wei L, Ma H, et al. A case of chromoblastomycosis by Fonsecaea nubica indicating a possible insect route of transmission. Mycoses. 2016;59:662-7 pubmed publisher
    ..right auricle which had gradually extended over a 10-year period, and the patient reported a history of dog flea sting before onset of the lesions...
  39. Sali T, Pryke K, Abraham J, Liu A, Archer I, Broeckel R, et al. Characterization of a Novel Human-Specific STING Agonist that Elicits Antiviral Activity Against Emerging Alphaviruses. PLoS Pathog. 2015;11:e1005324 pubmed publisher
    ..This allowed the identification of IRF3, the IRF3-activating adaptor molecule STING, and the IFN-associated transcription factor STAT1 as required for observed gene induction and antiviral effects...
  40. Bose D, Su Y, Marcus A, Raulet D, Hammond M. An RNA-Based Fluorescent Biosensor for High-Throughput Analysis of the cGAS-cGAMP-STING Pathway. Cell Chem Biol. 2016;23:1539-1549 pubmed publisher
    ..by the cytosolic DNA sensor cGAMP synthase (cGAS), and subsequently bound by the stimulator of interferon genes (STING) to trigger interferon response...
  41. Cui Y, Yu H, Zheng X, Peng R, Wang Q, Zhou Y, et al. SENP7 Potentiates cGAS Activation by Relieving SUMO-Mediated Inhibition of Cytosolic DNA Sensing. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006156 pubmed publisher
    ..sensor, catalyzes formation of the second messenger 2'3'-cGAMP that activates the stimulator of interferon genes (STING) signaling. How the cGAS activity is modulated remains largely unknown...
  42. Pokatayev V, Yan N. Methods of Assessing STING Activation and Trafficking. Methods Mol Biol. 2017;1656:167-174 pubmed publisher
    The signaling adapter protein STING is crucial for the host immune response to cytosolic DNA and cyclic dinucleotides...
  43. Bhatelia K, Singh K, Prajapati P, Sripada L, Roy M, Singh R. MITA modulated autophagy flux promotes cell death in breast cancer cells. Cell Signal. 2017;35:73-83 pubmed publisher
    ..In the current study, we studied the role of MITA (Mediator of IRF3 Activation), a regulator of innate immunity, in the regulation of autophagy and its implication ..
  44. Morchikh M, Cribier A, Raffel R, Amraoui S, Cau J, Severac D, et al. HEXIM1 and NEAT1 Long Non-coding RNA Form a Multi-subunit Complex that Regulates DNA-Mediated Innate Immune Response. Mol Cell. 2017;67:387-399.e5 pubmed publisher
    ..further demonstrate that the HDP-RNP is required for the innate immune response to foreign DNA, through the cGAS-STING-IRF3 pathway...
  45. Barker J, Koestler B, Carpenter V, Burdette D, Waters C, Vance R, et al. STING-dependent recognition of cyclic di-AMP mediates type I interferon responses during Chlamydia trachomatis infection. MBio. 2013;4:e00018-13 pubmed publisher
    b>STING (stimulator of interferon [IFN] genes) initiates type I IFN responses in mammalian cells through the detection of microbial nucleic acids...
  46. Choi H, Park A, Kang S, Lee E, Lee T, Ra E, et al. Human cytomegalovirus-encoded US9 targets MAVS and STING signaling to evade type I interferon immune responses. Nat Commun. 2018;9:125 pubmed publisher
    ..response by targeting the mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS) and stimulator of interferon genes (STING)-mediated signaling pathways...
  47. Liu S, Cai X, Wu J, Cong Q, Chen X, Li T, et al. Phosphorylation of innate immune adaptor proteins MAVS, STING, and TRIF induces IRF3 activation. Science. 2015;347:aaa2630 pubmed publisher
    During virus infection, the adaptor proteins MAVS and STING transduce signals from the cytosolic nucleic acid sensors RIG-I and cGAS, respectively, to induce type I interferons (IFNs) and other antiviral molecules...
  48. Larkin B, Ilyukha V, Sorokin M, Buzdin A, Vannier E, Poltorak A. Cutting Edge: Activation of STING in T Cells Induces Type I IFN Responses and Cell Death. J Immunol. 2017;199:397-402 pubmed publisher
    Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) was initially described as a sensor of intracellular bacterial and viral DNA and a promising adjuvant target in innate immune cells; more recently STING has also been shown to detect endogenous DNA ..
  49. Ohkuri T, Kosaka A, Ishibashi K, Kumai T, Hirata Y, Ohara K, et al. Intratumoral administration of cGAMP transiently accumulates potent macrophages for anti-tumor immunity at a mouse tumor site. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2017;66:705-716 pubmed publisher
    Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) spontaneously contributes to anti-tumor immunity by inducing type I interferons (IFNs) following sensing of tumor-derived genomic DNAs in the tumor-bearing host...
  50. Wang J, Yang S, Liu L, Wang H, Yang B. HTLV-1 Tax impairs K63-linked ubiquitination of STING to evade host innate immunity. Virus Res. 2017;232:13-21 pubmed publisher
    ..We observed that stimulator of interferon genes (STING) limited HTLV-1 protein expression and was critical to HTLV-1 reverse transcription intermediate (RTI) ssDNA90 ..
  51. Mohd Suan M, Tan W, Soelar S, Cheng H, Osman M. Jellyfish stings on Langkawi Island, Malaysia. Med J Malaysia. 2016;71:161-165 pubmed
    Jellyfish stings are the most frequently reported marine animal envenomation worldwide. However, data on jellyfish sting from Malaysia remains obscure due to inadequate research...
  52. Upadhyay D, Anandjiwala S, Padh H, Nivsarkar M. In vitro - In vivo metabolism and pharmacokinetics of picroside I and II using LC-ESI-MS method. Chem Biol Interact. 2016;254:83-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The rhizomes of P. kurroa have been traditionally used to treat worms, constipation, low fever, scorpion sting, asthma and ailments affecting the liver...
  53. Hare D, Collins S, Mukherjee S, Loo Y, Gale M, Janssen L, et al. Membrane Perturbation-Associated Ca2+ Signaling and Incoming Genome Sensing Are Required for the Host Response to Low-Level Enveloped Virus Particle Entry. J Virol. 2015;90:3018-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, it appears that Ca(2+) signaling is important for activation of STING and IRF3 following HCMV particle entry, suggesting that Ca(2+) signaling sensitizes cells to recognize genomes ..