Gene Symbol: TLR5
Description: toll like receptor 5
Alias: MELIOS, SLE1, SLEB1, TIL3, toll-like receptor 5, systemic lupus erythematosus susceptibility 1, toll/interleukin-1 receptor-like protein 3
Species: human
Products:     TLR5

Top Publications

  1. Hayashi F, Smith K, Ozinsky A, Hawn T, Yi E, Goodlett D, et al. The innate immune response to bacterial flagellin is mediated by Toll-like receptor 5. Nature. 2001;410:1099-103 pubmed
    ..Here we report that mammalian TLR5 recognizes bacterial flagellin from both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and that activation of the ..
  2. Chaudhary P, Ferguson C, Nguyen V, Nguyen O, Massa H, Eby M, et al. Cloning and characterization of two Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor-like genes TIL3 and TIL4: evidence for a multi-gene receptor family in humans. Blood. 1998;91:4020-7 pubmed
    ..We report here the cloning of two novel human genes, TIL3 and TIL4 (Toll/IL-1R-like-3, -4) that exhibit homology to both the leucine-rich repeat extracellular domains and ..
  3. Rhee S, Kim H, Moyer M, Pothoulakis C. Role of MyD88 in phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation by flagellin/toll-like receptor 5 engagement in colonic epithelial cells. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:18560-8 pubmed
    ..However, the detailed signaling mechanisms mediated by flagellin/TLR5 engagement are not clear...
  4. Hawn T, Verbon A, Lettinga K, Zhao L, Li S, Laws R, et al. A common dominant TLR5 stop codon polymorphism abolishes flagellin signaling and is associated with susceptibility to legionnaires' disease. J Exp Med. 2003;198:1563-72 pubmed
    ..We demonstrated recently that TLR5 recognizes flagellin, a potent inflammatory stimulus present in the flagellar structure of many bacteria...
  5. Hawn T, Scholes D, Li S, Wang H, Yang Y, Roberts P, et al. Toll-like receptor polymorphisms and susceptibility to urinary tract infections in adult women. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5990 pubmed publisher
    ..53 (0.29-0.96)). These results provide the first evidence of associations of TLR5 and TLR1 variants with altered risks of acquiring rUTI and pyelonephritis, respectively...
  6. Zhou K, Kanai R, Lee P, Wang H, Modis Y. Toll-like receptor 5 forms asymmetric dimers in the absence of flagellin. J Struct Biol. 2012;177:402-9 pubmed publisher
    The structure of full-length human TLR5 determined by electron microscopy single-particle image reconstruction at 26Å resolution shows that TLR5 forms an asymmetric homodimer via ectodomain interactions...
  7. Torok A, Bouton A, Goldberg J. Helicobacter pylori induces interleukin-8 secretion by Toll-like receptor 2- and Toll-like receptor 5-dependent and -independent pathways. Infect Immun. 2005;73:1523-31 pubmed
    ..Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR5 have been shown to recognize H...
  8. Klimosch S, Forsti A, Eckert J, Knezevic J, Bevier M, von Schönfels W, et al. Functional TLR5 genetic variants affect human colorectal cancer survival. Cancer Res. 2013;73:7232-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report frequent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the flagellin receptor TLR5 and the TLR downstream effector molecules MyD88 and TIRAP that are associated with altered survival in a large ..
  9. Bambou J, Giraud A, Menard S, Begue B, Rakotobe S, Heyman M, et al. In vitro and ex vivo activation of the TLR5 signaling pathway in intestinal epithelial cells by a commensal Escherichia coli strain. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:42984-92 pubmed
    ..MG1655 flagellin was necessary and sufficient to trigger this pro-inflammatory pathway via its interaction with TLR5 and the subsequent recruitment of the adaptor protein MyD88...

More Information

Publications107 found, 100 shown here

  1. Andersen Nissen E, Smith K, Strobe K, Barrett S, Cookson B, Logan S, et al. Evasion of Toll-like receptor 5 by flagellated bacteria. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:9247-52 pubmed
    Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) recognizes an evolutionarily conserved site on bacterial flagellin that is required for flagellar filament assembly and motility...
  2. Kim W, Lee J, Choi J, Choi C, Kim T, Kim B, et al. Increased expression of Toll-like receptor 5 during progression of cervical neoplasia. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2008;18:300-5 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to determine whether Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) expression was associated with disease progression in cervical neoplasia...
  3. Schmausser B, Andrulis M, Endrich S, Muller Hermelink H, Eck M. Toll-like receptors TLR4, TLR5 and TLR9 on gastric carcinoma cells: an implication for interaction with Helicobacter pylori. Int J Med Microbiol. 2005;295:179-85 pubmed
    ..pylori. In this study, TLR4, TLR5 and TLR9 expression was investigated on tumor cells of gastric carcinoma and on its precursor lesions, intestinal ..
  4. Song E, Kang M, Kim Y, Kim S, Lee S, Kim C, et al. Flagellin promotes the proliferation of gastric cancer cells via the Toll-like receptor 5. Int J Mol Med. 2011;28:115-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we examined the expression of TLR5 in gastric cancer cells and its function in cell proliferation...
  5. Kao Y, Ffrench R, Williams G. Polymorphism report: identification of two common single nucleotide polymorphisms in the human toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) gene. Mol Cell Probes. 2004;18:205 pubmed
  6. Hawn T, Wu H, Grossman J, Hahn B, Tsao B, Aderem A. A stop codon polymorphism of Toll-like receptor 5 is associated with resistance to systemic lupus erythematosus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:10593-7 pubmed
    ..Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5), the innate immune receptor for bacterial flagellin, maps to chromosome 1q41 and contains a common stop codon ..
  7. Tsao B, Cantor R, Kalunian K, Chen C, Badsha H, Singh R, et al. Evidence for linkage of a candidate chromosome 1 region to human systemic lupus erythematosus. J Clin Invest. 1997;99:725-31 pubmed
    ..01). We concluded that this candidate 1q41-q42 region probably contains a susceptibility gene(s) that confers risk for SLE in multiple ethnic groups. ..
  8. Gewirtz A, Vijay Kumar M, Brant S, Duerr R, Nicolae D, Cho J. Dominant-negative TLR5 polymorphism reduces adaptive immune response to flagellin and negatively associates with Crohn's disease. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2006;290:G1157-63 pubmed
    ..of immune responses to flagellin were regulated by the innate immune flagellin receptor toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) and determine whether persons carrying a recently defined common dominant-negative TLR5 polymorphism (TLR5-stop) ..
  9. Kollewe C, Mackensen A, Neumann D, Knop J, Cao P, Li S, et al. Sequential autophosphorylation steps in the interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-1 regulate its availability as an adapter in interleukin-1 signaling. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:5227-36 pubmed
    ..Thus, IRAK-1 regulates its own availability as an adapter molecule by sequential autophosphorylation. ..
  10. Merx S, Zimmer W, Neumaier M, Ahmad Nejad P. Characterization and functional investigation of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human TLR5 gene. Hum Mutat. 2006;27:293 pubmed
    Toll-like receptors recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and TLR5 is the pathogen recognition receptor (PRR) for bacterial flagellin...
  11. Crellin N, Garcia R, Hadisfar O, Allan S, Steiner T, Levings M. Human CD4+ T cells express TLR5 and its ligand flagellin enhances the suppressive capacity and expression of FOXP3 in CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells. J Immunol. 2005;175:8051-9 pubmed
    ..Given the key role of both CD4+CD25+ T regulatory (Treg) cells and the TLR5 ligand flagellin in regulating mucosal immune responses, we investigated whether TLR5 may directly influence T cell ..
  12. Pimentel Nunes P, Afonso L, Lopes P, Roncon Albuquerque R, Gonçalves N, Henrique R, et al. Increased expression of toll-like receptors (TLR) 2, 4 and 5 in gastric dysplasia. Pathol Oncol Res. 2011;17:677-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunohistochemistry for TLR2, 4 and 5 was performed with anti-TLR2-TLR4-TLR5 antibodies in 117 histological samples of normal gastric mucosa (n?=?22), HP+ gastritis (n?=?20), intestinal ..
  13. Park J, Yoon H, Jeon D, Ahn S, Yoon J. Activation of TLR2 and TLR5 did not affect tumor progression of an oral squamous cell carcinoma, YD-10B cells. J Oral Pathol Med. 2010;39:781-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicated that TLR activation by bacterial molecules may not affect tumor progression of YD-10B cells. ..
  14. Zeng H, Pan K, Zhang Y, Zhang L, Ma J, Zhou T, et al. Genetic variants of toll-like receptor 2 and 5, helicobacter pylori infection, and risk of gastric cancer and its precursors in a chinese population. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011;20:2594-602 pubmed publisher
    ..To screen the genetic variants of TLR2 and TLR5, and evaluate their associations with gastric cancer (GC) and its precursors, a population-based study was ..
  15. Montazeri M, Sanchez Lopez J, Caballero I, Maslehat Lay N, Elliott S, Fazeli A. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist mediates toll-like receptor 3-induced inhibition of trophoblast adhesion to endometrial cells in vitro. Hum Reprod. 2016;31:2098-107 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Only TLR3 and not TLR5 induced MAPK activation (P < 0.05). TLR3 ligation did not affect NF-κB activation...
  16. Gao Q, Yue Y, Min M, Peng S, Shi Z, Sheng W, et al. Characterization of TLR5 and TLR9 from silver pomfret (Pampus argenteus) and expression profiling in response to bacterial components. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2018;80:241-249 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings enhance our understanding of the function of TLRs in the innate immune system of silver pomfret and other teleosts. ..
  17. Kong Y, Kang Y, Tian J, Zhang D, Zhang L, Tao L, et al. Oral immunization with recombinant Lactobacillus casei expressing flaB confers protection against Aeromonas veronii challenge in common carp, Cyprinus carpio. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2019;87:627-637 pubmed publisher
    ..Bacterial flagellin can specifically bind to TLR5 and induce the release of cytokines from the organism, which could be used in the development of vaccines...
  18. Liu D, Chen J, Li S, Hu G. Molecular cloning and expression study on Toll-like receptor 5M in turbot, Scophthalmus maximus. Dev Comp Immunol. 2018;85:44-50 pubmed publisher
    Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) is responsible for the recognition of bacterial flagellin in mammals and play an important role in innate immunity...
  19. Song L, Xiong D, Kang X, Yang Y, Wang J, Guo Y, et al. An avian influenza A (H7N9) virus vaccine candidate based on the fusion protein of hemagglutinin globular head and Salmonella typhimurium flagellin. BMC Biotechnol. 2015;15:79 pubmed publisher
    ..that fused the globular head domain (HA1-2, aa 62-284) of the protective hemagglutinin (HA) antigen with the potent TLR5 ligand, Salmonella typhimurium flagellin (fliC)...
  20. Alvarez Carbonell D, Garcia Mesa Y, Milne S, Das B, Dobrowolski C, Rojas R, et al. Toll-like receptor 3 activation selectively reverses HIV latency in microglial cells. Retrovirology. 2017;14:9 pubmed publisher
    ..LPS (TLR4 agonist), flagellin (TLR5 agonist), and FSL-1 (TLR6 agonist) reactivated HIV to a lesser extent, while Pam3CSK4 (TLR2/1 agonist) and HKLM (..
  21. Lim R, Lappas M. A novel role for GSK3 in the regulation of the processes of human labour. Reproduction. 2015;149:189-202 pubmed publisher
    ..CHIR99021 also decreased FSL1 (TLR2 ligand) and flagellin (TLR5 ligand)-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression and release and COX2 mRNA expression and prostaglandin ..
  22. Nishi H, Maeda N, Izumi S, Higa Nakamine S, Toku S, Kakinohana M, et al. Differential regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor by hydrogen peroxide and flagellin in cultured lung alveolar epithelial cells. Eur J Pharmacol. 2015;748:133-42 pubmed publisher
    In previous studies, we found that stimulation of Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) by flagellin induced the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-activated protein kinase-2 (MAPKAPK-2) through activation of the p38 MAPK pathway ..
  23. Kaliamurthi S, Selvaraj G, Chinnasamy S, Wang Q, Nangraj A, Cho W, et al. Exploring the Papillomaviral Proteome to Identify Potential Candidates for a Chimeric Vaccine against Cervix Papilloma Using Immunomics and Computational Structural Vaccinology. Viruses. 2019;11: pubmed publisher
    ..Homology modeling and the structural refinement of the best models of SGD58 and TLR5 found 96.8% and 93.9% favored regions in Rampage, respectively...
  24. Linard C, Strup Perrot C, Lacave Lapalun J, Benderitter M. Flagellin preconditioning enhances the efficacy of mesenchymal stem cells in an irradiation-induced proctitis model. J Leukoc Biol. 2016;100:569-80 pubmed publisher
    ..This study sought to determine if flagellin, a TLR5 ligand, can enhance the mesenchymal stem cell treatment efficacy in radiation-induced proctitis...
  25. Lee L, Ji M, Sinha M, Dong M, Ren X, Wang Y, et al. Determinants of Divergent Adaptive Immune Responses after Airway Sensitization with Ligands of Toll-Like Receptor 5 or Toll-Like Receptor 9. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0167693 pubmed publisher
    ..We found the TLR5 ligand flagellin promoted a type 2 helper T cell response, whereas, a TLR9 ligand CpG oligodeoxyribonucleotide (ODN)..
  26. Dong C, Gao N, Ross B, Yu F. ISG15 in Host Defense Against Candida albicans Infection in a Mouse Model of Fungal Keratitis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:2948-2958 pubmed publisher
    ..Scarified corneas of adult B6 mice were pretreated with TLR5 ligand flagellin and then inoculated with C. albicans...
  27. Jayaramu P, Tripathi G, Pavan Kumar A, Keezhedath J, Pathan M, Kurcheti P. Studies on expression pattern of toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) in Edwardsiella tarda infected Pangasianodon hypophthalmus. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2017;63:68-73 pubmed publisher
    b>TLR5 is one of the important PRR (pathogen recognition receptors) and plays a fundamental role in pathogen recognition and activation of innate immune responses...
  28. Uenishi H, Shinkai H. Porcine Toll-like receptors: the front line of pathogen monitoring and possible implications for disease resistance. Dev Comp Immunol. 2009;33:353-61 pubmed publisher
    ..We summarize the current knowledge of TLR molecules in mammals and livestock (particularly pigs) and speculate on the relationship between SNPs in porcine TLRs and their application to vaccine design and disease-resistance breeding. ..
  29. Khan M, Steiner T, Sham H, Bergstrom K, Huang J, Assi K, et al. The single IgG IL-1-related receptor controls TLR responses in differentiated human intestinal epithelial cells. J Immunol. 2010;184:2305-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings show that Sigirr broadly regulates innate responses in differentiated human IECs; therefore, it may modulate epithelial involvement in infectious and inflammatory bowel diseases. ..
  30. Pekkala S, Munukka E, Kong L, Pöllänen E, Autio R, Roos C, et al. Toll-like receptor 5 in obesity: the role of gut microbiota and adipose tissue inflammation. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2015;23:581-90 pubmed publisher
    This study aimed at establishing bacterial flagellin-recognizing toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) as a novel link between gut microbiota composition, adipose tissue inflammation, and obesity...
  31. Kim J, Seo M, Kim S, Bae Y. Flagellin-induced NADPH oxidase 4 activation is involved in atherosclerosis. Sci Rep. 2016;6:25437 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that the activation of Nox4 through TLR5 regulates the inflammation of the endothelium and in atherogenesis...
  32. Viana S, Pita I, Lemos C, Rial D, Couceiro P, Rodrigues Santos P, et al. The effects of physical exercise on nonmotor symptoms and on neuroimmune RAGE network in experimental parkinsonism. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2017;123:161-171 pubmed publisher
    ..neuroimmune-related genes was observed in frontal cortex on chemical and physical stressors (untrained MPTP: RAGE, TLR5 and -7, and p22 NADPH oxidase; saline-trained animals: RAGE, TLR1 and -5 to -11, TNF-α, IL-1β, and p22 NADPH ..
  33. Qi D, Xia M, Chao Y, Zhao Y, Wu R. Identification, molecular evolution of toll-like receptors in a Tibetan schizothoracine fish (Gymnocypris eckloni) and their expression profiles in response to acute hypoxia. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2017;68:102-113 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the transcriptome, a total of 18 TLRs were identified in G. eckloni, and of them three TLRs (TLR5, TLR8 and TLR22) possessed two distinct paralogous genes...
  34. Xu C, Qiao Y, Zhang D. [Expression of Toll-like receptors in human hepatocellular carcinoma and its correlation with inflammasome-associated cytokines]. Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2017;33:1182-1186 pubmed
    ..Results Compared with normal tissues, TLRs expression in cancer tissues was down-regulated except for TLR5, TLR7 and TLR9; the expression level of TLRs was not associated with patients' TNM stages or prognosis...
  35. Hancz D, Szabo A, Molnar T, Varga Z, Hancz A, Gregus A, et al. Flagellin increases death receptor-mediated cell death in a RIP1-dependent manner. Immunol Lett. 2018;193:42-50 pubmed publisher
    ..or TNF-?, and concomitantly increases the cytotoxic potential of phytohemagglutinin activated T-lymphocytes in a TLR5 dependent way...
  36. Olguín Y, Carrascosa L, Lechuga L, Young M. The effects of lipids and surfactants on TLR5-proteoliposome functionality for flagellin detection using surface plasmon resonance biosensing. Talanta. 2014;126:136-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Previously, we demonstrated the functionality of TLR5-proteoliposomes as screening affinity elements of bacterial flagellin...
  37. Barthel C, Spalinger M, Brunner J, Lang S, Fried M, Rogler G, et al. A distinct pattern of disease-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms in IBD risk genes in a family with Crohn's disease. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014;26:803-6 pubmed publisher
    ..for risk variants of the genes encoding nucleotide oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) and Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) and a homozygous carrier of both of the identified protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor type 2 (PTPN2) risk ..
  38. Lim J, Nguyen K, Nguyen C, Jang I, Han J, Fabian C, et al. Flagellin-dependent TLR5/caveolin-1 as a promising immune activator in immunosenescence. Aging Cell. 2015;14:907-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we found that the expression and signaling of flagellin (FlaB)-dependent Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5), unlike the other TLRs, were well maintained in old macrophages, similar to young macrophages...
  39. Lin M, de Zoete M, van Putten J, Strijbis K. Redirection of Epithelial Immune Responses by Short-Chain Fatty Acids through Inhibition of Histone Deacetylases. Front Immunol. 2015;6:554 pubmed publisher
    ..cells with the SCFAs butyrate or propionate at physiological concentrations enhanced NF-κB activation induced by TLR5, TLR2/1, TLR4, and TLR9 agonists...
  40. Malash A, Ali A, Samy R, Shamma R. Association of TLR polymorphisms with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Gene. 2016;592:23-28 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aimed to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TLR pathway genes [TLR5 and Toll-interleukin 1 receptor domain-containing adaptor protein (TIRAP)] among preterm neonates and to determine ..
  41. Yokoyama N, Ohta H, Kagawa Y, Nagata N, Nisa K, Morita T, et al. Stimulation of colorectal biopsies from miniature dachshunds with inflammatory colorectal polyps with toll-like receptor ligands: A pilot study. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2017;188:78-83 pubmed publisher
    ..In this pilot study, we investigated the effects of different Toll like receptor (TLR2, TLR4, TLR5 and TLR9) ligands on pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-?) gene expression in ex vivo-cultured ..
  42. Jouhi L, Mohamed H, Mäkitie A, Remes S, Haglund C, Atula T, et al. Toll-like receptor 5 and 7 expression may impact prognosis of HPV-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma patients. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2017;66:1619-1629 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that TLR 5 and 7 may have a role in the prognostication of HPV-positive OPSCC, however, further studies are needed to clarify the comprehensive role of these TLRs in OPSCC. ..
  43. Negahdaripour M, Nezafat N, Eslami M, Ghoshoon M, Shoolian E, Najafipour S, et al. Structural vaccinology considerations for in silico designing of a multi-epitope vaccine. Infect Genet Evol. 2018;58:96-109 pubmed publisher
    ..from the minor protein of virus capsid (L2) of HPV16, two TLR agonists as adjuvants (flagellin and RS09, as TLR5 and TLR4 agonists, respectively), and two universal T-helper epitopes...
  44. Vaezirad M, Koene M, Wagenaar J, van Putten J. Chicken immune response following in ovo delivery of bacterial flagellin. Vaccine. 2018;36:2139-2146 pubmed publisher 19-day old embryos revealed gene transcripts in intestinal and spleen tissue for most chicken TLRs, including TLR5 which recognizes Salmonella flagellin (FliC)...
  45. Mizel S, Snipes J. Gram-negative flagellin-induced self-tolerance is associated with a block in interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase release from toll-like receptor 5. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:22414-20 pubmed
    ..Flagellin-induced self-tolerance is not the result of a decrease in the steady-state level of toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) or interleukin-1 receptor associated kinase (IRAK), but it is associated with a block in the release of IRAK from ..
  46. Le T, Takai T, Vu A, Kinoshita H, Chen X, Ikeda S, et al. Flagellin induces the expression of thymic stromal lymphopoietin in human keratinocytes via toll-like receptor 5. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2011;155:31-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of TLR5 expression suppressed the flagellin-induced TSLP gene expression...
  47. Wang R, Ahmed J, Wang G, Hassan I, Strulovici Barel Y, Salit J, et al. Airway epithelial expression of TLR5 is downregulated in healthy smokers and smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J Immunol. 2012;189:2217-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared with nonsmokers, the most striking change was for TLR5, which was downregulated in healthy smokers (1.4-fold, p < 10?¹?) and smokers with COPD (1...
  48. Porte R, Fougeron D, Muñoz Wolf N, Tabareau J, Georgel A, Wallet F, et al. A Toll-Like Receptor 5 Agonist Improves the Efficacy of Antibiotics in Treatment of Primary and Influenza Virus-Associated Pneumococcal Mouse Infections. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015;59:6064-72 pubmed publisher
    Prophylactic intranasal administration of the Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) agonist flagellin protects mice against respiratory pathogenic bacteria...
  49. Shi T, Li L, Zhou G, Wang C, Chen X, Zhang R, et al. Toll-like receptor 5 agonist CBLB502 induces radioprotective effects in vitro. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2017;49:487-495 pubmed publisher
    CBLB502 derived from Salmonella flagellin is a novel agonist of Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5)...
  50. Nieters A, Beckmann L, Deeg E, Becker N. Gene polymorphisms in Toll-like receptors, interleukin-10, and interleukin-10 receptor alpha and lymphoma risk. Genes Immun. 2006;7:615-24 pubmed
    ..76, 95% CI=1.12-6.81) and HL (OR=1.80, 95% CI=0.99-3.26). In conclusion, this study suggests an effect of polymorphisms in factors of the innate immune response in the aetiology of some lymphoma subtypes. ..
  51. Ivison S, Khan M, Graham N, Shobab L, Yao Y, Kifayet A, et al. The p110? and p110? isoforms of class I phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase are involved in toll-like receptor 5 signaling in epithelial cells. Mediators Inflamm. 2010;2010: pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that the p110? and ? isoforms of class IA PI3K are both required for the proinflammatory response to flagellin. ..
  52. Shikhagaie M, Andersson C, Mori M, Kortekaas Krohn I, Bergqvist A, Dahl R, et al. Mapping of TLR5 and TLR7 in central and distal human airways and identification of reduced TLR expression in severe asthma. Clin Exp Allergy. 2014;44:184-96 pubmed publisher
    The toll-like receptors, TLR5 and TLR7, have recently been proposed in asthma immunopathogenesis. While supporting data come from animal or in vitro studies, little is known about TLR5 and TLR7 expression in human asthmatic airways...
  53. Brackett C, Kojouharov B, Veith J, Greene K, Burdelya L, Gollnick S, et al. Toll-like receptor-5 agonist, entolimod, suppresses metastasis and induces immunity by stimulating an NK-dendritic-CD8+ T-cell axis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:E874-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) agonists are favorably positioned as potential systemic immunotherapeutic agents because of unusual tissue ..
  54. Rademacher F, Simanski M, Schröder L, Mildner M, Harder J. The role of RNase 7 in innate cutaneous defense against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Exp Dermatol. 2017;26:227-233 pubmed publisher
    ..aeruginosa. Blockade of Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5), a pattern recognition receptor (PRR) known to be activated by P. aeruginosa, only moderately reduced the P...
  55. Keri S, Szabo C, Kelemen O. Antipsychotics influence Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression and its relationship with cognitive functions in schizophrenia. Brain Behav Immun. 2017;62:256-264 pubmed publisher
    ..healthy control individuals, drug-naïve patients with schizophrenia exhibited an increased percentage of TLR4+ and TLR5+ monocytes and TLR5+ Treg/Tact cells...
  56. Ken C, Chen C, Ting C, Pan C, Chen J. Transcriptome analysis of hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) with Streptococcus agalactiae infection identifies Toll-like receptor pathway-mediated induction of NADPH oxidase complex and piscidins as primary immune-related responses. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2017;70:106-120 pubmed publisher
    ..for several of the identified transcripts including tilapia piscidin 3 (TP3), tilapia piscidin 4 (TP4), TLR2, TLR5, MyD88, TRAF6, p38, and interleukin components was performed by qRT-PCR...
  57. Ahmad Nejad P, Denz C, Zimmer W, Wacker J, Bugert P, Weiss C, et al. The presence of functionally relevant toll-like receptor polymorphisms does not significantly correlate with development or outcome of sepsis. Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2011;15:645-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Future SNP-arrays investigating predisposition for infection should include this SNP alone or in combination with other functionally relevant SNPs. ..
  58. Zhang W, Hartmann R, Tun H, Elson C, Khafipour E, Garvey W. Deletion of the Toll-Like Receptor 5 Gene Per Se Does Not Determine the Gut Microbiome Profile That Induces Metabolic Syndrome: Environment Trumps Genotype. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0150943 pubmed publisher
    ..A previous study found that TLR5 deficient mice (TLR5KO1) had altered gut microbial composition which led to the development of metabolic syndrome ..
  59. Thakur B, Dasgupta N, Ta A, Das S. Physiological TLR5 expression in the intestine is regulated by differential DNA binding of Sp1/Sp3 through simultaneous Sp1 dephosphorylation and Sp3 phosphorylation by two different PKC isoforms. Nucleic Acids Res. 2016;44:5658-72 pubmed publisher
    Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) expression in the intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) is critical to maintain health, as underscored by multiple intestinal and extra-intestinal diseases in mice genetically engineered for IEC-specific TLR5 ..
  60. Won G, Lee J. Antigenic and functional profiles of a Lawsonia intracellularis protein that shows a flagellin-like trait and its immuno-stimulatory assessment. Vet Res. 2018;49:17 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, TLR5-stimulating activity and IL-8 cytokine expression produced via downstream signaling were observed in HEK-Blue™-..
  61. Andersen Nissen E, Smith K, Bonneau R, Strong R, Aderem A. A conserved surface on Toll-like receptor 5 recognizes bacterial flagellin. J Exp Med. 2007;204:393-403 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that mouse and human TLR5 discriminate between different flagellins, and we use this difference to map the flagellin recognition site on TLR5 ..
  62. Muñoz Wolf N, Rial A, Fougeron D, Tabareau J, Sirard J, Chabalgoity J. Sublingual flagellin protects against acute pneumococcal pneumonia in a TLR5-dependent and NLRC4-independent fashion. Future Microbiol. 2016;11:1167-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Flagellins lacking TLR5 or NLRC4 activation domains were used to assess their contribution to protection...
  63. Wlasiuk G, Khan S, Switzer W, Nachman M. A history of recurrent positive selection at the toll-like receptor 5 in primates. Mol Biol Evol. 2009;26:937-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5), a member of the Toll-like receptor family of innate immunity genes that responds to bacterial flagellin, has ..
  64. Kauppila J, Mattila A, Karttunen T, Salo T. Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) expression is a novel predictive marker for recurrence and survival in squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. Br J Cancer. 2013;108:638-43 pubmed publisher
    Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) is an immune receptor recognising bacterial flagellin. Activation of TLR5 results in cancer invasion and cytokine release...
  65. Hiromura M, Nohtomi K, Mori Y, Kataoka H, Sugano M, Ohnuma K, et al. Caveolin-1, a binding protein of CD26, is essential for the anti-inflammatory effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors on human and mouse macrophages. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;495:223-229 pubmed publisher
    ..Teneligliptin treatment specifically inhibited TLR4 and TLR5 agonist-mediated inflammatory responses, and suppressed LPS-induced phosphorylation of IL-1 receptor-associated ..
  66. Zhang F, Gao X, Wu W, Gao Y, Zhang Y, Wang S. Polymorphisms in toll-like receptors 2, 4 and 5 are associated with Legionella pneumophila infection. Infection. 2013;41:941-8 pubmed publisher
    ..healthy subjects were genotyped for SNPs (TLR2 (C597T) [rs3804099], TLR4 (G2244A), TLR4 (A2299G) [AF177765] and TLR5 (C1174T) [rs5744168])...
  67. Kato K, Lillehoj E, Kim K. Pseudomonas aeruginosa stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation of and TLR5 association with the MUC1 cytoplasmic tail through EGFR activation. Inflamm Res. 2016;65:225-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we elucidate the mechanism through which the MUC1 cytoplasmic tail (CT) inhibits TLR5 signaling in response to Pa and its flagellin in primary normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells...
  68. Dlugosz A, Zakikhany K, Acevedo N, D Amato M, Lindberg G. Increased Expression of Toll-Like Receptors 4, 5, and 9 in Small Bowel Mucosa from Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:9624702 pubmed publisher
    ..syndrome (IBS) and healthy controls regarding the expression of toll-like receptors 2, 4, 5, and 9 (TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, and TLR9), the primary mucosal receptors of bacterial components, in small and large bowel mucosa. Methods...
  69. Metruccio M, Tam C, Evans D, Xie A, Stern M, Fleiszig S. Contributions of MyD88-dependent receptors and CD11c-positive cells to corneal epithelial barrier function against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Sci Rep. 2017;7:13829 pubmed publisher
    ..Uninjured IL-1R (-/-) or TLR4 (-/-) corneas, but not TLR2 (-/-), TLR5 (-/-), TLR7 (-/-), or TLR9 (-/-), were more susceptible to P. aeruginosa adhesion than wild-type (3.8-fold, 3...
  70. Scharf S, Hippenstiel S, Flieger A, Suttorp N, N Guessan P. Induction of human ?-defensin-2 in pulmonary epithelial cells by Legionella pneumophila: involvement of TLR2 and TLR5, p38 MAPK, JNK, NF-?B, and AP-1. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2010;298:L687-95 pubmed publisher
    ..pneumophila markedly increased hBD-2 production, and the response was attenuated in Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR5 transient knockdown cells...
  71. Paredes Juarez G, de Haan B, Faas M, De Vos P. A Technology Platform to Test the Efficacy of Purification of Alginate. Materials (Basel). 2014;7:2087-2103 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that this alginate was immunostimulatory, even after purification due to reintroduction of the TLR5 activating flagellin. In addition, we tested two commercially available purified alginates...
  72. Shai R, Quismorio F, Li L, Kwon O, Morrison J, Wallace D, et al. Genome-wide screen for systemic lupus erythematosus susceptibility genes in multiplex families. Hum Mol Genet. 1999;8:639-44 pubmed
  73. Fenhalls G, Squires G, Stevens Muller L, Bezuidenhout J, Amphlett G, Duncan K, et al. Associations between toll-like receptors and interleukin-4 in the lungs of patients with tuberculosis. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2003;29:28-38 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, TLRs are expressed by various cell types in the human tuberculous lung, and their expression patterns are reflected by differences in the immune response...
  74. Yanai S, Tokuhara D, Tachibana D, Saito M, Sakashita Y, Shintaku H, et al. Diabetic pregnancy activates the innate immune response through TLR5 or TLR1/2 on neonatal monocyte. J Reprod Immunol. 2016;117:17-23 pubmed publisher
    ..After monocytes were cultured with lipopolysaccharide (TLR4 ligand), flagellin (TLR5 ligand), Pam3CSK4 (TLR1/TLR2 ligand), zymosan (TLR2/TLR6 ligand), or macrophage-activating lipopeptide (TLR2/TLR6 ..
  75. Kim S, Chen Z, Chamberlain N, Volin M, Swedler W, Volkov S, et al. Angiogenesis in rheumatoid arthritis is fostered directly by toll-like receptor 5 ligation and indirectly through interleukin-17 induction. Arthritis Rheum. 2013;65:2024-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data demonstrate a novel role for TLR-5 in RA angiogenesis; thus, TLR-5 may be a promising new target for RA treatment. ..
  76. Almasi S, Aslani S, Poormoghim H, Jamshidi A, Poursani S, Mahmoudi M. Gene Expression Profiling of Toll-Like Receptor 4 and 5 in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in Rheumatic Disorders: Ankylosing Spondylitis and Rheumatoid Arthritis. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2016;15:87-92 pubmed
    ..No Abstract. ..
  77. Vijayan A, Rumbo M, Carnoy C, Sirard J. Compartmentalized Antimicrobial Defenses in Response to Flagellin. Trends Microbiol. 2018;26:423-435 pubmed publisher
    ..Besides motility, the structural component, flagellin, which forms the flagella, targets Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) to activate innate immunity...
  78. Zhu L, Zou L, Hua R, Li B. Association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in toll-like receptor 5 gene with rheumatic heart disease in Chinese Han population. Int J Cardiol. 2010;145:129-30 pubmed publisher
    ..was carried out to investigate the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) gene and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) among the Chinese Han population...
  79. Zhou H, Luo M, Wen Y, Ma A, Luo Y, Yi Q, et al. [Expression of TLR5 in different types of non-small cell lung cancer cell lines and its activation mechanism]. Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi. 2015;18:8-15 pubmed publisher
    It has been proven that toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) plaied an important role in the development of tumor...
  80. Zhou H, Chen J, Hu J, Luo Y, Li F, Xiao L, et al. High expression of Toll-like receptor 5 correlates with better prognosis in non-small-cell lung cancer: an anti-tumor effect of TLR5 signaling in non-small cell lung cancer. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2014;140:633-43 pubmed publisher
    Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) is a pattern recognition receptor and plays key roles in inflammatory responses against pathogen infection...
  81. Pfirschke C, Garris C, Pittet M. Common TLR5 mutations control cancer progression. Cancer Cell. 2015;27:1-3 pubmed publisher
    ..In this issue of Cancer Cell, Rutkowski and colleagues indicate that TLR5 signaling deficiency, which occurs in ∼10% of the population, changes interactions with commensal microbiota ..
  82. Yang J, Sun Y, Bao R, Zhou D, Yang Y, Cao Y, et al. Second-generation Flagellin-rPAc Fusion Protein, KFD2-rPAc, Shows High Protective Efficacy against Dental Caries with Low Potential Side Effects. Sci Rep. 2017;7:11191 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared with KF-rPAc, KFD2-rPAc has lower TLR5 agonist efficacy and induces fewer systemic inflammatory responses in mice...
  83. Kato K, Lillehoj E, Lu W, Kim K. MUC1: The First Respiratory Mucin with an Anti-Inflammatory Function. J Clin Med. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
    ..MUC1 expression was initially shown to interfere with TLR5 signaling in response to P. aeruginosa flagellin, but has since been extended to other TLRs...
  84. Magalhães D, Soares da Silva P, Magro F. The effect of PRR ligands on the membrane potential of intestinal epithelial cells. Pharmacol Rep. 2017;69:978-984 pubmed publisher
    ..KC modulators employed were BaCl2, pinacidil, noxiustoxin and AMP-PNP. Activation of NOD2, TLR5, TLR7 and TLR9 hyperpolarized the membrane (at 103ng/ml, the normalized AUC of the fluorescence ..
  85. Mvubu N, Pillay B, McKinnon L, Pillay M. Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains induce strain-specific cytokine and chemokine response in pulmonary epithelial cells. Cytokine. 2018;104:53-64 pubmed publisher
    ..All strains induced up-regulation of pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) (TLR3 and TLR5) while only the F15/LAM4/KZN, F11 and F28 strains induced significant differential expression of TLR2 compared to ..
  86. Im E, Jung J, Rhee S. Toll-like receptor 5 engagement induces interleukin-17C expression in intestinal epithelial cells. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2012;32:583-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Since inhibited in TLR5-, or MyD88- or TRIF-silenced cells, flagellin-induced IL-17C expression was specifically mediated by TLR5 and, ..
  87. Beaudoin T, Lafayette S, Nguyen D, Rousseau S. Mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa caused by mucA mutations result in activation of TLR2 in addition to TLR5 in airway epithelial cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;428:150-4 pubmed publisher
    ..However, while the non-mucoid strain PAO1 activates p38? MAPK pathway solely via TLR5, the mucoid strain PACF508 activates p38? MAPK via both TLR5 and TLR2...
  88. Zhang C, Wu X, Zhao Y, Deng Z, Qian G. SIGIRR inhibits toll-like receptor 4, 5, 9-mediated immune responses in human airway epithelial cells. Mol Biol Rep. 2011;38:601-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, SIGIRR can inhibit TLR4, 5, and 9-mediated immune responses in HAEC and may be a valuable therapeutic target for the prevention of ALI/ARDS. ..
  89. Ji L, Shi J, Lu J, Huang Q. MiR-150 alleviates neuropathic pain via inhibiting toll-like receptor 5. J Cell Biochem. 2018;119:1017-1026 pubmed publisher
    ..By bioinformatic analysis, 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of Toll-like receptor (TLR5) was predicted to be a target of miR-150. TLR5 commonly serves as an important regulator of inflammation...
  90. Donnelly M, Steiner T. Two nonadjacent regions in enteroaggregative Escherichia coli flagellin are required for activation of toll-like receptor 5. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:40456-61 pubmed
    ..In several different human epithelial cell lines, this innate immune response involves toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5)...
  91. de Zoete M, Keestra A, Wagenaar J, van Putten J. Reconstitution of a functional Toll-like receptor 5 binding site in Campylobacter jejuni flagellin. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:12149-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Flagellins from most species activate Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5)...
  92. Shuang C, Weiguang Y, Zhenkun F, Yike H, Jiankun Y, Jing X, et al. Toll-like receptor 5 gene polymorphism is associated with breast cancer susceptibility. Oncotarget. 2017;8:88622-88629 pubmed publisher
    Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) plays a fundamental role in immune responses. Recent findings suggest the TLR5 expression level affects cancer progression and development...