Gene Symbol: TLR9
Description: toll like receptor 9
Alias: CD289, toll-like receptor 9
Species: human
Products:     TLR9

Top Publications

  1. Pan X, Yue J, Ding G, Li B, Liu X, Zheng X, et al. Leucine-rich repeat 11 of Toll-like receptor 9 can tightly bind to CpG-containing oligodeoxynucleotides, and the positively charged residues are critical for the high affinity. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:30596-609 pubmed publisher
    b>TLR9 is a receptor for sensing bacterial DNA/CpG-containing oligonucleotides (CpG ODN). The extracellular domain (ECD) of human TLR9 (hTLR9) is composed of 25 leucine-rich repeats (LRR) contributing to the binding of CpG ODN...
  2. Krayenbuehl P, Hersberger M, Truninger K, Mullhaupt B, Maly F, Bargetzi M, et al. Toll-like receptor 4 gene polymorphism modulates phenotypic expression in patients with hereditary hemochromatosis. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010;22:835-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinical expression of hemochromatosis was assessed as a function of TLR4, TLR9, and NOD2 polymorphisms in 99 homozygous carriers of the HFE C282Y mutation with mild-to-severe iron overload...
  3. Basu M, Maji A, Chakraborty A, Banerjee R, Mullick S, Saha P, et al. Genetic association of Toll-like-receptor 4 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha polymorphisms with Plasmodium falciparum blood infection levels. Infect Genet Evol. 2010;10:686-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results support a genetic role of TLR4 and TNF-alpha in controlling the blood infection level in mild malaria. ..
  4. Poth J, Coch C, Busch N, Boehm O, Schlee M, Janke M, et al. Monocyte-mediated inhibition of TLR9-dependent IFN-? induction in plasmacytoid dendritic cells questions bacterial DNA as the active ingredient of bacterial lysates. J Immunol. 2010;185:7367-73 pubmed publisher
    Bacterial DNA contains unmethylated CpG dinucleotides and is a potent ligand for TLR9. Bacterial DNA has been claimed the active ingredient in bacterial lysates used for immunotherapy...
  5. Zhao C, Wang X, Liu M, Jin D. Microarray gene analysis of Toll-like receptor signaling elements in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2011;156:297-304 pubmed publisher
  6. Ren T, Xu L, Jiao S, Wang Y, Cai Y, Liang Y, et al. TLR9 signaling promotes tumor progression of human lung cancer cell in vivo. Pathol Oncol Res. 2009;15:623-30 pubmed publisher
    b>Toll like receptor 9 (TLR9) was identified mainly in cells of the immune system, and CpG oligonucleotides (CpG ODN), which induces signaling through TLR9, are currently under investigation as adjuvants in clinical therapies against cancer...
  7. Zakeri S, Pirahmadi S, Mehrizi A, Djadid N. Genetic variation of TLR-4, TLR-9 and TIRAP genes in Iranian malaria patients. Malar J. 2011;10:77 pubmed publisher
    ..These data point towards the need for addressing the exact role of TLRs in contributing to human genetic factors in malaria susceptibility/resistance/severity within different malaria settings in the world. ..
  8. Gonzalez Reyes S, Marín L, Gonzalez L, Gonzalez L, del Casar J, Lamelas M, et al. Study of TLR3, TLR4 and TLR9 in breast carcinomas and their association with metastasis. BMC Cancer. 2010;10:665 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression levels of TLR3, TLR4 and TLR9 were analyzed on tumors from 74 patients with breast cancer. The analysis was performed by immunohistochemistry...
  9. Sanchez D, Lefebvre C, Rioux J, Garcia L, Barrera L. Evaluation of Toll-like receptor and adaptor molecule polymorphisms for susceptibility to tuberculosis in a Colombian population. Int J Immunogenet. 2012;39:216-23 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we did not find an association with TLR2, TLR4, TLR9, MyD88 or MAL/TIRAP polymorphic variants...

More Information


  1. Giordani L, Sanchez M, Libri I, Quaranta M, Mattioli B, Viora M. IFN-alpha amplifies human naive B cell TLR-9-mediated activation and Ig production. J Leukoc Biol. 2009;86:261-71 pubmed publisher
  2. Mandl J, Barry A, Vanderford T, Kozyr N, Chavan R, Klucking S, et al. Divergent TLR7 and TLR9 signaling and type I interferon production distinguish pathogenic and nonpathogenic AIDS virus infections. Nat Med. 2008;14:1077-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Such a vicious cycle of continuous virus replication and immunopathology is absent in natural sooty mangabey hosts...
  3. Guerrier T, Pochard P, Lahiri A, Youinou P, Pers J, Jamin C. TLR9 expressed on plasma membrane acts as a negative regulator of human B cell response. J Autoimmun. 2014;51:23-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Unlike others, those such as TLR9, that recognize nucleic acids, are confined to the endosomal compartment and are scarce on the cell surface...
  4. Smit L, Siroux V, Bouzigon E, Oryszczyn M, Lathrop M, Demenais F, et al. CD14 and toll-like receptor gene polymorphisms, country living, and asthma in adults. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2009;179:363-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To study whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CD14 and Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, TLR4 and TLR9 genes are associated with asthma in adults, and whether these SNPs modify associations between country living and ..
  5. Pine S, McElrath M, Bochud P. Polymorphisms in toll-like receptor 4 and toll-like receptor 9 influence viral load in a seroincident cohort of HIV-1-infected individuals. AIDS. 2009;23:2387-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Haplotype tagging SNPs from TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, and TLR9 were detected by mass array genotyping, and CD4(+) T-cell counts and viral load measurements were determined prior ..
  6. Carvalho A, Osório N, Saraiva M, Cunha C, Almeida A, Teixeira Coelho M, et al. The C allele of rs5743836 polymorphism in the human TLR9 promoter links IL-6 and TLR9 up-regulation and confers increased B-cell proliferation. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28256 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of the human TLR9 promoter revealed that the C allele of the rs5743836 polymorphism generates several regulatory sites, including an ..
  7. Liao W, Chen R, Lin H, Liu Y, Chen W, Tsai Y, et al. Toll-like receptor gene polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to Graves' ophthalmopathy in Taiwan males. BMC Med Genet. 2010;11:154 pubmed publisher
    ..09-3.73) than those not carrying the GA haplotype. The present data suggest that TLR-9 gene polymorphisms were significantly associated with increased susceptibility of ophthalmopathy in male GD patients. ..
  8. Ashton K, Proietto A, Otton G, Symonds I, McEvoy M, Attia J, et al. Toll-like receptor (TLR) and nucleosome-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) gene polymorphisms and endometrial cancer risk. BMC Cancer. 2010;10:382 pubmed publisher
    ..rs2075822, rs2907749, rs2907748), NOD2 (rs5743260, rs2066844, rs2066845), TLR2 (rs5743708), TLR4 (rs4986790) and TLR9 (rs5743836, rs187084)...
  9. Sam Agudu N, Greene J, Opoka R, Kazura J, Boivin M, Zimmerman P, et al. TLR9 polymorphisms are associated with altered IFN-gamma levels in children with cerebral malaria. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010;82:548-55 pubmed publisher
    ..The TLR9 C allele at -1237 and G allele at 1174 were strongly linked, and among children with CM, those with the C allele at ..
  10. Fiola S, Gosselin D, Takada K, Gosselin J. TLR9 contributes to the recognition of EBV by primary monocytes and plasmacytoid dendritic cells. J Immunol. 2010;185:3620-31 pubmed publisher
    b>TLR9 plays an important role in innate defense against viruses by the detection of CpG motifs of foreign DNA within intracellular compartments...
  11. Sanders M, van Well G, Ouburg S, Lundberg P, van Furth A, Morre S. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in TLR9 are highly associated with susceptibility to bacterial meningitis in children. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52:475-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) recognizes bacterial DNA leading to intracellular inflammatory signaling...
  12. Kenny E, Quinn S, Doyle S, Vink P, Van Eenennaam H, O Neill L. Bruton's tyrosine kinase mediates the synergistic signalling between TLR9 and the B cell receptor by regulating calcium and calmodulin. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e74103 pubmed publisher
    B cells signal through both the B cell receptor (BCR) which binds antigens and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) including TLR9 which recognises CpG DNA...
  13. Yamaguchi M, Kitagawa Y, Zhou M, Itoh M, Gotoh B. An anti-interferon activity shared by paramyxovirus C proteins: inhibition of Toll-like receptor 7/9-dependent alpha interferon induction. FEBS Lett. 2014;588:28-34 pubmed publisher
    ..This study uncovers a novel ability of C protein to block Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7- and TLR9-dependent IFN-? induction, which is specific to plasmacytoid dendritic cells...
  14. Chen X, Wang S, Liu L, Chen Z, Qiang F, Kan Y, et al. A genetic variant in the promoter region of Toll-like receptor 9 and cervical cancer susceptibility. DNA Cell Biol. 2012;31:766-71 pubmed publisher
    ..E6 and E7 protein from HPV16 suppress the host immune response by regulating the TLR9 transcript...
  15. Piotrowski P, Lianeri M, Wudarski M, Olesinska M, Jagodziński P. Contribution of toll-like receptor 9 gene single-nucleotide polymorphism to systemic lupus erythematosus. Rheumatol Int. 2013;33:1121-5 pubmed publisher
    There are several studies on the association of TLR9 polymorphisms with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in different ethnicities; however, the results are inconsistent...
  16. Roszak A, Lianeri M, Sowińska A, Jagodzinski P. Involvement of Toll-like Receptor 9 polymorphism in cervical cancer development. Mol Biol Rep. 2012;39:8425-30 pubmed publisher
    The role played by the polymorphism located in Toll-like Receptor 9 (TLR9) as a risk factor of cervical cancer remains elusive...
  17. Etokebe G, Knezevic J, Petricevic B, Pavelic J, Vrbanec D, Dembic Z. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in genes encoding toll-like receptor -2, -3, -4, and -9 in case-control study with breast cancer. Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2009;13:729-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, TLR3, TLR4, and TLR9 genes, which are important for innate immunity, were analyzed for the association with breast cancer...
  18. Chiang C, Engel A, Opaluch A, Ramos I, Maestre A, Secundino I, et al. Cofactors required for TLR7- and TLR9-dependent innate immune responses. Cell Host Microbe. 2012;11:306-18 pubmed publisher
    ..The endosomal pattern recognition receptors TLR7 and TLR9 detect pathogen-encoded nucleic acids to initiate MyD88-dependent proinflammatory responses to microbial infection...
  19. Stark J, Wiklund F, Gronberg H, Schumacher F, Sinnott J, Stampfer M, et al. Toll-like receptor signaling pathway variants and prostate cancer mortality. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009;18:1859-63 pubmed publisher
    ..No significant associations were observed for common haplotypes and PCa mortality. This study highlights the importance of studies of PCa mortality because risk factors for incidence and mortality may differ. ..
  20. Velez D, Wejse C, Stryjewski M, Abbate E, Hulme W, Myers J, et al. Variants in toll-like receptors 2 and 9 influence susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis in Caucasians, African-Americans, and West Africans. Hum Genet. 2010;127:65-73 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, 71 polymorphisms in TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR6, and TLR9 were examined from 474 (295 cases and 179 controls) African-Americans, 381 (237 cases and 144 controls) Caucasians, ..
  21. Agrawal S, Gupta S. TLR1/2, TLR7, and TLR9 signals directly activate human peripheral blood naive and memory B cell subsets to produce cytokines, chemokines, and hematopoietic growth factors. J Clin Immunol. 2011;31:89-98 pubmed publisher
    ..signaling provided by toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands Pam3CSK (TLR1/TLR2), Imiquimod (TLR7), and GpG-ODN2006 (TLR9)...
  22. Morizane S, Yamasaki K, Mühleisen B, Kotol P, Murakami M, Aoyama Y, et al. Cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide LL-37 in psoriasis enables keratinocyte reactivity against TLR9 ligands. J Invest Dermatol. 2012;132:135-43 pubmed publisher
    ..In culture, normal human keratinocytes exposed to LL-37 increased TLR9 expression...
  23. Zheng L, Zhang Z, Yu C, Yang C. Expression of Toll-like receptors 7, 8, and 9 in primary Sjögren's syndrome. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2010;109:844-50 pubmed publisher
    ..TLR7- and TLR9-positive cells in parotid glands from 20 pSS patients and 10 controls were observed using immunofluorescence and ..
  24. Ben Dhifallah I, Lachheb J, Houman H, Hamzaoui K. Toll-like-receptor gene polymorphisms in a Tunisian population with Behçet's disease. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2009;27:S58-62 pubmed
    ..Among the TLR polymorphisms, only the distribution of TLR9 1486 T/C genotype (p=0.07; chi2=3.30; OR=1.54; 95% CI=0.94-2.51) and allele (p=0.08; chi2=2.91; OR=1.34; 95% CI=0...
  25. Mortaz E, Adcock I, Ito K, Kraneveld A, Nijkamp F, Folkerts G. Cigarette smoke induces CXCL8 production by human neutrophils via activation of TLR9 receptor. Eur Respir J. 2010;36:1143-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we investigate whether cigarette smoke induces TLR9 signalling in human neutrophils...
  26. Zeng H, Pan K, Zhang Y, Zhang L, Ma J, Zhou T, et al. [The correlation between polymorphisms of Toll-like receptor 2 and Toll-like receptor 9 and susceptibility to gastric cancer]. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2011;45:588-92 pubmed
    To explore the relationship between the polymorphisms of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR9 and the susceptibility to gastric cancer...
  27. Carvalho A, Cunha C, Carotti A, Aloisi T, Guarrera O, Di Ianni M, et al. Polymorphisms in Toll-like receptor genes and susceptibility to infections in allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Exp Hematol. 2009;37:1022-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the association between polymorphisms in the TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9 genes in recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant and susceptibility to infections caused by ..
  28. Guiducci C, Gong M, Xu Z, Gill M, Chaussabel D, Meeker T, et al. TLR recognition of self nucleic acids hampers glucocorticoid activity in lupus. Nature. 2010;465:937-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Recognition of self nucleic acids by toll-like receptors TLR7 and TLR9 on B cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs) is an important step in the pathogenesis of SLE, promoting anti-..
  29. Kubarenko A, Ranjan S, Rautanen A, Mills T, Wong S, Vannberg F, et al. A naturally occurring variant in human TLR9, P99L, is associated with loss of CpG oligonucleotide responsiveness. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:36486-94 pubmed publisher
    ..For example, TLR9 is activated by microbial DNA and also by short therapeutic CpG-containing oligonucleotides (CpG-ODN)...
  30. Selvaraj P, Harishankar M, Singh B, Jawahar M, Banurekha V. Toll-like receptor and TIRAP gene polymorphisms in pulmonary tuberculosis patients of South India. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2010;90:306-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Further study on the regulatory role of this polymorphism may be helpful to understand the innate immunity in TB. ..
  31. El Kebir D, Jozsef L, Pan W, Wang L, Filep J. Bacterial DNA activates endothelial cells and promotes neutrophil adherence through TLR9 signaling. J Immunol. 2009;182:4386-94 pubmed publisher
    b>TLR9 detects bacterial DNA (CpG DNA) and elicits both innate and adoptive immunity. Recent evidence indicates that TLR9 is expressed in more diverse cell types than initially thought...
  32. Ilvesaro J, Merrell M, Li L, Wakchoure S, Graves D, Brooks S, et al. Toll-like receptor 9 mediates CpG oligonucleotide-induced cellular invasion. Mol Cancer Res. 2008;6:1534-43 pubmed publisher
    Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) belongs to the innate immune system and recognizes microbial and vertebrate DNA...
  33. Kline J, Krieg A. Toll-like receptor 9 activation with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides for asthma therapy. Drug News Perspect. 2008;21:434-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A restricted pattern of TLR9 expression to certain dendritic cells and B cells appears to provide relative specificity in responses, especially ..
  34. Scholtzova H, Kascsak R, Bates K, Boutajangout A, Kerr D, Meeker H, et al. Induction of toll-like receptor 9 signaling as a method for ameliorating Alzheimer's disease-related pathology. J Neurosci. 2009;29:1846-54 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we have stimulated the innate immune system via the Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) with cytosine-guanosine-containing DNA oligodeoxynucleotides in Tg2576 AD model transgenic mice...
  35. Hasimu A, Ge L, Li Q, Zhang R, Guo X. Expressions of Toll-like receptors 3, 4, 7, and 9 in cervical lesions and their correlation with HPV16 infection in Uighur women. Chin J Cancer. 2011;30:344-50 pubmed
    ..of TLRs expression in cervical carcinogenesis in Uighur women, we detected the expressions of TLR3, TLR4, TLR7, and TLR9 in 25 normal cervical tissues, 64 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) tissues, and 63 cervical squamous cell ..
  36. Jukkola Vuorinen A, Rahko E, Vuopala K, Desmond R, Lehenkari P, Harris K, et al. Toll-like receptor-9 expression is inversely correlated with estrogen receptor status in breast cancer. J Innate Immun. 2009;1:59-68 pubmed publisher
    Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) recognizes microbial and vertebrate DNA. We previously demonstrated TLR9 expression in human breast cancer cell lines and showed that TLR9 ligands stimulate their in vitro invasion...
  37. Tanaka J, Sugimoto K, Shiraki K, Tameda M, Kusagawa S, Nojiri K, et al. Functional cell surface expression of toll-like receptor 9 promotes cell proliferation and survival in human hepatocellular carcinomas. Int J Oncol. 2010;37:805-14 pubmed
    Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is a pattern-recognition receptor that is involved in immune signaling and plays a crucial role in cell survival through recognition of various bacterial and viral components including unmethylated CpG-DNA...
  38. Royse K, Kempf M, McGwin G, Wilson C, Tang J, Shrestha S. Toll-like receptor gene variants associated with bacterial vaginosis among HIV-1 infected adolescents. J Reprod Immunol. 2012;96:84-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We assessed whether genetic polymorphisms in five TLR genes (TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR6, and TLR9) could be determinants of differential host immune responses to BV in 159 HIV-1-positive African American ..
  39. Weng Y, Wang Y, Shi Y, Zhou W, Wang H, Wang C. TLR9 expression and its role in chemosensitivity to DDP in human cervical cancer cells in vitro. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2011;31:550 pubmed publisher
    ..Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) recognizes non-methylated cytosine-phosphateguanosine (CpG) DNA sequences which are the surrogate for viral DNA...
  40. Gonzalez Reyes S, Fernández J, Gonzalez L, Aguirre A, Suarez A, Gonzalez J, et al. Study of TLR3, TLR4, and TLR9 in prostate carcinomas and their association with biochemical recurrence. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2011;60:217-26 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression levels of TLR3, TLR4, and TLR9 were analyzed on tumors from 133 patients with prostate cancer...
  41. Greene J, Moormann A, Vulule J, Bockarie M, Zimmerman P, Kazura J. Toll-like receptor polymorphisms in malaria-endemic populations. Malar J. 2009;8:50 pubmed publisher
    ..Reaction-Fluorescent Microsphere Assay (LDR-FMA) was developed to determine the frequencies of TLR2, TLR4, TLR9, MyD88-Adaptor Like Protein (MAL) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and TLR2 length polymorphisms in 170 ..
  42. Xie Q, Shen H, Jia N, Wang H, Lin L, An B, et al. Patients with chronic hepatitis B infection display deficiency of plasmacytoid dendritic cells with reduced expression of TLR9. Microbes Infect. 2009;11:515-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The frequency of pDCs and TLR9 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was determined, using flow cytometry...
  43. Coch C, Busch N, Wimmenauer V, Hartmann E, Janke M, Abdel Mottaleb M, et al. Higher activation of TLR9 in plasmacytoid dendritic cells by microbial DNA compared with self-DNA based on CpG-specific recognition of phosphodiester DNA. J Leukoc Biol. 2009;86:663-70 pubmed publisher
    b>TLR9 detects DNA in endolysosomal compartments of human B cells and PDC. Recently, the concept of the CpG motif specificity of TLR9-mediated detection, specifically of natural phosphodiester DNA, has been challenged...
  44. Etem E, Elyas H, Ozgocmen S, Yıldırım A, Godekmerdan A. The investigation of toll-like receptor 3, 9 and 10 gene polymorphisms in Turkish rheumatoid arthritis patients. Rheumatol Int. 2011;31:1369-74 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was conducted to investigate the frequencies of TLR3 rs3775290, TLR9 rs187084, and TLR10 rs4129009 polymorphisms and to detect between polymorphisms and autoantibody positive as RF, ..
  45. McKelvey K, Highton J, Hessian P. Cell-specific expression of TLR9 isoforms in inflammation. J Autoimmun. 2011;36:76-86 pubmed publisher
    ..With five isoforms of human TLR9 described, we hypothesised that differential expression of TLR9 isoforms in different cell types would result in ..
  46. Wu O, Chen G, Chen H, Li X, Xu J, Zhao S, et al. The expressions of Toll-like receptor 9 and T-bet in circulating B and T cells in newly diagnosed, untreated systemic lupus erythematosus and correlations with disease activity and laboratory data in a Chinese population. Immunobiology. 2009;214:392-402 pubmed publisher
    Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) plays a controversial role in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). T-bet may be involved in the processes between the initiation of TLR9 activation and the antibodies' production...
  47. Zhou J, Huang Y, Tian D, Xu D, Chen M, Wu H. Expression of toll-like receptor 9 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with different hepatitis B and C viral loads. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2009;29:313-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The protein and mRNA levels of TLR9 were detected by using flow cytometry and real-time PCR...
  48. Lange N, Zhou X, Lasky Su J, Himes B, Lazarus R, Soto Quiros M, et al. Comprehensive genetic assessment of a functional TLR9 promoter polymorphism: no replicable association with asthma or asthma-related phenotypes. BMC Med Genet. 2011;12:26 pubmed publisher
    Prior studies suggest a role for a variant (rs5743836) in the promoter of toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) in asthma and other inflammatory diseases...
  49. Huang C, Huang P, Chen C, Lin Y, Tsai C, Huang W, et al. Association of toll-like receptor 9 gene polymorphism in Chinese patients with systemic lupus erythematosus in Taiwan. Rheumatol Int. 2012;32:2105-9 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to determine whether toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) gene polymorphisms were markers of susceptibility to or severity of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in Taiwanese patients...
  50. Tengroth L, Millrud C, Kvarnhammar A, Kumlien Georén S, Latif L, Cardell L. Functional effects of Toll-like receptor (TLR)3, 7, 9, RIG-I and MDA-5 stimulation in nasal epithelial cells. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e98239 pubmed publisher
    ..Even though TLR3, TLR7, TLR9, RIG-I and MDA-5 are all known to respond to viral stimulation, their potential role in chronic airway inflammation ..
  51. Bekeredjian Ding I, Doster A, Schiller M, Heyder P, Lorenz H, Schraven B, et al. TLR9-activating DNA up-regulates ZAP70 via sustained PKB induction in IgM+ B cells. J Immunol. 2008;181:8267-77 pubmed
    ..It was only recently that ZAP70 was detected in normal human B cells. In this study, we show that TLR9-activated B cells resemble B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells with regard to CD5, CD23, CD25, and heat shock ..
  52. Papadimitraki E, Tzardi M, Bertsias G, Sotsiou E, Boumpas D. Glomerular expression of toll-like receptor-9 in lupus nephritis but not in normal kidneys: implications for the amplification of the inflammatory response. Lupus. 2009;18:831-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation of TLR-9 expressing glomerular cells by endogenous nucleic acids (nucleosomes) may amplify the inflammatory response. ..
  53. Soriano Sarabia N, Vallejo A, Ramirez Lorca R, Rodríguez M, Salinas A, Pulido I, et al. Influence of the Toll-like receptor 9 1635A/G polymorphism on the CD4 count, HIV viral load, and clinical progression. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008;49:128-35 pubmed publisher
    ..influence of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TLR2 (1892A/C and 2258G/A), TLR4 (896A/G and 1196C/T), and TLR9 (1635A/G) genes on CD4 count, HIV viral load, and clinical progression in a cohort of naive HIV-infected patients...
  54. Elmaagacli A, Steckel N, Ditschkowski M, Hegerfeldt Y, Ottinger H, Trenschel R, et al. Toll-like receptor 9, NOD2 and IL23R gene polymorphisms influenced outcome in AML patients transplanted from HLA-identical sibling donors. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2011;46:702-8 pubmed publisher
    We evaluated the influence of gene polymorphisms of TLR9 (T1237C; T1486C), IL23R (A1142G), and NOD2 SNP8 (R702W), SNP12 (G908R) and SNP13 (1007fs) on outcome of hematopoietic SCT in a homogenous group of 142 AML patients after non-T-cell-..
  55. Hold G, Rabkin C, Gammon M, Berry S, Smith M, Lissowska J, et al. CD14-159C/T and TLR9-1237T/C polymorphisms are not associated with gastric cancer risk in Caucasian populations. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2009;18:117-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The CD14-159C/T and the TLR9-1237T/C promoter polymorphisms have previously been shown to be associated with various inflammatory conditions ..
  56. Zhang C, Wu X, Zhao Y, Deng Z, Qian G. SIGIRR inhibits toll-like receptor 4, 5, 9-mediated immune responses in human airway epithelial cells. Mol Biol Rep. 2011;38:601-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, SIGIRR can inhibit TLR4, 5, and 9-mediated immune responses in HAEC and may be a valuable therapeutic target for the prevention of ALI/ARDS. ..
  57. Lu K, Yang H, Lin Y, Kao S, Lai C, Chu C, et al. The T-1237C polymorphism of the Toll-like receptor-9 gene is associated with chronic kidney disease in a Han Chinese population. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2011;225:109-16 pubmed
    ..In the Han Chinese population, those who carry the C and A alleles at SNPs T-1237C and G1635A in the TLR-9 gene appear to be more susceptible to the development of CKD. ..
  58. Mollaki V, Georgiadis T, Tassidou A, Ioannou M, Daniil Z, Koutsokera A, et al. Polymorphisms and haplotypes in TLR9 and MYD88 are associated with the development of Hodgkin's lymphoma: a candidate-gene association study. J Hum Genet. 2009;54:655-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A candidate-gene association study was conducted to investigate the association between TLR9 -1237T>C, TLR9 2848A>G, MYD88 -938C>A and MYD88 1944C>G gene polymorphisms and the risk for HL...
  59. Zauner L, Melroe G, Sigrist J, Rechsteiner M, Dorner M, Arnold M, et al. TLR9 triggering in Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines suppresses the EBV BZLF1 transcription via histone modification. Oncogene. 2010;29:4588-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Earlier, we showed that immune activation with a synthetic Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) ligand suppresses the initiation of EBV lytic replication in primary human B cells...
  60. Sato D, Suzuki Y, Kano T, Suzuki H, Matsuoka J, Yokoi H, et al. Tonsillar TLR9 expression and efficacy of tonsillectomy with steroid pulse therapy in IgA nephropathy patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2012;27:1090-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously demonstrated the important role of mucosal Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) activation in the pathogenesis of murine IgAN...
  61. Yu H, Huang H, Kuo H, Sheen J, Ou C, Hsu T, et al. IFN-? production by human mononuclear cells infected with varicella-zoster virus through TLR9-dependent and -independent pathways. Cell Mol Immunol. 2011;8:181-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We also found that Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) was involved in VZV-induced IFN-? production because inhibitory CpG oligodeoxynucleotide inhibited IFN-? ..
  62. Torres García D, Cruz Lagunas A, García Sancho Figueroa M, Fernández Plata R, Báez Saldaña R, Mendoza Milla C, et al. Variants in toll-like receptor 9 gene influence susceptibility to tuberculosis in a Mexican population. J Transl Med. 2013;11:220 pubmed publisher
    ..carried out a case-control association community based study, genotyping 12 polymorphisms of TLR2, TLR4, TLR6 and TLR9 genes in 90 patients with confirmed pulmonary TB and 90 unrelated exposed but asymptomatic household contacts...
  63. Brignole C, Marimpietri D, Di Paolo D, Perri P, Morandi F, Pastorino F, et al. Therapeutic targeting of TLR9 inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in neuroblastoma. Cancer Res. 2010;70:9816-26 pubmed publisher
    The Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) evolved to cope with pathogens, but it is expressed in a variety of tumors for reasons that are unclear. In this study, we report that neuroblastoma (NB) cells express functional TLR9...
  64. Fuse K, Katakura K, Sakamoto N, Ohira H. Toll-like receptor 9 gene mutations and polymorphisms in Japanese ulcerative colitis patients. World J Gastroenterol. 2010;16:5815-21 pubmed
    To investigated gene mutations and polymorphisms of TLR9 in Japanese ulcerative colitis (UC) patients...
  65. Hasan U, Zannetti C, Parroche P, Goutagny N, Malfroy M, Roblot G, et al. The human papillomavirus type 16 E7 oncoprotein induces a transcriptional repressor complex on the Toll-like receptor 9 promoter. J Exp Med. 2013;210:1369-87 pubmed publisher
    ..have been reported to deregulate immunity by suppressing the function of the double-stranded DNA innate sensor TLR9. However, the mechanisms leading to these events remain to be elucidated...
  66. Väisänen M, Väisänen T, Jukkola Vuorinen A, Vuopala K, Desmond R, Selander K, et al. Expression of toll-like receptor-9 is increased in poorly differentiated prostate tumors. Prostate. 2010;70:817-24 pubmed publisher
    Toll-like receptor-9 (TLR9) is a cellular receptor for bacterial and vertebrate DNA. In addition to cells of the immune system, it is also expressed in various human cancer cell lines, including prostate cancer...
  67. Zhou X, LV J, Cheng W, Yu L, Zhao M, Zhang H. Association of TLR9 gene polymorphisms with lupus nephritis in a Chinese Han population. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2010;28:397-400 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to associate common variants in the TLR9 gene with susceptibility to lupus nephritis in the Chinese population to further ascertain whether it is a ..
  68. Vincent I, Zannetti C, Lucifora J, Norder H, Protzer U, Hainaut P, et al. Hepatitis B virus impairs TLR9 expression and function in plasmacytoid dendritic cells. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e26315 pubmed publisher
    ..b>TLR9 is a sensor of viral and bacterial DNA motifs and activates the IRF7 transcription factor which leads to type I IFN ..
  69. Carpenter E, Mick R, Ruter J, Vonderheide R. Activation of human B cells by the agonist CD40 antibody CP-870,893 and augmentation with simultaneous toll-like receptor 9 stimulation. J Transl Med. 2009;7:93 pubmed publisher
    ..subsets from peripheral blood were stimulated in vitro with CP-870,893, in the presence or absence of the toll like receptor 9 (TLR9) ligand CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN)...
  70. Pandey S, Mittal B, Srivastava M, Singh S, Srivastava K, Lal P, et al. Evaluation of Toll-like receptors 3 (c.1377C/T) and 9 (G2848A) gene polymorphisms in cervical cancer susceptibility. Mol Biol Rep. 2011;38:4715-21 pubmed publisher
  71. Campino S, Forton J, Auburn S, Fry A, Diakite M, Richardson A, et al. TLR9 polymorphisms in African populations: no association with severe malaria, but evidence of cis-variants acting on gene expression. Malar J. 2009;8:44 pubmed publisher
    During malaria infection the Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is activated through induction with plasmodium DNA or another malaria motif not yet identified...
  72. Wang C, Cao S, Yan Y, Ying Q, Jiang T, Xu K, et al. TLR9 expression in glioma tissues correlated to glioma progression and the prognosis of GBM patients. BMC Cancer. 2010;10:415 pubmed publisher
    Our study aims to evaluate the expression of TLR9 in glioma tissues, examine the association between TLR9 expression, clinicopathological variables, and glioma patient outcome, we further characterized the direct effects of TLR9 agonist ..
  73. Kobayashi K, Yuliwulandari R, Yanai H, Naka I, Lien L, Hang N, et al. Association of TLR polymorphisms with development of tuberculosis in Indonesian females. Tissue Antigens. 2012;79:190-7 pubmed publisher
    ..between TB susceptibility in a classified Indonesian female group and rs352139, an SNP located in the intron of TLR9, using the genotype (P = 2.76E-04) and recessive (AA vs AG+GG, P = 2.48E-04, odds ratio = 1...
  74. van Gent M, Griffin B, Berkhoff E, van Leeuwen D, Boer I, Buisson M, et al. EBV lytic-phase protein BGLF5 contributes to TLR9 downregulation during productive infection. J Immunol. 2011;186:1694-702 pubmed publisher
    ..The viral dsDNA sensor TLR9 is expressed on B cells, a natural target of EBV infection...
  75. Machida H, Ito S, Hirose T, Takeshita F, Oshiro H, Nakamura T, et al. Expression of Toll-like receptor 9 in renal podocytes in childhood-onset active and inactive lupus nephritis. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2010;25:2530-537 pubmed publisher
    ..Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), capable of recognizing the microbially derived CpG oligonucleotide, plays a crucial role in the innate immunity...
  76. Holla L, Vokurka J, Hrdlickova B, Augustin P, Fassmann A. Association of Toll-like receptor 9 haplotypes with chronic periodontitis in Czech population. J Clin Periodontol. 2010;37:152-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, complex analysis revealed differences in TLR9 haplotype frequencies between both groups (p=0.001)...
  77. Xu L, Wang C, Wen Z, Yao X, Liu Z, Li Q, et al. Selective up-regulation of CDK2 is critical for TLR9 signaling stimulated proliferation of human lung cancer cell. Immunol Lett. 2010;127:93-9 pubmed publisher
    Accumulating data suggested that functional TLR9 was expressed in various tumor cells and TLR9 signaling could enhance the progression of tumor cells...
  78. Suzuki H, Suzuki Y, Narita I, Aizawa M, Kihara M, Yamanaka T, et al. Toll-like receptor 9 affects severity of IgA nephropathy. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008;19:2384-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Mice that had IgAN and were housed in conventional conditions had higher levels of TLR9 and MyD88 transcripts than mice that had IgAN and were housed in specific pathogen-free conditions...
  79. Min R, Siyi L, Wenjun Y, Shengwen L, Ow A, Lizheng W, et al. Toll-like receptor-9 agonists increase cyclin D1 expression partly through activation of activator protein-1 in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. Cancer Sci. 2012;103:1938-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Pharmacologic inhibition of the TLR-9/AP-1/cyclin D1 pathway may be a new therapeutic approach for prevention as well as treatment of OSCC. ..
  80. Kim Y, Jo A, Jang D, Cho Y, Chun J, Min B, et al. Toll-like receptor 9 mediates oral bacteria-induced IL-8 expression in gingival epithelial cells. Immunol Cell Biol. 2012;90:655-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Both normal and immortalized human gingival epithelial (HOK-16B) cells expressed TLR9 intracellularly and showed enhanced IL-8 expression in response to CpG-oligonucleotide...
  81. Xu C, Zhang W, Pan H, Li X, Xu J, Ye D. Association study of a single nucleotide polymorphism in the exon 2 region of toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) gene with susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus among Chinese. Mol Biol Rep. 2009;36:2245-8 pubmed publisher
    Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) plays an important role in the induction and regulation of the innate immune system or adaptive immune responses...