Gene Symbol: TLR6
Description: toll like receptor 6
Alias: CD286, toll-like receptor 6
Species: human
Products:     TLR6

Top Publications

  1. Triantafilou M, Gamper F, Haston R, Mouratis M, Morath S, Hartung T, et al. Membrane sorting of toll-like receptor (TLR)-2/6 and TLR2/1 heterodimers at the cell surface determines heterotypic associations with CD36 and intracellular targeting. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:31002-11 pubmed
    ..Our data show that TLR2 forms heterodimers with TLR1 and TLR6 and that these heterodimer pre-exist and are not induced by the ligand...
  2. Xu Y, Tao X, Shen B, Horng T, Medzhitov R, Manley J, et al. Structural basis for signal transduction by the Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domains. Nature. 2000;408:111-5 pubmed
  3. Kesh S, Mensah N, Peterlongo P, Jaffe D, Hsu K, van den Brink M, et al. TLR1 and TLR6 polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to invasive aspergillosis after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005;1062:95-103 pubmed
    ..preliminary study, we examined the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TLR1, TLR4, and TLR6 genes and development of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in 127 allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant ..
  4. Hume D, Underhill D, Sweet M, Ozinsky A, Liew F, Aderem A. Macrophages exposed continuously to lipopolysaccharide and other agonists that act via toll-like receptors exhibit a sustained and additive activation state. BMC Immunol. 2001;2:11 pubmed
    ..of TLR4 mediates responses to LPS, TLR2 appears to require heterodimerization with another receptor such as TLR6. Transient expression of constitutively active forms of TLR4 or TLR2 plus TLR6 stimulated IL-12 promoter activity...
  5. Hawn T, Scholes D, Li S, Wang H, Yang Y, Roberts P, et al. Toll-like receptor polymorphisms and susceptibility to urinary tract infections in adult women. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5990 pubmed publisher
    ..Although these data suggest that TLR polymorphisms are associated with adult susceptibility to UTIs, the statistical significance was modest and will require further study including validation with independent cohorts. ..
  6. Dhiman N, Ovsyannikova I, Vierkant R, Ryan J, Pankratz V, Jacobson R, et al. Associations between SNPs in toll-like receptors and related intracellular signaling molecules and immune responses to measles vaccine: preliminary results. Vaccine. 2008;26:1731-6 pubmed publisher
    ..02) IL-4 secretion. Heterozygous variants for SNPs in TLR5 (rs5744174) and TLR6 (rs5743818) were associated with higher levels of (p <or= 0.02) IFN-gamma secretion...
  7. Shimizu T, Kida Y, Kuwano K. Ureaplasma parvum lipoproteins, including MB antigen, activate NF-{kappa}B through TLR1, TLR2 and TLR6. Microbiology. 2008;154:1318-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The activation of NF-kappaB by these lipoproteins was inhibited by dominant negative (DN) constructs of TLR1 and DN TLR6. Thus, the lipoproteins from U. parvum were found to activate NF-kappaB through TLR1, TLR2 and TLR6...
  8. Nakao Y, Funami K, Kikkawa S, Taniguchi M, Nishiguchi M, Fukumori Y, et al. Surface-expressed TLR6 participates in the recognition of diacylated lipopeptide and peptidoglycan in human cells. J Immunol. 2005;174:1566-73 pubmed
    Recognition of microbial components by TLR2 requires cooperation with other TLRs. TLR6 has been shown to be required for the recognition of diacylated lipoproteins and lipopeptides derived from mycoplasma and to activate the NF-kappaB ..
  9. Guan Y, Ranoa D, Jiang S, Mutha S, Li X, Baudry J, et al. Human TLRs 10 and 1 share common mechanisms of innate immune sensing but not signaling. J Immunol. 2010;184:5094-103 pubmed publisher
    ..Phylogenetic analysis reveals that TLR10 is most related to TLR1 and TLR6, both of which mediate immune responses to a variety of microbial and fungal components in cooperation with TLR2...

More Information


  1. Veltkamp M, van Moorsel C, Rijkers G, Ruven H, Grutters J. Genetic variation in the Toll-like receptor gene cluster (TLR10-TLR1-TLR6) influences disease course in sarcoidosis. Tissue Antigens. 2012;79:25-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of our study was to assess differences in genetic variation in the TLR10-TLR1-TLR6 gene cluster between patients and controls...
  2. Brightbill H, Libraty D, Krutzik S, Yang R, Belisle J, Bleharski J, et al. Host defense mechanisms triggered by microbial lipoproteins through toll-like receptors. Science. 1999;285:732-6 pubmed
    ..Activation of TLRs by microbial lipoproteins may initiate innate defense mechanisms against infectious pathogens. ..
  3. Bulut Y, Faure E, Thomas L, Equils O, Arditi M. Cooperation of Toll-like receptor 2 and 6 for cellular activation by soluble tuberculosis factor and Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface protein A lipoprotein: role of Toll-interacting protein and IL-1 receptor signaling molecules in Toll-like recepto. J Immunol. 2001;167:987-94 pubmed
    ..Dominant negative constructs of TLR2 or TLR6 inhibit the responses of STF and OspA-L as well as PSM in TLR2-transfected HMEC, supporting the concept of ..
  4. Ozinsky A, Underhill D, Fontenot J, Hajjar A, Smith K, Wilson C, et al. The repertoire for pattern recognition of pathogens by the innate immune system is defined by cooperation between toll-like receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:13766-71 pubmed
    ..We report here that two members of the TLR family, TLR2 and TLR6, together coordinate macrophage activation by Gram-positive bacteria and the yeast cell-wall particle, zymosan...
  5. Ma X, Liu Y, Gowen B, Graviss E, Clark A, Musser J. Full-exon resequencing reveals toll-like receptor variants contribute to human susceptibility to tuberculosis disease. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e1318 pubmed
    ..Rare nonsynonymous polymorphisms in TLR6-TLR1-TLR10 were significantly overrepresented among African-American TB cases compared with ethnically-matched ..
  6. Kormann M, Depner M, Hartl D, Klopp N, Illig T, Adamski J, et al. Toll-like receptor heterodimer variants protect from childhood asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;122:86-92, 92.e1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..54; 95% CI, 0.37-0.81; P = .002), TLR6 (OR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.37-0.79; P = .003), and TLR10 (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.39-0.86; P = ...
  7. Hajjar A, O Mahony D, Ozinsky A, Underhill D, Aderem A, Klebanoff S, et al. Cutting edge: functional interactions between toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR1 or TLR6 in response to phenol-soluble modulin. J Immunol. 2001;166:15-9 pubmed
    ..The TLR2-mediated response to this modulin was enhanced by TLR6 but inhibited by TLR1, indicating a functional interaction between these receptors...
  8. Pierik M, Joossens S, Van Steen K, Van Schuerbeek N, Vlietinck R, Rutgeerts P, et al. Toll-like receptor-1, -2, and -6 polymorphisms influence disease extension in inflammatory bowel diseases. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2006;12:1-8 pubmed
    ..8 and 3.3 for R80T and R753G, respectively. There was a negative association between TLR6 S249P and ulcerative colitis with proctitis only (P = .026, OR [95% CI] 0.223 [0.096-0.705])...
  9. Stevens V, Hsing A, Talbot J, Zheng S, Sun J, Chen J, et al. Genetic variation in the toll-like receptor gene cluster (TLR10-TLR1-TLR6) and prostate cancer risk. Int J Cancer. 2008;123:2644-50 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the role of common SNPs in a gene cluster encoding the TLR10, TLR6 and TLR1 proteins in prostate cancer etiology among 1,414 cancer cases and 1,414 matched controls from the Cancer ..
  10. Kang J, Nan X, Jin M, Youn S, Ryu Y, Mah S, et al. Recognition of lipopeptide patterns by Toll-like receptor 2-Toll-like receptor 6 heterodimer. Immunity. 2009;31:873-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Its ligand specificity is controlled by whether it heterodimerizes with TLR1 or TLR6. We have determined the crystal structures of TLR2-TLR6-diacylated lipopeptide, TLR2-lipoteichoic acid, and TLR2-PE-..
  11. Takeuchi O, Sato S, Horiuchi T, Hoshino K, Takeda K, Dong Z, et al. Cutting edge: role of Toll-like receptor 1 in mediating immune response to microbial lipoproteins. J Immunol. 2002;169:10-4 pubmed
    ..b>TLR6 associates with TLR2 and recognizes diacylated mycoplasmal lipopeptide along with TLR2...
  12. Velez D, Wejse C, Stryjewski M, Abbate E, Hulme W, Myers J, et al. Variants in toll-like receptors 2 and 9 influence susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis in Caucasians, African-Americans, and West Africans. Hum Genet. 2010;127:65-73 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, 71 polymorphisms in TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR6, and TLR9 were examined from 474 (295 cases and 179 controls) African-Americans, 381 (237 cases and 144 controls) ..
  13. Takeuchi O, Kawai T, Muhlradt P, Morr M, Radolf J, Zychlinsky A, et al. Discrimination of bacterial lipoproteins by Toll-like receptor 6. Int Immunol. 2001;13:933-40 pubmed
    ..Here we show that TLR6-deficient (TLR6(-/-)) cells are unresponsive to MALP-2 but retain their normal responses to lipopeptides of other ..
  14. Tantisira K, Klimecki W, Lazarus R, Palmer L, Raby B, Kwiatkowski D, et al. Toll-like receptor 6 gene (TLR6): single-nucleotide polymorphism frequencies and preliminary association with the diagnosis of asthma. Genes Immun. 2004;5:343-6 pubmed
    Toll-like receptor 6 (TLR6) is one of a series of highly conserved innate immune receptors...
  15. Brown V, Brown R, Ozinsky A, Hesselberth J, Fields S. Binding specificity of Toll-like receptor cytoplasmic domains. Eur J Immunol. 2006;36:742-53 pubmed
    ..In summary, interactions between the TLR, MyD88, and novel associated proteins have been characterized. ..
  16. Chen Y, Giovannucci E, Kraft P, Lazarus R, Hunter D. Association between Toll-like receptor gene cluster (TLR6, TLR1, and TLR10) and prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007;16:1982-9 pubmed
    ..b>TLR6, TLR1, and TLR10 are also involved in the pathogen-mediated inflammation pathway...
  17. Schröder N, Diterich I, Zinke A, Eckert J, Draing C, von Baehr V, et al. Heterozygous Arg753Gln polymorphism of human TLR-2 impairs immune activation by Borrelia burgdorferi and protects from late stage Lyme disease. J Immunol. 2005;175:2534-40 pubmed
    ..3 vs 12.5%, odds ratio 0.163, 95% confidence interval 0.04-0.76, p = 0.018). These data suggest that Arg753Gln may protect from the development of late stage LD due to a reduced signaling via TLR-2/TLR-1. ..
  18. Lindstrom S, Hunter D, Gronberg H, Stattin P, Wiklund F, Xu J, et al. Sequence variants in the TLR4 and TLR6-1-10 genes and prostate cancer risk. Results based on pooled analysis from three independent studies. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010;19:873-6 pubmed publisher
    Genetic variation in two members of the Toll-like receptor family, TLR4 and the gene cluster TLR6-1-10, has been implicated in prostate cancer in several studies but the associated alleles have not been consistent across reports...
  19. Purdue M, Lan Q, Wang S, Kricker A, Menashe I, Zheng T, et al. A pooled investigation of Toll-like receptor gene variants and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Carcinogenesis. 2009;30:275-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Thirty-six tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TLR2, TLR4 and the TLR10-TLR1-TLR6 gene cluster were genotyped...
  20. Hoffjan S, Stemmler S, Parwez Q, Petrasch Parwez E, Arinir U, Rohde G, et al. Evaluation of the toll-like receptor 6 Ser249Pro polymorphism in patients with asthma, atopic dermatitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. BMC Med Genet. 2005;6:34 pubmed
    ..We evaluated here the role of a coding variation, Ser249Pro, in the TLR6 gene in the pathogenesis of asthma, atopic dermatitis (AD) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)...
  21. Schröder N, Heine H, Alexander C, Manukyan M, Eckert J, Hamann L, et al. Lipopolysaccharide binding protein binds to triacylated and diacylated lipopeptides and mediates innate immune responses. J Immunol. 2004;173:2683-91 pubmed
    ..These results support that LBP is a pattern recognition receptor transferring a variety of bacterial ligands including the two major types of lipopeptides to CD14 present in different receptor complexes. ..
  22. Shey M, Randhawa A, Bowmaker M, Smith E, Scriba T, De Kock M, et al. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in toll-like receptor 6 are associated with altered lipopeptide- and mycobacteria-induced interleukin-6 secretion. Genes Immun. 2010;11:561-72 pubmed publisher
    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are critical mediators of the immune response to pathogens. The influence of human TLR6 polymorphisms on susceptibility to infection is only partially understood...
  23. Xiong W, Zhai M, Yu X, Wei L, Mao J, Liu J, et al. Comparative RNA-sequencing analysis of ER-based HSP90 functions and signal pathways in Tribolium castaneum. Cell Stress Chaperones. 2018;23:29-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The DEGs including TLR6, PGRP2, defensin1, and defensin2 were involved in heat stress and immune response simultaneously, which suggested ..
  24. Su Q, Grabowski M, Weindl G. Recognition of Propionibacterium acnes by human TLR2 heterodimers. Int J Med Microbiol. 2017;307:108-112 pubmed publisher
    ..The activation was blocked by neutralizing antibodies against TLR2, TLR1 and TLR6, as well as the TLR2 antagonist CU-CPT22, which showed no selectivity towards human TLR2 heterodimers...
  25. Turner J, Langley R, Johnston K, Gentil K, Ford L, Wu B, et al. Wolbachia lipoprotein stimulates innate and adaptive immunity through Toll-like receptors 2 and 6 to induce disease manifestations of filariasis. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:22364-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, in addition to innate inflammatory activation, Wolbachia lipoproteins drive interferon-gamma-dependent CD4+ T cell polarization and antibody switching...
  26. Liu S, Liu Y, Hao W, Wolf L, Kiliaan A, Penke B, et al. TLR2 is a primary receptor for Alzheimer's amyloid ? peptide to trigger neuroinflammatory activation. J Immunol. 2012;188:1098-107 pubmed publisher
    ..By coexpressing TLR1 or TLR6 in TLR2-transgenic HEK293 cells or silencing tlrs genes in RAW264...
  27. Burmistrova A, Evdokimov A, Stashkevich D, Filippova Y, Suslova T. [DISTRIBUTION OF TWO-LOCUS HAPLOTYPES OF MICROBIAL COMPONENT SENSOR GENES TLR1 AND TLR6 IN MAJOR POPULATIONS OF SOUTH URALS]. Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 2015;:96-101 pubmed
    Evaluate the fraction of various TLR1-TLR6 haplotypes in populations of Russians Bashkir and Nagaybak of Chelyabinsk Region...
  28. Henrick B, Yao X, Rosenthal K. HIV-1 Structural Proteins Serve as PAMPs for TLR2 Heterodimers Significantly Increasing Infection and Innate Immune Activation. Front Immunol. 2015;6:426 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, our results show in the absence of TLR6, p24 bound to TLR2 and blocked p17 and gp41-induced activation, thus providing a novel mechanism by which HIV-1 can ..
  29. Su W, Zha S, Wang Y, Shi W, Xiao G, Chai X, et al. Benzo[a]pyrene exposure under future ocean acidification scenarios weakens the immune responses of blood clam, Tegillarca granosa. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2017;63:465-470 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the gene expressions of pathogen pattern recognition receptors (TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR6), pathway mediators (TRAF6, TAK1, TAB2, IKK? and Myd88), and effectors (NF-?B) of the important immune related ..
  30. Xiao W, Liu Z, Lin J, Li J, Wu K, Ma Y, et al. Polymorphisms in TLR1, TLR6 and TLR10 genes and the risk of Graves' disease. Autoimmunity. 2015;48:13-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential association of polymorphisms in TLR1, TLR6 and TLR10 genes with GD in Chinese Cantonese population. Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (i.e...
  31. Hally K, La Flamme A, Larsen P, Harding S. Platelet Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression and TLR-mediated platelet activation in acute myocardial infarction. Thromb Res. 2017;158:8-15 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Platelet-TLR2 was slightly, but non-significantly, upregulated in AMI patients and platelet-TLR6 expression did not change across cohorts...
  32. Deschamps M, Laval G, Fagny M, Itan Y, Abel L, Casanova J, et al. Genomic Signatures of Selective Pressures and Introgression from Archaic Hominins at Human Innate Immunity Genes. Am J Hum Genet. 2016;98:5-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Notably, among the genes presenting the highest Neandertal ancestry, we find the TLR6-TLR1-TLR10 cluster, which also contains functional adaptive variation in Europeans...
  33. Westwell Roper C, Denroche H, Ehses J, Verchere C. Differential Activation of Innate Immune Pathways by Distinct Islet Amyloid Polypeptide (IAPP) Aggregates. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:8908-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Blockade of TLR6 but not TLR1 prevented hIAPP-induced TLR2 activation, consistent with stimulation of a TLR2/6 heterodimer...
  34. Galoian K, Abrahamyan S, Chailyan G, Qureshi A, Patel P, Metser G, et al. Toll like receptors TLR1/2, TLR6 and MUC5B as binding interaction partners with cytostatic proline rich polypeptide 1 in human chondrosarcoma. Int J Oncol. 2018;52:139-154 pubmed publisher
    ..PRP-1 binding interacting partners belong to innate immunity pattern recognition toll like receptors TLR1/2 and TLR6 and gel forming secreted mucin MUC5B...
  35. Piao W, Ru L, Toshchakov V. Differential adapter recruitment by TLR2 co-receptors. Pathog Dis. 2016;74: pubmed publisher
    TLR2 heterodimers with TLR1 or TLR6 recognize distinct pathogen-associated molecules such as tri- and di-acylated lipopeptides...
  36. Nyúl Tóth Ã, Kozma M, NagyÅ‘szi P, Nagy K, Fazakas C, Haskó J, et al. Expression of pattern recognition receptors and activation of the non-canonical inflammasome pathway in brain pericytes. Brain Behav Immun. 2017;64:220-231 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the ten known human TLRs, TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, TLR6 and TLR10 were found to be expressed...
  37. Barnholtz Sloan J, Shetty P, Guan X, Nyante S, Luo J, Brennan D, et al. FGFR2 and other loci identified in genome-wide association studies are associated with breast cancer in African-American and younger women. Carcinogenesis. 2010;31:1417-23 pubmed publisher
    ..17-1.81]. Associations were observed for SNPs in FGFR2, LSP1, H19, TLR1/TLR6 and RELN for AA; FGFR2, TNRC9, H19 and MAP3K1 for Whites; FGFR2, TNRC9, Msc5A1 and chromosome 8q for women > or =..
  38. Enevold C, Oturai A, Sørensen P, Ryder L, Koch Henriksen N, Bendtzen K. Polymorphisms of innate pattern recognition receptors, response to interferon-beta and development of neutralizing antibodies in multiple sclerosis patients. Mult Scler. 2010;16:942-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest an association between the rs5743810 polymorphism (Ser249Pro) of TLR6 and development of neutralizing antibodies after 24 months of therapy in males (p = 0...
  39. Golovkin A, Ponasenko A, Yuzhalin A, Salakhov R, Khutornaya M, Kutikhin A, et al. An association between single nucleotide polymorphisms within TLR and TREM-1 genes and infective endocarditis. Cytokine. 2015;71:16-21 pubmed publisher
    ..genotypes and alleles of the TLR1 (rs5743551, rs5743611), TLR2 (rs3804099, rs5743708), TLR4 (rs4986790, rs4986791), TLR6 (rs3775073, rs5743810), and TREM-1 (rs1817537, rs3804277, rs6910730, rs7768162, rs2234246, rs4711668, rs9471535, ..
  40. Kim E, Chung W, Lee K, Paik C, Jung S, Lee B, et al. Association between toll-like receptors/CD14 gene polymorphisms and inflammatory bowel disease in Korean population. J Korean Med Sci. 2012;27:72-7 pubmed publisher
    ..we evaluated mutations of TLR1 (Arg80Thr), TLR2 (Arg753Gln and Arg677Trp), TLR4 (Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile), TLR6 (Ser249Pro) genes and the -159 C/T promoter polymorphism of CD14 gene...
  41. Arias Loste M, Iruzubieta P, Puente A, Ramos D, Santa Cruz C, Estebanez A, et al. Increased Expression Profile and Functionality of TLR6 in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells and Hepatocytes of Morbidly Obese Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17: pubmed
    ..Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR6 specifically recognize components of Gram-positive bacteria...
  42. Calcaterra R, Di Girolamo M, Mirisola C, Baggi L. Expression of Pattern Recognition Receptors in Epithelial Cells Around Clinically Healthy Implants and Healthy Teeth. Implant Dent. 2016;25:348-52 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, the mRNA expressions of TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, TLR6, TLR9, NOD1, NOD2, and NLRP3 from gingival epithelial cells of the sulcus around healthy implants and around ..
  43. Selvaraj P, Harishankar M, Singh B, Jawahar M, Banurekha V. Toll-like receptor and TIRAP gene polymorphisms in pulmonary tuberculosis patients of South India. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2010;90:306-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Further study on the regulatory role of this polymorphism may be helpful to understand the innate immunity in TB. ..
  44. Sales M, Schreiber R, Ferreira Sae M, Fernandes M, Piveta C, Cipolli J, et al. Toll-like receptor 6 Ser249Pro polymorphism is associated with lower left ventricular wall thickness and inflammatory response in hypertensive women. Am J Hypertens. 2010;23:649-54 pubmed publisher
    ..This study investigated the impact of TLR6 Ser249Pro polymorphism on LV structure in hypertensive subjects...
  45. Modhiran N, Watterson D, Blumenthal A, Baxter A, Young P, Stacey K. Dengue virus NS1 protein activates immune cells via TLR4 but not TLR2 or TLR6. Immunol Cell Biol. 2017;95:491-495 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus TLR4 remains a therapeutic target for DENV infections, with TLR4 antagonists holding promise for the treatment of dengue disease. ..
  46. Hong C, Sucheston Campbell L, Liu S, Hu Q, Yao S, Lunetta K, et al. Genetic Variants in Immune-Related Pathways and Breast Cancer Risk in African American Women in the AMBER Consortium. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2018;27:321-330 pubmed publisher
    ..79-0.92). Only BCL3 contained a significant variant for ER+ breast cancer. Variants in IL2RB, TLR6, IL8, PRKDC, and MAP3K1 were associated with ER- disease...
  47. Grote K, Schuett H, Salguero G, Grothusen C, Jagielska J, Drexler H, et al. Toll-like receptor 2/6 stimulation promotes angiogenesis via GM-CSF as a potential strategy for immune defense and tissue regeneration. Blood. 2010;115:2543-52 pubmed publisher
    ..This might represent a general mechanism to enhance or restore blood flow and recruit immune cells for pathogen defense and tissue regeneration. ..
  48. Yanai S, Tokuhara D, Tachibana D, Saito M, Sakashita Y, Shintaku H, et al. Diabetic pregnancy activates the innate immune response through TLR5 or TLR1/2 on neonatal monocyte. J Reprod Immunol. 2016;117:17-23 pubmed publisher
    ..cultured with lipopolysaccharide (TLR4 ligand), flagellin (TLR5 ligand), Pam3CSK4 (TLR1/TLR2 ligand), zymosan (TLR2/TLR6 ligand), or macrophage-activating lipopeptide (TLR2/TLR6 ligand) for 12h, the cytokine levels (interleukin [IL]-8, ..
  49. Chen Y, Su M, Liou C, Liu S, Chen C, Lin H, et al. Co-upregulation of Toll-like receptors 2 and 6 on peripheral blood cells in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Sleep Breath. 2015;19:873-82 pubmed publisher
    Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 can heterodimerise with TLR6 to detect diacylated lipoproteins. Hypoxia inducible factor-1 α co-ordinates selective induction of TLR2 and TLR6 during persistent hypoxia...
  50. Darfour Oduro K, Megens H, Roca A, Groenen M, Schook L. Evidence for adaptation of porcine Toll-like receptors. Immunogenetics. 2016;68:179-89 pubmed publisher
    ..sequence encoding the ectodomain, responsible for interacting with pathogen ligands of bacterial (TLR1, TLR2 and TLR6) and viral (TLR3, TLR7 and TLR8) receptors, was obtained...
  51. Mayerle J, den Hoed C, Schurmann C, Stolk L, Homuth G, Peters M, et al. Identification of genetic loci associated with Helicobacter pylori serologic status. JAMA. 2013;309:1912-20 pubmed publisher
    ..pylori seroprevalence, a finding that requires replication in nonwhite populations. If confirmed, genetic variations in TLR1 may help explain some of the observed variation in individual risk for H. pylori infection. ..
  52. Gomes M, Campos P, Pereira G, Bartholomeu D, Splitter G, Oliveira S. TLR9 is required for MAPK/NF-?B activation but does not cooperate with TLR2 or TLR6 to induce host resistance to Brucella abortus. J Leukoc Biol. 2016;99:771-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, here, we determined the cooperative role of TLR9 with TLR2 or TLR6 receptors in sensing Brucella Furthermore, we deciphered the host innate immune response against B...
  53. Kollewe C, Mackensen A, Neumann D, Knop J, Cao P, Li S, et al. Sequential autophosphorylation steps in the interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-1 regulate its availability as an adapter in interleukin-1 signaling. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:5227-36 pubmed
    ..Thus, IRAK-1 regulates its own availability as an adapter molecule by sequential autophosphorylation. ..
  54. Shimizu T, Kida Y, Kuwano K. A dipalmitoylated lipoprotein from Mycoplasma pneumoniae activates NF-kappa B through TLR1, TLR2, and TLR6. J Immunol. 2005;175:4641-6 pubmed
    ..The activation of NF-kappaB by the F0F1-ATPase was inhibited by a dominant negative construct of TLR1 and TLR6. These results indicate that the activation of NF-kappaB by F0F1-ATPase is dependent on TLR1, TLR2, and TLR6...
  55. Hornung V, Rothenfusser S, Britsch S, Krug A, Jahrsdorfer B, Giese T, et al. Quantitative expression of toll-like receptor 1-10 mRNA in cellular subsets of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and sensitivity to CpG oligodeoxynucleotides. J Immunol. 2002;168:4531-7 pubmed
    ..TLR1 and TLR6 were expressed in all cell types examined...
  56. Mitterreiter J, Ouwendijk W, van Velzen M, van Nierop G, Osterhaus A, Verjans G. Satellite glial cells in human trigeminal ganglia have a broad expression of functional Toll-like receptors. Eur J Immunol. 2017;47:1181-1187 pubmed publisher
    ..Stimulation of TG- and NAWM-derived cell suspensions with ligands of TLR1-TLR6, but not TLR7 and TLR9, induced interleukin 6 (IL-6) secretion...
  57. Rock F, Hardiman G, Timans J, Kastelein R, Bazan J. A family of human receptors structurally related to Drosophila Toll. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:588-93 pubmed
  58. Zhou P, Liu Z, Li X, Zhang B, Wang X, Lan J, et al. Migration ability and Toll-like receptor expression of human mesenchymal stem cells improves significantly after three-dimensional culture. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;491:323-328 pubmed publisher
    ..The mRNA and protein expression levels of TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR6, and CXCR4 in hUCMSCs were increased significantly upon culturing with PADM for 3 days, compared to the levels in ..
  59. Triantafilou M, Uddin A, Maher S, Charalambous N, Hamm T, Alsumaiti A, et al. Anthrax toxin evades Toll-like receptor recognition, whereas its cell wall components trigger activation via TLR2/6 heterodimers. Cell Microbiol. 2007;9:2880-92 pubmed
  60. Bagabir R, Syed F, Rautemaa R, McGrouther D, Paus R, Bayat A. Upregulation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 6, 7, and 8 in keloid scars. J Invest Dermatol. 2011;131:2128-30 pubmed publisher
  61. Yang H, Zhang X, Geng J, Zheng Z, Fu Q. Toll-like receptor 6 V327M polymorphism is associated with an increased risk of Klebsiella pneumoniae infection. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2014;33:e310-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Toll-like receptors plays an important role in defense against this pathogen. The impact of human TLR6 polymorphisms on susceptibility to K. pneumoniae infection is poorly understood...
  62. Potter C, Cordell H, Barton A, Daly A, Hyrich K, Mann D, et al. Association between anti-tumour necrosis factor treatment response and genetic variants within the TLR and NF{kappa}B signalling pathways. Ann Rheum Dis. 2010;69:1315-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Validation of these findings in an independent cohort is now warranted. ..
  63. Müller E, Christopoulos P, Halder S, Lunde A, Beraki K, Speth M, et al. Toll-Like Receptor Ligands and Interferon-? Synergize for Induction of Antitumor M1 Macrophages. Front Immunol. 2017;8:1383 pubmed publisher
    ..The following TLR ligands were used: TLR1/TLR2 agonist Pam3CSK4, TLR2/TLR6 agonist lipotechoic acid, TLR3 agonist poly(I:C), TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS), TLR5 agonist flagellin, ..
  64. Mauldin I, Wang E, Deacon D, Olson W, Bao Y, Slingluff C. TLR2/6 agonists and interferon-gamma induce human melanoma cells to produce CXCL10. Int J Cancer. 2015;137:1386-96 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that TLR2 and TLR6 are widely expressed on human melanoma cells, and that TLR2/6 agonists (MALP-2 or FSL-1) synergize with interferon-..
  65. Jang T, Park H. Crystal structure of TIR domain of TLR6 reveals novel dimeric interface of TIR-TIR interaction for toll-like receptor signaling pathway. J Mol Biol. 2014;426:3305-3313 pubmed publisher
    ..b>TLR6 working with TLR2 can detect bacterial lipoprotein leading signal for nuclear factor-kappaB activation for immune ..
  66. Cho S, Plataki M, Mitzel D, Lowry G, Rooney K, Stout Delgado H. Decreased NLRP3 inflammasome expression in aged lung may contribute to increased susceptibility to secondary Streptococcus pneumoniae infection. Exp Gerontol. 2018;105:40-46 pubmed publisher
    ..pneumoniae infection. Increased susceptibility of aged mice was associated with decreased TLR1, TLR6, and TLR9 mRNA expression and diminished IL1β mRNA expression...
  67. Moskvina V, Smith M, Ivanov D, Blackwood D, Stclair D, Hultman C, et al. Genetic differences between five European populations. Hum Hered. 2010;70:141-9 pubmed publisher
    ..the LCT gene, genes involved in NAD metabolism, and in immunity (HLA and the Toll-like receptor genes TLR10, TLR1, TLR6)...
  68. Takeuchi O, Kawai T, Sanjo H, Copeland N, Gilbert D, Jenkins N, et al. TLR6: A novel member of an expanding toll-like receptor family. Gene. 1999;231:59-65 pubmed the molecular cloning and characterization of a new member of Toll-like receptor family, Toll-like receptor 6 (TLR6)...
  69. Verstraelen H, Verhelst R, Nuytinck L, Roelens K, De Meester E, De Vos D, et al. Gene polymorphisms of Toll-like and related recognition receptors in relation to the vaginal carriage of Gardnerella vaginalis and Atopobium vaginae. J Reprod Immunol. 2009;79:163-73 pubmed publisher
    ..involved with Toll-like receptor-mediated pathogen recognition and/or regulation (LBP, CD14, TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR6, MD2, CARD15 and SIGIRR) and assessed in a nested case-control study their putative association with bacterial ..
  70. Sun J, Wiklund F, Zheng S, Chang B, Bälter K, Li L, et al. Sequence variants in Toll-like receptor gene cluster (TLR6-TLR1-TLR10) and prostate cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005;97:525-32 pubmed
    ..In this study, we investigated whether sequence variants in the TLR6-TLR1-TLR10 gene cluster, residing within a 54-kb region on 4p14, were associated with prostate cancer risk...
  71. Huang Y, Li S, Huang L, Chen P, Lin Y, Lin C, et al. Identifying genetic hypomethylation and upregulation of Toll-like receptors in Kawasaki disease. Oncotarget. 2017;8:11249-11258 pubmed publisher
    ..TLRs, particularly TLR1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 9, may stimulate the immunopathogenesis of KD. These results are among the first to use TLRs to prove that a bacterial inflammatory response may trigger KD. ..
  72. Miyakawa T, Kumazawa A, Fuke Y, Noshita T, Miyauchi Y, Okada M, et al. Preparation of the Extracellular Domain of Recombinant Human Toll-like Receptor 6. Protein J. 2017;36:28-35 pubmed publisher, we propose an efficient method for preparation of the extracellular domain of human Toll-like receptor 6 (TLR6ED) in Escherichia coli using the bubbling cultivation method...
  73. Chen J, Ng M, Chu J. Activation of TLR2 and TLR6 by Dengue NS1 Protein and Its Implications in the Immunopathogenesis of Dengue Virus Infection. PLoS Pathog. 2015;11:e1005053 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, pathogen recognition receptors, Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR6 were found to be up-regulated in DV-infected human PBMC using immunofluorescence staining, flow cytometry and ..
  74. Chen S, Chung C, Cheng Y, Huang C, Chen W, Ruaan R, et al. Toll-like receptor 6 and connective tissue growth factor are significantly upregulated in mitomycin-C-treated urothelial carcinoma cells under hydrostatic pressure stimulation. Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2014;18:410-6 pubmed publisher
    ..After bioinformatics analysis and gene annotation, Toll-like receptor 6 (TLR6) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) showed significant upregulation among altered genes, and their gene and ..
  75. Qian F, Zhang Q, Zhou L, Jin G, Bai J, Yin K. Polymorphisms in the toll-like receptor 2 subfamily and risk of asthma: a case-control analysis in a Chinese population. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2010;20:340-6 pubmed
    ..41-0.98; P = .036). Furthermore, a positive association was observed between the T allele of rs2381289 in TLR6 and allergic rhinitis in asthma (OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.10-2.91; P = ...
  76. Panigrahi S, Kar A, Tripathy S, Mohapatra M, Dhangadamajhi G. Genetic predisposition of variants in TLR2 and its co-receptors to severe malaria in Odisha, India. Immunol Res. 2016;64:291-302 pubmed publisher
    ..Variants in TLR1 (I602S) and TLR6 (P249S) were genotyped by PCR-RFLP methods, and TLR2 (I/D) was genotyped by PCR in 200 samples each from ..
  77. Chen Y, Liu T, Langford P, Hua K, Zhou S, Zhai Y, et al. Haemophilus parasuis induces activation of NF-κB and MAP kinase signaling pathways mediated by toll-like receptors. Mol Immunol. 2015;65:360-6 pubmed publisher
    ..parasuis. We also found TLR1, TLR2, TLR4 and TLR6 were required for NF-κB, p38 and JNK MAPK activation...
  78. Xie X, Shi X, Liu M. The Roles of TLR Gene Polymorphisms in Atherosclerosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of 35,317 Subjects. Scand J Immunol. 2017;86:50-58 pubmed publisher
    ..28-0.97; allele model: 95% CI 1.07-1.69), TLR1 rs5743611 polymorphism (dominant model: 95% CI 0.56-0.98) and TLR6 rs5743810 polymorphism (recessive model: 95% CI 0.56-0.92) in overall analyses...
  79. Nuolivirta K, Vuononvirta J, Peltola V, Koponen P, Helminen M, He Q, et al. Toll-like receptor 2 subfamily genotypes are not associated with severity of bronchiolitis or postbronchiolitis wheezing in infants. Acta Paediatr. 2013;102:1160-4 pubmed publisher
    Expression of toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 subfamily genes, including genes encoding TLR1, TLR2, TLR6 and TLR10, have been connected to allergy and asthma...
  80. Dabagh Gorjani F, Anvari F, Zolghadri J, Kamali Sarvestani E, Gharesi Fard B. Differences in the expression of TLRs and inflammatory cytokines in pre-eclamptic compared with healthy pregnant women. Iran J Immunol. 2014;11:233-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, it seems that the maternal and fetal parts of the placenta may play different roles in the induction of the inflammatory status within the placenta. ..
  81. Miettinen M, Sareneva T, Julkunen I, Matikainen S. IFNs activate toll-like receptor gene expression in viral infections. Genes Immun. 2001;2:349-55 pubmed
    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) mediate innate immune responses to microbes. TLR2, TLR5, TLR6, and TLR9 have been implicated in responses to bacterial components, and TLR4 is the receptor for Gram-negative bacteria...