Gene Symbol: TLR8
Description: toll like receptor 8
Alias: CD288, toll-like receptor 8
Species: human
Products:     TLR8

Top Publications

  1. Morris G, Parker L, Ward J, Jones E, Whyte M, Brightling C, et al. Cooperative molecular and cellular networks regulate Toll-like receptor-dependent inflammatory responses. FASEB J. 2006;20:2153-5 pubmed
    ..In keeping with these data, ASMC expressed TLR3 but not TLR7 or TLR8. Activation of ASMC by poly(I:C) induced a specific cytokine repertoire characterized by induction of CXCL10 ..
  2. Du X, Poltorak A, Wei Y, Beutler B. Three novel mammalian toll-like receptors: gene structure, expression, and evolution. Eur Cytokine Netw. 2000;11:362-71 pubmed
    We describe three novel genes, encoding members of the Toll-like receptor (Tlr) family (TLR7, TLR8, and TLR9). These Tlr family members, unlike others reported to date, were identified within a genomic database...
  3. Forsbach A, Samulowitz U, Völp K, Hofmann H, Noll B, Tluk S, et al. Dual or triple activation of TLR7, TLR8, and/or TLR9 by single-stranded oligoribonucleotides. Nucleic Acid Ther. 2011;21:423-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Certain GU- or AU-rich RNA sequences were described to differentiate between human TLR7- and TLR8-mediated immune effects...
  4. Heil F, Hemmi H, Hochrein H, Ampenberger F, Kirschning C, Akira S, et al. Species-specific recognition of single-stranded RNA via toll-like receptor 7 and 8. Science. 2004;303:1526-9 pubmed
    ..By using Toll-like receptor (TLR)-deficient mice and genetic complementation, we show that murine TLR7 and human TLR8 mediate species-specific recognition of GU-rich ssRNA...
  5. Cros J, Cagnard N, Woollard K, Patey N, Zhang S, Senechal B, et al. Human CD14dim monocytes patrol and sense nucleic acids and viruses via TLR7 and TLR8 receptors. Immunity. 2010;33:375-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, CD14(dim) cells are bona fide monocytes involved in the innate local surveillance of tissues and the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. ..
  6. Davila S, Hibberd M, Hari Dass R, Wong H, Sahiratmadja E, Bonnard C, et al. Genetic association and expression studies indicate a role of toll-like receptor 8 in pulmonary tuberculosis. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000218 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that four polymorphisms in the TLR8 gene on chromosome X showed evidence of association with TB susceptibility in males, including a non-synonymous ..
  7. Oh D, Taube S, Hamouda O, Kucherer C, Poggensee G, Jessen H, et al. A functional toll-like receptor 8 variant is associated with HIV disease restriction. J Infect Dis. 2008;198:701-9 pubmed publisher
    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in the innate immune response to pathogens. TLR8 has been found to recognize RNA derived from various viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...
  8. dos Santos B, Valverde J, Rohr P, Monticielo O, Brenol J, Xavier R, et al. TLR7/8/9 polymorphisms and their associations in systemic lupus erythematosus patients from southern Brazil. Lupus. 2012;21:302-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We analyzed the frequency of TLR7 rs179008, TLR8 rs3764880, TLR9 rs5743836 and rs352140 in 370 patients with SLE and 415 healthy controls from southern Brazil...
  9. Saruta M, Targan S, Mei L, Ippoliti A, Taylor K, Rotter J. High-frequency haplotypes in the X chromosome locus TLR8 are associated with both CD and UC in females. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2009;15:321-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Innate immune defects have been associated with CD, specifically CARD15/NOD2. Recently, Toll-like receptor 8 (TLR8) signaling has been shown to enhance generation of both cytokines...

More Information


  1. Møller Larsen S, Nyegaard M, Haagerup A, Vestbo J, Kruse T, Børglum A. Association analysis identifies TLR7 and TLR8 as novel risk genes in asthma and related disorders. Thorax. 2008;63:1064-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Xp22 harbours the TLR7 and TLR8 genes...
  2. Gringhuis S, van der Vlist M, van den Berg L, den Dunnen J, Litjens M, Geijtenbeek T. HIV-1 exploits innate signaling by TLR8 and DC-SIGN for productive infection of dendritic cells. Nat Immunol. 2010;11:419-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that HIV-1 required signaling by the PRRs Toll-like receptor 8 (TLR8) and DC-SIGN for replication in dendritic cells (DCs)...
  3. Ablasser A, Poeck H, Anz D, Berger M, Schlee M, Kim S, et al. Selection of molecular structure and delivery of RNA oligonucleotides to activate TLR7 versus TLR8 and to induce high amounts of IL-12p70 in primary human monocytes. J Immunol. 2009;182:6824-33 pubmed publisher
    ..In monocytes, the response to RNA oligonucleotides was mediated by either TLR8 or RIG-I...
  4. Larangé A, Antonios D, Pallardy M, Kerdine Romer S. TLR7 and TLR8 agonists trigger different signaling pathways for human dendritic cell maturation. J Leukoc Biol. 2009;85:673-83 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, the intracellular TLR7 and TLR8, mediating the recognition of ssRNA by DCs, play a major role in the immune response during viral infection...
  5. Sacre S, Lo A, Gregory B, Simmonds R, Williams L, Feldmann M, et al. Inhibitors of TLR8 reduce TNF production from human rheumatoid synovial membrane cultures. J Immunol. 2008;181:8002-9 pubmed
    ..The key observation that indicated the importance of TLR8 was the inhibition of spontaneous TNF production by imiquimod, which we discovered to be an inhibitor of TLR8...
  6. Jurk M, Heil F, Vollmer J, Schetter C, Krieg A, Wagner H, et al. Human TLR7 or TLR8 independently confer responsiveness to the antiviral compound R-848. Nat Immunol. 2002;3:499 pubmed
  7. Georgel P, Macquin C, Bahram S. The heterogeneous allelic repertoire of human toll-like receptor (TLR) genes. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7803 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence this work depicts a first overview of the diversity of almost all human TLR genes, a prelude for large-scale population genetics as well as genetic association studies. ..
  8. Melchjorsen J, Jensen S, Malmgaard L, Rasmussen S, Weber F, Bowie A, et al. Activation of innate defense against a paramyxovirus is mediated by RIG-I and TLR7 and TLR8 in a cell-type-specific manner. J Virol. 2005;79:12944-51 pubmed
    ..RIG-I for activation of an antiviral response, myeloid cells utilized both the single-stranded RNA sensing TLR7 and TLR8 and dsRNA-dependent mechanisms independent of RIG-I, TLR3, and dsRNA-activated protein kinase R to trigger this ..
  9. Yang K, Puel A, Zhang S, Eidenschenk C, Ku C, Casrouge A, et al. Human TLR-7-, -8-, and -9-mediated induction of IFN-alpha/beta and -lambda Is IRAK-4 dependent and redundant for protective immunity to viruses. Immunity. 2005;23:465-78 pubmed
    ..The TLR-7-, TLR-8-, and TLR-9-dependent induction of IFN-alpha/beta and -lambda is strictly IRAK-4 dependent and paradoxically redundant for protective immunity to most viruses in humans. ..
  10. Miettinen M, Sareneva T, Julkunen I, Matikainen S. IFNs activate toll-like receptor gene expression in viral infections. Genes Immun. 2001;2:349-55 pubmed
    ..TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR6, and TLR8 mRNAs were expressed at basal levels in macrophages...
  11. Bochud P, Hersberger M, Taffe P, Bochud M, Stein C, Rodrigues S, et al. Polymorphisms in Toll-like receptor 9 influence the clinical course of HIV-1 infection. AIDS. 2007;21:441-6 pubmed
    ..Because of its potential implications for intervention strategies and vaccine developments, additional epidemiological and experimental studies are needed to confirm this association. ..
  12. Tanji H, Ohto U, Shibata T, Miyake K, Shimizu T. Structural reorganization of the Toll-like receptor 8 dimer induced by agonistic ligands. Science. 2013;339:1426-9 pubmed publisher
    Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) and TLR8 recognize single-stranded RNA and initiate innate immune responses...
  13. Chuang T, Ulevitch R. Cloning and characterization of a sub-family of human toll-like receptors: hTLR7, hTLR8 and hTLR9. Eur Cytokine Netw. 2000;11:372-8 pubmed
    ..Expression of constitutively active hTLR7-9 stimulates an NF-kappaB signaling pathway indirectly supporting the contention that these receptors are involved in cellular responses to stimuli, which activate innate immunity. ..
  14. Cherfils Vicini J, Platonova S, Gillard M, Laurans L, Validire P, Caliandro R, et al. Triggering of TLR7 and TLR8 expressed by human lung cancer cells induces cell survival and chemoresistance. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:1285-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we have demonstrated expression of TLR7 and TLR8, the natural receptors for single-stranded RNA, by tumor cells in human lung cancer in situ and in human lung tumor ..
  15. Kumar M, Adurthi S, Ramachandran S, Mukherjee G, Joy O, Krishnamurthy H, et al. Toll-like receptors 7, 8, and 9 expression and function in primary human cervical cancer Langerhans cells: evidence of anergy. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2013;23:184-92 pubmed publisher
    ..We explored the status of expression and function of TLR7, TLR8, and TLR9 in primary human Langerhans cells (LCs) isolated from cervical tumors...
  16. Bauer S, Pigisch S, Hangel D, Kaufmann A, Hamm S. Recognition of nucleic acid and nucleic acid analogs by Toll-like receptors 7, 8 and 9. Immunobiology. 2008;213:315-28 pubmed publisher
    ..However, a role in the generation or perpetuation of autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has also been suggested. ..
  17. Cheng P, Eng H, Chou M, You H, Lin T. Genetic polymorphisms of viral infection-associated Toll-like receptors in Chinese population. Transl Res. 2007;150:311-8 pubmed
    ..single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TLRs associated with viral infection, including TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR7, TLR8, and TLR9...
  18. Kariko K, Buckstein M, Ni H, Weissman D. Suppression of RNA recognition by Toll-like receptors: the impact of nucleoside modification and the evolutionary origin of RNA. Immunity. 2005;23:165-75 pubmed
    ..We show that RNA signals through human TLR3, TLR7, and TLR8, but incorporation of modified nucleosides m5C, m6A, m5U, s2U, or pseudouridine ablates activity...
  19. Gantier M, Irving A, Kaparakis Liaskos M, Xu D, Evans V, Cameron P, et al. Genetic modulation of TLR8 response following bacterial phagocytosis. Hum Mutat. 2010;31:1069-79 pubmed publisher
    Human Toll-like receptors (TLRs) TLR7, TLR8, and TLR9 are important immune sensors of foreign nucleic acids encountered by phagocytes...
  20. Gibbard R, Morley P, Gay N. Conserved features in the extracellular domain of human toll-like receptor 8 are essential for pH-dependent signaling. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:27503-11 pubmed
    ..In this work, we have used site-directed mutagenesis to identify regions of the TLR8 extracellular domain that are required for stimulus-induced signal transduction...
  21. Peng G, Guo Z, Kiniwa Y, Voo K, Peng W, Fu T, et al. Toll-like receptor 8-mediated reversal of CD4+ regulatory T cell function. Science. 2005;309:1380-4 pubmed
    ..receptor (TLR) 8 signaling to the control of Treg cell function, in which synthetic and natural ligands for human TLR8 can reverse Treg cell function...
  22. Steenholdt C, Andresen L, Pedersen G, Hansen A, Brynskov J. Expression and function of toll-like receptor 8 and Tollip in colonic epithelial cells from patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2009;44:195-204 pubmed publisher
    ..Since the receptor is functionally active, our data suggest that TLR-8 signalling is important in the pathogenesis of IBD. ..
  23. Qureshi A, Khan D, Mushtaq S, Ye S, Xiong M, Qureshi N. δ-Tocotrienol feeding modulates gene expression of EIF2, mTOR, protein ubiquitination through multiple-signaling pathways in chronic hepatitis C patients. Lipids Health Dis. 2018;17:167 pubmed publisher
    ..hsp90ab1, psmc3, cyb5r4, ndufb1, cyp2r1, tnfrf1b, vegfa, gpr65, pias1, sfpq, gps2, eif3f, gtpbp8, eif4a1, hspa14, tlr8, tussc2)...
  24. Im Y, Shim S, Soh S, Kim S, Yoo H. Cytokines production and toll-like receptors expression in human leukemic monocyte cells, THP-1, stimulated with Brucella abortus cellular antigens. Microb Pathog. 2018;122:7-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, TLR8 was induced in a time-dependent manner after stimulation with two recombinant proteins, rOMP19 and rMdh, until 24 ..
  25. Della Mina E, Borghesi A, Zhou H, Bougarn S, Boughorbel S, Israel L, et al. Inherited human IRAK-1 deficiency selectively impairs TLR signaling in fibroblasts. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:E514-E523 pubmed publisher
    ..the patient's peripheral blood mononuclear cells responded normally to all TLR1/2, TLR2/6, TLR4, TLR7, and TLR8 (R848) agonists tested, and to IL-1β...
  26. Saruta M, Michelsen K, Thomas L, Yu Q, Landers C, Targan S. TLR8-mediated activation of human monocytes inhibits TL1A expression. Eur J Immunol. 2009;39:2195-202 pubmed publisher
    TLR play important roles in inflammation and innate immune response to pathogens. TLR8 recognizes ssRNA and induces NF-kappaB via MyD88 signaling...
  27. Howell J, Sawhney R, Skinner N, Gow P, Angus P, Ratnam D, et al. Toll-like receptor 3 and 7/8 function is impaired in hepatitis C rapid fibrosis progression post-liver transplantation. Am J Transplant. 2013;13:943-953 pubmed publisher
    ..Impaired TLR3 and TLR7/8-mediated cytokine responses may contribute to aggressive HCV recurrence postliver transplantation through impaired immune control of HCV and subsequent activation of fibrogenesis. ..
  28. Lollo C, De Moraes Vasconcelos D, Oliveira L, Domingues R, Carvalho G, Duarte A, et al. Chemokine, cytokine and type I interferon production induced by Toll-like receptor activation in common variable immune deficiency. Clin Immunol. 2016;169:121-127 pubmed publisher
    ..Decreased IFN-? secretion induced by TLR7/TLR8 activation was observed in CVID, which was recovered with TLR9 signaling...
  29. Renovato Martins M, Matheus M, de Andrade I, Moraes J, da Silva S, Citelli Dos Reis M, et al. Microparticles derived from obese adipose tissue elicit a pro-inflammatory phenotype of CD16+, CCR5+ and TLR8+ monocytes. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis. 2017;1863:139-151 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, we demonstrate that MP derived from obese omental AT carry and transfer TLR8 to monocytes, thus triggering an increase in CD16 expression in those cells...
  30. Monk B, Facciabene A, Brady W, Aghajanian C, Fracasso P, Walker J, et al. Integrative Development of a TLR8 Agonist for Ovarian Cancer Chemoimmunotherapy. Clin Cancer Res. 2017;23:1955-1966 pubmed publisher
    ..We sought to develop a rational combination of motolimod-a novel Toll-like receptor 8 (TLR8) agonist that stimulates robust innate immune responses in humans but diminished responses in mice-with pegylated ..
  31. Zheng L, Zhang Z, Yu C, Yang C. Expression of Toll-like receptors 7, 8, and 9 in primary Sjögren's syndrome. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2010;109:844-50 pubmed publisher
    ..17- and 2.33-fold higher in pSS patients than control subjects, respectively (P < .05), whereas TLR8 levels were not...
  32. Kayesh M, Kitab B, Sanada T, Hayasaka D, Morita K, Kohara M, et al. Susceptibility and initial immune response of Tupaia belangeri cells to dengue virus infection. Infect Genet Evol. 2017;51:203-210 pubmed publisher
    ..All serotypes induced the upregulation of TLR8 mRNA expression in infected tupaia cells...
  33. Chauhan A. Fc?RIIIa Signaling Modulates Endosomal TLR Responses in Human CD4+ T Cells. J Immunol. 2017;198:4596-4606 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that in CD4+ T cells, NA-TLRs, TLR3, TLR8, and TLR9 are upregulated by Fc?RIIIa-pSyk cosignaling and localize with Fc?RIIIa on the cell surface...
  34. Luo H, Winkelmann E, Fernandez Salas I, Li L, Mayer S, Danis Lozano R, et al. Zika, dengue and yellow fever viruses induce differential anti-viral immune responses in human monocytic and first trimester trophoblast cells. Antiviral Res. 2018;151:55-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of toll-like receptor (TLR)3 and TLR8 each abrogated the inflammatory cytokine responses in ZIKV-infected trophoblasts...
  35. Ranganathan P, Ngankeu A, Zitzer N, Leoncini P, Yu X, Casadei L, et al. Serum miR-29a Is Upregulated in Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease and Activates Dendritic Cells through TLR Binding. J Immunol. 2017;198:2500-2512 pubmed publisher
    ..functional significance of serum miR-29a by showing that miR-29a binds and activates dendritic cells via TLR7 and TLR8, resulting in the activation of the NF-κB pathway and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6...
  36. Biasin M, Piacentini L, Lo Caputo S, Naddeo V, Pierotti P, Borelli M, et al. TLR activation pathways in HIV-1-exposed seronegative individuals. J Immunol. 2010;184:2710-7 pubmed publisher
    ..ESN individuals showed: 1) comparable percentages of CD14+/TLR4+ and CD4+/TLR8+ CD14+/TLR8+ cells; 2) higher responsiveness to poly I:C, LPS, imiquimod, and ssRNA40 stimulation, associated with ..
  37. Farias M, Lendez P, Marin M, Quintana S, Martínez Cuesta L, Ceriani M, et al. Toll-like receptors, IFN-γ and IL-12 expression in bovine leukemia virus-infected animals with low or high proviral load. Res Vet Sci. 2016;107:190-195 pubmed publisher
    ..Animals with HPL had significantly higher expression of TLR7/8 than uninfected cattle. TLR8 and TLR9 were up-regulated in HPL group, and TLR3 was up-regulated in LPL group...
  38. Harris K, Coyne C. Unc93b Induces Apoptotic Cell Death and Is Cleaved by Host and Enteroviral Proteases. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0141383 pubmed publisher
    ..nor 3Cpro-mediated cleavage of Unc93b altered its trafficking function, inhibited its role in facilitating TLR3 or TLR8 signaling, or altered its apoptosis-inducing effects...
  39. Farina A, Peruzzi G, Lacconi V, Lenna S, Quarta S, Rosato E, et al. Epstein-Barr virus lytic infection promotes activation of Toll-like receptor 8 innate immune response in systemic sclerosis monocytes. Arthritis Res Ther. 2017;19:39 pubmed publisher
    ..Involvement of Toll-like receptor (TLR)8 in viral-mediated TLR8 response was investigated by comparing the TLR8 expression induced by infectious EBV to the expression stimulated ..
  40. Wang Y, Shang S, Sun Q, Chen J, Du G, Nie H, et al. Increased infiltration of CD11 c+/CD123+ dendritic cell subsets and upregulation of TLR/IFN-α signaling participate in pathogenesis of oral lichen planus. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2018;125:459-467.e2 pubmed publisher
    ..Significant upregulation of TLR7, TLR8, and TLR9 were disclosed in OLP (P < ...
  41. Fernández Rodríguez A, Berenguer J, Jiménez Sousa M, García Álvarez M, Aldámiz Echevarría T, Pineda Tenor D, et al. Toll-like receptor 8 (TLR8) polymorphisms are associated with non-progression of chronic hepatitis C in HIV/HCV coinfected patients. Infect Genet Evol. 2015;36:339-344 pubmed publisher
    Toll-like receptor 8 (TLR8) polymorphisms have been related to hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The aim was to estimate the association of TLR8 polymorphisms with HCV-related outcomes in HIV/HCV coinfected patients...
  42. Hu C, Zhang X, Meyer C, Thye T, Liu W, Cao W. Polymorphism of X-linked CD40 ligand gene associated with pulmonary tuberculosis in the Han Chinese population. Genes Immun. 2015;16:399-404 pubmed publisher
    ..with sex-specific presentation of pulmonary TB (pTB), three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the TLR8, CD40LG and IRAK1 genes on the X chromosome were genotyped in 923 patients and 1033 healthy individuals of the Han ..
  43. Rock F, Hardiman G, Timans J, Kastelein R, Bazan J. A family of human receptors structurally related to Drosophila Toll. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:588-93 pubmed
  44. Chang J, Lacas A, Lindsay R, Doyle E, Axten K, Pereyra F, et al. Differential regulation of toll-like receptor pathways in acute and chronic HIV-1 infection. AIDS. 2012;26:533-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Monocyte and myeloid dendritic cell responses to TLR8 stimulation were associated with HIV-1 viral load and CD4 T-cell count, whereas plasmacytoid dendritic cell ..
  45. Hirschberg A, Kiss M, Kadocsa E, Polyanka H, Szabó K, Razga Z, et al. Different activations of toll-like receptors and antimicrobial peptides in chronic rhinosinusitis with or without nasal polyposis. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2016;273:1779-88 pubmed publisher
    ..TLR2, TLR5, TLR6, TLR7, TLR8, TLR9, β-defensins 1 and 4, cathelicidin and LTF mRNA expressions were significantly (p < 0...
  46. Tajuddin T, Ryan E, Norris S, Hegarty J, O Farrelly C. Interferon-? suppressed granulocyte colony stimulating factor production is reversed by CL097, a TLR7/8 agonist. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010;25:1883-90 pubmed publisher
    ..However, a TLR7/8 agonist elicits G-CSF secretion even in the presence of IFN-?, suggesting a possible therapeutic role for TLR agonists in treatment of IFN-?-induced neutropenia. ..
  47. Alexopoulou L, Desnues B, Demaria O. [Toll-like receptor 8: the awkward TLR]. Med Sci (Paris). 2012;28:96-102 pubmed publisher
    ..TLR1 to TLR9 are common in mice and humans and recognize similar ligands in both species, with the exception of TLR8. Human TLR7 and TLR8 and mouse TLR7 detect viral single-stranded RNA and imidazoquinoline compounds, while mouse ..
  48. Wang C, Eng H, Lin K, Liu H, Chang C, Lin T. Functional polymorphisms of TLR8 are associated with hepatitis C virus infection. Immunology. 2014;141:540-8 pubmed publisher
    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a worldwide threat to public health. Toll-like receptor 8 (TLR8) is critical for eliminating RNA viruses, and variation within the TLR8 gene may alter the function of TLR8 in response to HCV ..
  49. Rao N, Nguyen S, Ngo K, Fung Leung W. A novel splice variant of interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R)-associated kinase 1 plays a negative regulatory role in Toll/IL-1R-induced inflammatory signaling. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:6521-32 pubmed
  50. Liu J, Xu C, Hsu L, Luo Y, Xiang R, Chuang T. A five-amino-acid motif in the undefined region of the TLR8 ectodomain is required for species-specific ligand recognition. Mol Immunol. 2010;47:1083-90 pubmed publisher
    Toll-like receptors play important roles in regulating immunity against microbial infections. Toll-like receptor 8 (TLR8) belongs to a subfamily comprising TLR7, TLR8 and TLR9...
  51. Triantafilou K, Orthopoulos G, Vakakis E, Ahmed M, Golenbock D, Lepper P, et al. Human cardiac inflammatory responses triggered by Coxsackie B viruses are mainly Toll-like receptor (TLR) 8-dependent. Cell Microbiol. 2005;7:1117-26 pubmed
    ..Here we report that the CBV-induced inflammatory response is mediated through TLR8 and to a lesser extent through TLR7.
  52. Itoh H, Tatematsu M, Watanabe A, Iwano K, Funami K, Seya T, et al. UNC93B1 physically associates with human TLR8 and regulates TLR8-mediated signaling. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28500 pubmed publisher
    ..b>TLR8 is phylogenetically and structurally related to TLR7 and TLR9, but little is known about its localization or ..
  53. Shayan G, Kansy B, Gibson S, Srivastava R, Bryan J, Bauman J, et al. Phase Ib Study of Immune Biomarker Modulation with Neoadjuvant Cetuximab and TLR8 Stimulation in Head and Neck Cancer to Overcome Suppressive Myeloid Signals. Clin Cancer Res. 2018;24:62-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Because immunosuppression is common in HNSCC, we hypothesized that adding a proinflammatory TLR8 agonist to cetuximab therapy might result in enhanced T-lymphocyte stimulation and anti-EGFR-specific priming...
  54. Larson P, Kucaba T, Xiong Z, Olin M, Griffith T, Ferguson D. Design and Synthesis of N1-Modified Imidazoquinoline Agonists for Selective Activation of Toll-like Receptors 7 and 8. ACS Med Chem Lett. 2017;8:1148-1152 pubmed publisher
    ..Results are presented showing both TLR7/8 activations are highly correlated to N1-substitution, with TLR8 selectivity achieved through inclusion of an ethyl-, propyl-, or butylamino group at this position...
  55. Guo H, Gao J, Taxman D, Ting J, Su L. HIV-1 infection induces interleukin-1? production via TLR8 protein-dependent and NLRP3 inflammasome mechanisms in human monocytes. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:21716-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Toll-like receptor 8 (TLR8) was required for inducing pro-IL-1? expression, whereas the NLRP3 inflammasome was required for IL-1? maturation ..
  56. Liu S, Zhang C, Zhou W, Chen M, Lin L. [Expression of toll-like receptors in human epidermal keratinocytes]. Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. 2008;30:296-300 pubmed
    ..Human epidermal keratinocytes constitutively express all TLR 1-10 mRNA, which may enable human keratinocytes to respond to a wide range of pathogenic micro-organisms. ..
  57. Gu L, Zhou J, Tan J, Yang J, Shen T, Jiang H, et al. Association of TLR8 gene rs3764880 polymorphisms with susceptibility and lipid metabolism- and inflammation response-related quantitative traits of ischemic stroke in southern Chinese Han male population. J Neurol Sci. 2016;370:94-99 pubmed publisher
    ..TLRs have an important function in inflammation and lipid metabolism. To investigate association of TLR8 rs3764880 polymorphism with susceptibility of IS and the relationship between rs3764880 with inflammation response- ..
  58. Jiang H, Li J, Li L, Zhang X, Yuan L, Chen J. Selective evolution of Toll-like receptors 3, 7, 8, and 9 in bats. Immunogenetics. 2017;69:271-285 pubmed publisher
    ..The coding sequences of TLR3, TLR7, TLR8, and TLR9 were sequenced in ten bats...
  59. Boghdadi G, Seleem W. Differential expression of Toll-like receptors 7 & 8 mRNA in monocytes of patients with chronic hepatitis C infection: correlation with interferon and ribavirin treatment. Egypt J Immunol. 2014;21:67-75 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that the TLRs-expression profiles of monocytes from patients with chronic HCV may be useful biomarkers for IFN therapy. ..
  60. Yanagisawa S, Koarai A, Sugiura H, Ichikawa T, Kanda M, Tanaka R, et al. Oxidative stress augments toll-like receptor 8 mediated neutrophilic responses in healthy subjects. Respir Res. 2009;10:50 pubmed publisher
    ..Among these receptors, TLR8 has been reported as a key receptor that recognizes single-strand RNA virus...
  61. Cervantes J, La Vake C, Weinerman B, Luu S, O Connell C, Verardi P, et al. Human TLR8 is activated upon recognition of Borrelia burgdorferi RNA in the phagosome of human monocytes. J Leukoc Biol. 2013;94:1231-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Bb), the Lyme disease spirochete, induces a robust and complex innate immune response in human monocytes, in which TLR8 cooperates with TLR2 in the induction of NF-κB-mediated cytokine production, whereas TLR8 is solely responsible ..
  62. Eng H, Hsu Y, Lin T. Differences in TLR7/8 activation between monocytes and macrophages. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;497:319-325 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicated that TLR8 agonists activated the NF-κB- and IRF-mediated pathways in THP-1 cells, whereas TLR7 agonists did not...
  63. Lee Y, Choi S, Ji J, Song G. Association between toll-like receptor polymorphisms and systemic lupus erythematosus: a meta-analysis update. Lupus. 2016;25:593-601 pubmed publisher
    ..869, 95% CI = 0.762-0.992, P = 0.038). No association was detected between rs3764880 (TLR8) and SLE; however, our meta-analysis indicated an association between rs3764879 (TLR8) and SLE in Caucasians (ORâ..
  64. Willie B, Hall N, Stein C, Jurevic R, Weinberg A, Mehlotra R, et al. Association of Toll-like receptor polymorphisms with HIV status in North Americans. Genes Immun. 2014;15:569-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Stratification of the data by self-identified race revealed that a total of nine SNPs in TLR1, TLR4, TLR6 and TLR8 in Caucasians, and two other SNPs, one each in TLR4 and TLR8, in African Americans were significantly associated ..
  65. Chow L, Morishima C, Eaton K, Baik C, Goulart B, Anderson L, et al. Phase Ib Trial of the Toll-like Receptor 8 Agonist, Motolimod (VTX-2337), Combined with Cetuximab in Patients with Recurrent or Metastatic SCCHN. Clin Cancer Res. 2017;23:2442-2450 pubmed publisher
    ..Motolimod (VTX-2337), a selective small-molecule agonist of TLR8, stimulates natural killer (NK) cells, dendritic cells, and monocytes...
  66. Beesu M, Malladi S, Fox L, Jones C, Dixit A, David S. Human Toll-like receptor 8-selective agonistic activities in 1-alkyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-amines. J Med Chem. 2014;57:7325-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Earlier structure-based ligand design led to the identification of 3-pentyl-quinoline-2-amine as a novel, human TLR8-specific agonist...
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    ..Polymorphisms in TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 that recognize bacterial and viral pathogens are associated with BOS after lung transplantation. ..
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    Nucleic acid-sensing TLRs are involved in both antimicrobial immune responses and autoimmune inflammation. TLR8 is phylogenetically and structurally related to TLR7 and TLR9, which undergo proteolytic processing in the endolysosomes to ..
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    ..These findings help us understand how NA-sensing TLRs control their proper distribution in the infection/inflammatory state. ..
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    ..The first site conserved in TLR7 and TLR8 was used for small ligand-binding essential for its activation...
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    ..We previously evaluated associations between TLR7 and TLR8 gene SNPs and susceptibility to hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection...
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    ..Among the adjuvants tested, we found that TLR3, TLR4, TLR7/8 and TLR8 agonists were the most effective adjuvants to increase the expression levels of antigen-presenting, co-stimulatory ..
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    ..The other TLRs that are evolutionarily closely related and highly homologous are TLR7, TLR8, and TLR9...
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    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the TLR8, a mediator of innate inflammatory response, in susceptibility to two immune-mediated disorders characterised by dysregulation of the immune response, Crohn's and Behçet's ..