TLR2

Summary

Gene Symbol: TLR2
Description: toll like receptor 2
Alias: CD282, TIL4, toll-like receptor 2, toll/interleukin-1 receptor-like protein 4
Species: human
Products:     TLR2

Top Publications

  1. Thoma Uszynski S, Stenger S, Takeuchi O, Ochoa M, Engele M, Sieling P, et al. Induction of direct antimicrobial activity through mammalian toll-like receptors. Science. 2001;291:1544-7 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that TLR2 activation leads to killing of intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis in both mouse and human macrophages, ..
  2. Maitra R, Clement C, Scharf B, Crisi G, Chitta S, Paget D, et al. Endosomal damage and TLR2 mediated inflammasome activation by alkane particles in the generation of aseptic osteolysis. Mol Immunol. 2009;47:175-84 pubmed publisher
    ..These two processes synergistically results in the initiation of a strong inflammatory response with consequent cellular necrosis and extracellular matrix degradation. ..
  3. Balistreri C, Caruso C, Carruba G, Miceli V, Campisi I, Listi F, et al. A pilot study on prostate cancer risk and pro-inflammatory genotypes: pathophysiology and therapeutic implications. Curr Pharm Des. 2010;16:718-24 pubmed
    ..prevention and treatment of PC, we have investigated the potential role of common SNPs of a gene cluster (TLR4, TLR2, PTGS2 and 5-Lo), involved in innate and inflammatory response, in PC cases, age-matched controls and centenarians ..
  4. Theodoropoulos G, Saridakis V, Karantanos T, Michalopoulos N, Zagouri F, Kontogianni P, et al. Toll-like receptors gene polymorphisms may confer increased susceptibility to breast cancer development. Breast. 2012;21:534-8 pubmed publisher
    Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation may be an important event in tumor cell immune evasion. TLR2 and TLR4 gene polymorphisms have been related to increased susceptibility to cancer development in various organs...
  5. Tye H, Kennedy C, Najdovska M, McLeod L, MCCORMACK W, Hughes N, et al. STAT3-driven upregulation of TLR2 promotes gastric tumorigenesis independent of tumor inflammation. Cancer Cell. 2012;22:466-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic and therapeutic targeting of TLR2 inhibited gastric tumorigenesis, but not inflammation, characterized by reduced proliferation and increased ..
  6. Arji N, Busson M, Iraqi G, Bourkadi J, Benjouad A, Bouayad A, et al. Genetic diversity of TLR2, TLR4, and VDR loci and pulmonary tuberculosis in Moroccan patients. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2014;8:430-40 pubmed publisher
    ..b>TLR2, TLR4, and VDR polymorphisms were previously associated with tuberculosis (TB) and were here investigated as ..
  7. de Oliveira J, Silva A. Polymorphisms of the TLR2 and TLR4 genes are associated with risk of gastric cancer in a Brazilian population. World J Gastroenterol. 2012;18:1235-42 pubmed publisher
    To investigate toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) -196 to -174 del, and TLR4 (+896A/G rs4986790 and +1196C/T rs4986791) polymorphisms at risk of chronic gastritis and gastric cancer in a Brazilian population and association of gastric lesions ..
  8. Ding J, Chang T. TLR2 activation enhances HIV nuclear import and infection through T cell activation-independent and -dependent pathways. J Immunol. 2012;188:992-1001 pubmed publisher
    b>TLR2 activation plays a crucial role in Neisseria gonorrheae-mediated enhancement of HIV infection of resting CD4(+) T cells. We examined signaling pathways involved in the HIV enhancing effect of TLR2...
  9. Kang S, Abdel Massih R, Brown R, Dierkhising R, Kremers W, Razonable R. Homozygosity for the toll-like receptor 2 R753Q single-nucleotide polymorphism is a risk factor for cytomegalovirus disease after liver transplantation. J Infect Dis. 2012;205:639-46 pubmed publisher
    Immunity against cytomegalovirus (CMV) is initiated after its recognition by Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)...

More Information

Publications108 found, 100 shown here

  1. Xiong Y, Song C, Snyder G, Sundberg E, Medvedev A. R753Q polymorphism inhibits Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 tyrosine phosphorylation, dimerization with TLR6, and recruitment of myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:38327-37 pubmed publisher
    The R753Q polymorphism in the Toll-IL-1 receptor domain of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) has been linked to increased incidence of tuberculosis and other infectious diseases, but the mechanisms by which it affects TLR2 functions are unclear...
  2. Ranoa D, Kelley S, Tapping R. Human lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) and CD14 independently deliver triacylated lipoproteins to Toll-like receptor 1 (TLR1) and TLR2 and enhance formation of the ternary signaling complex. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:9729-41 pubmed publisher
    Bacterial lipoproteins are the most potent microbial agonists for the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) subfamily, and this pattern recognition event induces cellular activation, leading to host immune responses...
  3. Zhang W, Wang L, Yu J, Chi Z, Tan L. Increased expressions of TLR2 and TLR4 on peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with Alzheimer's disease. J Neurol Sci. 2012;315:67-71 pubmed publisher
    Toll-like receptors 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 are involved in the microglia-mediated inflammatory response, A? plaque formation and A? clearance in Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
  4. Shi B, Huang Q, Tak P, Vervoordeldonk M, Huang C, Dorfleutner A, et al. SNAPIN: an endogenous Toll-like receptor ligand in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2012;71:1411-7 pubmed publisher
    ..TLR ligands expressed in RA synovial tissue (ST) based on their ability to bind the extracellular domains of TLR2 or TLR4...
  5. Sen J, Liu X, Roller R, Knipe D. Herpes simplex virus US3 tegument protein inhibits Toll-like receptor 2 signaling at or before TRAF6 ubiquitination. Virology. 2013;439:65-73 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the US3 protein is required for inhibition of TLR2 signaling induced by viral infection and that this inhibition occurs at very early times post-infection...
  6. Lin M, Yiu W, Wu H, Chan L, Leung J, Au W, et al. Toll-like receptor 4 promotes tubular inflammation in diabetic nephropathy. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012;23:86-102 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we found increased expression of TLR4 but not of TLR2 in the renal tubules of human kidneys with diabetic nephropathy compared with expression of TLR4 and TLR2 in normal ..
  7. Philippe L, Alsaleh G, Suffert G, Meyer A, Georgel P, Sibilia J, et al. TLR2 expression is regulated by microRNA miR-19 in rheumatoid fibroblast-like synoviocytes. J Immunol. 2012;188:454-61 pubmed publisher
    ..RA FLS express a large number of TLR, and TLR2 was demonstrated to be involved in RA inflammation...
  8. Oliveira J, Hamdani N, Busson M, Etain B, Bennabi M, Amokrane K, et al. Association between toll-like receptor 2 gene diversity and early-onset bipolar disorder. J Affect Disord. 2014;165:135-41 pubmed publisher
    Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) molecules play a pivotal role in innate immune responses by their ability to recognize and sense a wide repertoire of infectious and endogenous cellular structural elements...
  9. Sanchez D, Lefebvre C, Rioux J, Garcia L, Barrera L. Evaluation of Toll-like receptor and adaptor molecule polymorphisms for susceptibility to tuberculosis in a Colombian population. Int J Immunogenet. 2012;39:216-23 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we did not find an association with TLR2, TLR4, TLR9, MyD88 or MAL/TIRAP polymorphic variants...
  10. Zhang F, Gao X, Wu W, Gao Y, Zhang Y, Wang S. Polymorphisms in toll-like receptors 2, 4 and 5 are associated with Legionella pneumophila infection. Infection. 2013;41:941-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Fifty-four (n = 54) healthy subjects were genotyped for SNPs (TLR2 (C597T) [rs3804099], TLR4 (G2244A), TLR4 (A2299G) [AF177765] and TLR5 (C1174T) [rs5744168])...
  11. Kang W, Park J, Lee S, Kim S, Park H, Kim J. Association between genetic polymorphisms of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and schizophrenia in the Korean population. Gene. 2013;526:182-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) plays an important role in innate immunity by sensing a variety of pathogens and inducing an acquired immunity...
  12. Liu S, Liu Y, Hao W, Wolf L, Kiliaan A, Penke B, et al. TLR2 is a primary receptor for Alzheimer's amyloid ? peptide to trigger neuroinflammatory activation. J Immunol. 2012;188:1098-107 pubmed publisher
    ..resonance spectroscopy and conventional biochemical pull-down assays to demonstrate a direct interaction between TLR2 and the aggregated 42-aa form of human A? (A?42)...
  13. Hussein Y, Awad H, Shalaby S, Ali A, Alzahrani S. Toll-like receptor 2 and Toll-like receptor 4 polymorphisms and susceptibility to asthma and allergic rhinitis: a case-control analysis. Cell Immunol. 2012;274:34-8 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the study was to investigate whether polymorphisms in genes encoding Toll-like receptors (TLR2 and TLR4) may modify relative risk for development of asthma or allergic rhinitis...
  14. Mandal R, George G, Mittal R. Association of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, 3 and 9 genes polymorphism with prostate cancer risk in North Indian population. Mol Biol Rep. 2012;39:7263-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We performed case control study to analyze the genetic variants of TLR2, 3 and 9 gene polymorphisms with PCa risk in a North Indian population...
  15. Leoni V, Gianni T, Salvioli S, Campadelli Fiume G. Herpes simplex virus glycoproteins gH/gL and gB bind Toll-like receptor 2, and soluble gH/gL is sufficient to activate NF-?B. J Virol. 2012;86:6555-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The first line of defense at the cell surface is TLR2 (Toll-like receptor 2), whose signature signaling activity leads to activation of the key transcription factor NF-?..
  16. de Oliveira L, Peresi E, Golim M, Gatto M, Araújo Júnior J, da Costa E, et al. Analysis of Toll-like receptors, iNOS and cytokine profiles in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis during anti-tuberculosis treatment. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e88572 pubmed publisher
    ..Our objective was to evaluate the mRNA and cell surface expression of TLR2 and TLR4; inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression; and cytokine Th1, Th2 and Th17 profiles in pulmonary ..
  17. Kim C, Ho D, Suk J, You S, Michael S, Kang J, et al. Neuron-released oligomeric ?-synuclein is an endogenous agonist of TLR2 for paracrine activation of microglia. Nat Commun. 2013;4:1562 pubmed publisher
    ..show that extracellular ?-synuclein released from neuronal cells is an endogenous agonist for Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), which activates inflammatory responses in microglia...
  18. Pimentel Nunes P, Teixeira A, Pereira C, Gomes M, Brandão C, Rodrigues C, et al. Functional polymorphisms of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 alter the risk for colorectal carcinoma in Europeans. Dig Liver Dis. 2013;45:63-9 pubmed publisher
    ..DNA samples were extracted from blood cells and genotyping of TLR2+597T>C, TLR2-4760T>C, TLR4-3745A>G, TLR2Arg753Gln, TLR4Asp299Gly was performed...
  19. Fang J, Hu R, Hou S, Ye Z, Xiang Q, Qi J, et al. Association of TLR2 gene polymorphisms with ocular Behcet's disease in a Chinese Han population. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54:8384-92 pubmed publisher
    b>TLR2, TLR4, TLR8, and TLR9 have been reported to be associated with several autoimmune diseases...
  20. Džumhur A, Zibar L, Wagner J, Simundić T, Dembic Z, Barbic J. Association studies of gene polymorphisms in toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in Croatian patients with acute myocardial infarction. Scand J Immunol. 2012;75:517-23 pubmed publisher
    ..of the study was to assess the frequency of SNP896A/G in the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 gene and SNP1350T/C in the TLR2 gene in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and to analyse the association of these SNPs with risk ..
  21. Castano Rodriguez N, Kaakoush N, Goh K, Fock K, Mitchell H. The role of TLR2, TLR4 and CD14 genetic polymorphisms in gastric carcinogenesis: a case-control study and meta-analysis. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e60327 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the overall aim of this study was to estimate for the first time the pooled effect size of polymorphisms in TLR2, TLR4 and CD14 on GC development through a meta-analysis...
  22. Takeuchi O, Sato S, Horiuchi T, Hoshino K, Takeda K, Dong Z, et al. Cutting edge: role of Toll-like receptor 1 in mediating immune response to microbial lipoproteins. J Immunol. 2002;169:10-4 pubmed
    ..b>TLR2 is essential for the signaling of a variety of PAMPs, including bacterial lipoprotein/lipopeptides, peptidoglycan, ..
  23. Etokebe G, Knezevic J, Petricevic B, Pavelic J, Vrbanec D, Dembic Z. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in genes encoding toll-like receptor -2, -3, -4, and -9 in case-control study with breast cancer. Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2009;13:729-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The SNPs comprised TLR2 (c.597T>C), TLR2 (c.1350T>C), TLR3 (c.1377C>T), TLR4 (c.896A>G), and TLR9 (c.1635A>G)...
  24. Verstak B, Nagpal K, Bottomley S, Golenbock D, Hertzog P, Mansell A. MyD88 adapter-like (Mal)/TIRAP interaction with TRAF6 is critical for TLR2- and TLR4-mediated NF-kappaB proinflammatory responses. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:24192-203 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that Mal and TRAF6 directly interact in response to TLR2 and TLR4 stimulation, although membrane localization is not necessary to facilitate interaction...
  25. Huang L, Aliberti J, Leifer C, Segal D, Sher A, Golenbock D, et al. Heat-killed Brucella abortus induces TNF and IL-12p40 by distinct MyD88-dependent pathways: TNF, unlike IL-12p40 secretion, is Toll-like receptor 2 dependent. J Immunol. 2003;171:1441-6 pubmed
    ..To identify the TLR involved in HKBA recognition, we examined HKBA responses in TLR2- and TLR4-deficient animals...
  26. Ogus A, Yoldas B, Ozdemir T, Uguz A, Olcen S, Keser I, et al. The Arg753GLn polymorphism of the human toll-like receptor 2 gene in tuberculosis disease. Eur Respir J. 2004;23:219-23 pubmed
    Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), a member of the Toll-like receptor family, plays an important role in recognition of, and subsequent immune response activation against, mycobacteria...
  27. Mogensen T, Paludan S, Kilian M, Ostergaard L. Live Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis activate the inflammatory response through Toll-like receptors 2, 4, and 9 in species-specific patterns. J Leukoc Biol. 2006;80:267-77 pubmed
    ..of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB and expression of interleukin-8, only in cells expressing TLR2 or -9. The same response was evoked by H. influenzae in cells expressing TLR2 or -4 and by N...
  28. Vabulas R, Braedel S, Hilf N, Singh Jasuja H, Herter S, Ahmad Nejad P, et al. The endoplasmic reticulum-resident heat shock protein Gp96 activates dendritic cells via the Toll-like receptor 2/4 pathway. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:20847-53 pubmed
    ..different Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and with bone marrow-derived dendritic cells from mice lacking functional TLR2 and/or TLR4 molecules...
  29. Uno K, Kato K, Atsumi T, Suzuki T, Yoshitake J, Morita H, et al. Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 induced through TLR4 signaling initiated by Helicobacter pylori cooperatively amplifies iNOS induction in gastric epithelial cells. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2007;293:G1004-12 pubmed
    ..b>TLR2 and TLR4 play important roles in gastric mucosa infected with Helicobacter pylori (H...
  30. Devaraj S, Dasu M, Rockwood J, Winter W, Griffen S, Jialal I. Increased toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 expression in monocytes from patients with type 1 diabetes: further evidence of a proinflammatory state. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93:578-83 pubmed
    ..The toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern recognition receptors, expressed abundantly on monocytes. TLR2 and TLR4 are important in atherosclerosis...
  31. Sallustio F, De Benedictis L, Castellano G, Zaza G, Loverre A, Costantino V, et al. TLR2 plays a role in the activation of human resident renal stem/progenitor cells. FASEB J. 2010;24:514-25 pubmed publisher
    ..profile contained growth factor receptors and immune system-related genes, including toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)...
  32. Wang L, Tian Y, Yu J, Chen W, Wu Z, Zhang Q, et al. Association between late-onset Alzheimer's disease and microsatellite polymorphisms in intron II of the human toll-like receptor 2 gene. Neurosci Lett. 2011;489:164-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is thought to contribute to A? clearance...
  33. Ahmad Nejad P, Mrabet Dahbi S, Breuer K, Klotz M, Werfel T, Herz U, et al. The toll-like receptor 2 R753Q polymorphism defines a subgroup of patients with atopic dermatitis having severe phenotype. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004;113:565-7 pubmed
  34. Brown V, Brown R, Ozinsky A, Hesselberth J, Fields S. Binding specificity of Toll-like receptor cytoplasmic domains. Eur J Immunol. 2006;36:742-53 pubmed
    ..experiments reveal that the TIR domains of human TLR differ in their ability to associate with MyD88: The TIR of TLR2 binds to MyD88 but the TIR of the closely related TLR1, 6, or 10 do not...
  35. Johnson C, Tapping R. Microbial products stimulate human Toll-like receptor 2 expression through histone modification surrounding a proximal NF-kappaB-binding site. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:31197-205 pubmed
    Previous studies have yielded conflicting results regarding the ability of microbial products to activate TLR2 gene expression in human monocytes...
  36. Raby A, Le Bouder E, Colmont C, Davies J, Richards P, Coles B, et al. Soluble TLR2 reduces inflammation without compromising bacterial clearance by disrupting TLR2 triggering. J Immunol. 2009;183:506-17 pubmed publisher
    ..We show in this study the ability of the soluble form of TLR2 (sTLR2) to regulate proinflammatory responses, and demonstrate the mechanisms underlying sTLR2 regulatory capacity...
  37. Velez D, Wejse C, Stryjewski M, Abbate E, Hulme W, Myers J, et al. Variants in toll-like receptors 2 and 9 influence susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis in Caucasians, African-Americans, and West Africans. Hum Genet. 2010;127:65-73 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, 71 polymorphisms in TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR6, and TLR9 were examined from 474 (295 cases and 179 controls) African-Americans, 381 (237 cases and 144 ..
  38. West X, Malinin N, Merkulova A, Tischenko M, Kerr B, Borden E, et al. Oxidative stress induces angiogenesis by activating TLR2 with novel endogenous ligands. Nature. 2010;467:972-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The molecular patterns of carboxyalkylpyrroles are recognized by Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), but not TLR4 or scavenger receptors on endothelial cells, leading to an angiogenic response that is independent ..
  39. Moore C, Segal S, Berendt A, Hill A, Day N. Lack of association between Toll-like receptor 2 polymorphisms and susceptibility to severe disease caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2004;11:1194-7 pubmed
    To investigate a putative link between genetically determined variations in Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and the occurrence of severe Staphylococcus aureus infection, the functional Arg753Gln single-nucleotide polymorphism and the GT ..
  40. Kumar A, Zhang J, Yu F. Toll-like receptor 2-mediated expression of beta-defensin-2 in human corneal epithelial cells. Microbes Infect. 2006;8:380-9 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, these stimuli induced the expression of TLR2 at both mRNA and protein levels...
  41. Yoon H, Choi J, Kim C, Park Y, Kim M, Kim Y, et al. Lack of Toll-like receptor 4 and 2 polymorphisms in Korean patients with bacteremia. J Korean Med Sci. 2006;21:979-82 pubmed
    ..The Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile allele of the TLR4 gene and Arg753Gln and Arg677Trp allele of the TLR2 gene were tested by PCR-RFLP. The DNA sequences were determined to confirm the PCR-RFLP results...
  42. Acorci Valério M, Bordon Graciani A, Dias Melicio L, de Assis Golim M, Nakaira Takahagi E, de Campos Soares A. Role of TLR2 and TLR4 in human neutrophil functions against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Scand J Immunol. 2010;71:99-108 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed at evaluating TLR2 and TLR4 expression on human neutrophils activated with GM-CSF, IL-15, TNF-alpha or IFN-gamma and challenged with a ..
  43. Hishida A, Matsuo K, Goto Y, Naito M, Wakai K, Tajima K, et al. No associations of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) -196 to -174del polymorphism with the risk of Helicobacter pylori seropositivity, gastric atrophy, and gastric cancer in Japanese. Gastric Cancer. 2010;13:251-7 pubmed publisher
    Recently, the association between gastric cancer risk and a functional polymorphism of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), -196 to -174del, was reported for a Japanese population...
  44. Lepper P, Triantafilou M, Schumann C, Schneider E, Triantafilou K. Lipopolysaccharides from Helicobacter pylori can act as antagonists for Toll-like receptor 4. Cell Microbiol. 2005;7:519-28 pubmed
    ..pylori. Using reporter cell lines, as well as HEK293 cells transfected with either CD14 and TLR4, or CD14 and TLR2, we show that H. pylori LPS-induced cell activation is mediated through TLR2...
  45. Hamann L, Gomma A, Schröder N, Stamme C, Glaeser C, Schulz S, et al. A frequent toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 polymorphism is a risk factor for coronary restenosis. J Mol Med (Berl). 2005;83:478-85 pubmed
    ..Screening for the TLR-2 Arg753Gln SNP may be of importance for stratifying a patient's risk and for preventive and therapeutic measures. ..
  46. Yim J, Lee H, Lee H, Kim Y, Han S, Shim Y, et al. The association between microsatellite polymorphisms in intron II of the human Toll-like receptor 2 gene and tuberculosis among Koreans. Genes Immun. 2006;7:150-5 pubmed
    ..Toll-like receptor (TLR)2-deficient mice are highly susceptible to mycobacteria suggests that mutations altering TLR2 expression may impair host response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
  47. Mikami F, Lim J, Ishinaga H, Ha U, Gu H, Koga T, et al. The transforming growth factor-beta-Smad3/4 signaling pathway acts as a positive regulator for TLR2 induction by bacteria via a dual mechanism involving functional cooperation with NF-kappaB and MAPK phosphatase 1-dependent negative cross-talk with p. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:22397-408 pubmed
    ..Here, we show for the first time that TGF-betaR-Smad3/4 signaling pathway acts as a positive regulator for TLR2 induction by bacterium nontypeable Hemophilus influenzae (NTHi) in vitro and in vivo...
  48. van Duin D, Mohanty S, Thomas V, Ginter S, Montgomery R, Fikrig E, et al. Age-associated defect in human TLR-1/2 function. J Immunol. 2007;178:970-5 pubmed
    ..In contrast to findings in aged mice, other TLR (including TLR2/6)-induced cytokine production appeared largely intact...
  49. Frolova L, Drastich P, Rossmann P, Klimesova K, Tlaskalova Hogenova H. Expression of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), TLR4, and CD14 in biopsy samples of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases: upregulated expression of TLR2 in terminal ileum of patients with ulcerative colitis. J Histochem Cytochem. 2008;56:267-74 pubmed
    ..We investigated expression of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), TLR4, and their transmembrane coreceptor CD14 in biopsy samples from patients with IBD and in non-inflamed gut ..
  50. Kormann M, Ferstl R, Depner M, Klopp N, Spiller S, Illig T, et al. Rare TLR2 mutations reduce TLR2 receptor function and can increase atopy risk. Allergy. 2009;64:636-42 pubmed publisher
    Common genetic variations in toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), an innate pathogen recognition receptor, may influence the development of atopic diseases. So far, very little is known about the role of rare TLR2 mutations in these diseases...
  51. Srivastava K, Srivastava A, Kumar A, Mittal B. Significant association between toll-like receptor gene polymorphisms and gallbladder cancer. Liver Int. 2010;30:1067-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study was undertaken to examine the potential association of two polymorphisms in TLR2 and TLR4 genes with gallbladder cancer (GBC) susceptibility.
  52. Aliprantis A, Yang R, Mark M, Suggett S, Devaux B, Radolf J, et al. Cell activation and apoptosis by bacterial lipoproteins through toll-like receptor-2. Science. 1999;285:736-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, hTLR2 is a molecular link between microbial products, apoptosis, and host defense mechanisms. ..
  53. Schröder N, Morath S, Alexander C, Hamann L, Hartung T, Zahringer U, et al. Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus activates immune cells via Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), and CD14, whereas TLR-4 and MD-2 are not involved. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:15587-94 pubmed
    ..However, the involvement of TLR-4 and MD-2 in this process was ruled out. ..
  54. Sandor F, Latz E, Re F, Mandell L, Repik G, Golenbock D, et al. Importance of extra- and intracellular domains of TLR1 and TLR2 in NFkappa B signaling. J Cell Biol. 2003;162:1099-110 pubmed
    ..This paper demonstrates that TLR1 and TLR2 are required for ara-lipoarabinomannan- and tripalmitoyl cysteinyl lipopeptide-stimulated cytokine secretion from ..
  55. Mrabet Dahbi S, Dalpke A, Niebuhr M, Frey M, Draing C, Brand S, et al. The Toll-like receptor 2 R753Q mutation modifies cytokine production and Toll-like receptor expression in atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;121:1013-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, the outcome of innate and adaptive immune responses in AD is modulated by the TLR-2 R753Q SNP. ..
  56. Woehrle T, Du W, Goetz A, Hsu H, Joos T, Weiss M, et al. Pathogen specific cytokine release reveals an effect of TLR2 Arg753Gln during Candida sepsis in humans. Cytokine. 2008;41:322-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>TLR2 heterodimerizes with TLR1 or TLR6 to recognize multiple pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) of fungi, ..
  57. Mansell A, Brint E, Gould J, O Neill L, Hertzog P. Mal interacts with tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor (TRAF)-6 to mediate NF-kappaB activation by toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and TLR4. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:37227-30 pubmed
    ..MalE190A inhibited TLR2- and TLR4-mediated activation of NF-kappaB...
  58. Triantafilou M, Gamper F, Haston R, Mouratis M, Morath S, Hartung T, et al. Membrane sorting of toll-like receptor (TLR)-2/6 and TLR2/1 heterodimers at the cell surface determines heterotypic associations with CD36 and intracellular targeting. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:31002-11 pubmed
    ..b>TLR2 seems to be the most promiscuous TLR receptor able to recognize the most diverse set of pathogen-associated ..
  59. van Lint A, Murawski M, Goodbody R, Severa M, Fitzgerald K, Finberg R, et al. Herpes simplex virus immediate-early ICP0 protein inhibits Toll-like receptor 2-dependent inflammatory responses and NF-kappaB signaling. J Virol. 2010;84:10802-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies have demonstrated that Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) activation by HSV results in NF-?B activation with concomitant inflammatory cytokine production and that TLR2 ..
  60. Dasu M, Devaraj S, Park S, Jialal I. Increased toll-like receptor (TLR) activation and TLR ligands in recently diagnosed type 2 diabetic subjects. Diabetes Care. 2010;33:861-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, in the present study, we examined TLR2 and TLR4 mRNA and protein expression, their ligands, and signaling in monocytes of recently diagnosed type 2 ..
  61. Chavez Sanchez L, Madrid Miller A, Chavez Rueda K, Legorreta Haquet M, Tesoro Cruz E, Blanco Favela F. Activation of TLR2 and TLR4 by minimally modified low-density lipoprotein in human macrophages and monocytes triggers the inflammatory response. Hum Immunol. 2010;71:737-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this research was to analyze the activation of CD14, TLR4, and TLR2 in response to minimally modified low-density lipoprotein (mmLDL)...
  62. Ghorpade D, Kaveri S, Bayry J, Balaji K. Cooperative regulation of NOTCH1 protein-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling by NOD1, NOD2, and TLR2 receptors renders enhanced refractoriness to transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)- or cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4)-medi. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:31347-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Cooperative stimulation of a complex set of pattern-recognition receptors, including TLR2 and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors on DCs, acts as a rate-limiting factor in ..
  63. Merx S, Neumaier M, Wagner H, Kirschning C, Ahmad Nejad P. Characterization and investigation of single nucleotide polymorphisms and a novel TLR2 mutation in the human TLR2 gene. Hum Mol Genet. 2007;16:1225-32 pubmed
    In the innate immune system, TLR2 plays a central role for the response to a wide variety of microbial and endogenous danger signals...
  64. Saber T, Veale D, Balogh E, McCormick J, Nicanultaigh S, Connolly M, et al. Toll-like receptor 2 induced angiogenesis and invasion is mediated through the Tie2 signalling pathway in rheumatoid arthritis. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23540 pubmed publisher
    ..This study investigates the effect of TLR2 on angiogenesis, EC adhesion and invasion using microvascular endothelial cells and RA whole tissue synovial ..
  65. Hertz C, Wu Q, Porter E, Zhang Y, Weismüller K, Godowski P, et al. Activation of Toll-like receptor 2 on human tracheobronchial epithelial cells induces the antimicrobial peptide human beta defensin-2. J Immunol. 2003;171:6820-6 pubmed
    ..Immunohistochemical labeling of TLR2 in normal human airways revealed TLR2 expression throughout the epithelium, with an apparently higher level of ..
  66. Regueiro V, Moranta D, Campos M, Margareto J, Garmendia J, Bengoechea J. Klebsiella pneumoniae increases the levels of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in human airway epithelial cells. Infect Immun. 2009;77:714-24 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast to the level of expression in lymphoid cells, the level of expression of TLR2 and TLR4 in airway epithelial cells is low under physiological conditions...
  67. Bjørnvold M, Munthe Kaas M, Egeland T, Joner G, Dahl Jørgensen K, Njølstad P, et al. A TLR2 polymorphism is associated with type 1 diabetes and allergic asthma. Genes Immun. 2009;10:181-7 pubmed publisher
    ..test whether there exist common or inverse associations between polymorphisms in the pattern recognition receptors TLR2, TLR4 and CD14 and T1D and allergic asthma...
  68. Oosting M, Berende A, Sturm P, ter Hofstede H, de Jong D, Kanneganti T, et al. Recognition of Borrelia burgdorferi by NOD2 is central for the induction of an inflammatory reaction. J Infect Dis. 2010;201:1849-58 pubmed publisher
    Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) plays an important role in the recognition of Borrelia bacteria, the causative agent of Lyme disease, but the existence and importance of additional receptors in this process has been hypothesized...
  69. Greene C, McElvaney N, O Neill S, Taggart C. Secretory leucoprotease inhibitor impairs Toll-like receptor 2- and 4-mediated responses in monocytic cells. Infect Immun. 2004;72:3684-7 pubmed
  70. Khor C, Chapman S, Vannberg F, Dunne A, Murphy C, Ling E, et al. A Mal functional variant is associated with protection against invasive pneumococcal disease, bacteremia, malaria and tuberculosis. Nat Genet. 2007;39:523-8 pubmed
    ..The adaptor protein Mal (also known as TIRAP), encoded by TIRAP (MIM 606252), mediates downstream signaling of TLR2 and TLR4 (refs. 4-6)...
  71. Chang J, Hampartzoumian T, Everett B, Lloyd A, McCluskey P, Wakefield D. Changes in Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and TLR4 expression and function but not polymorphisms are associated with acute anterior uveitis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48:1711-7 pubmed
    ..To investigate the expression and polymorphisms of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and -4 in the peripheral neutrophils and monocytes of patients with acute anterior uveitis (AAU)...
  72. Sutherland A, Walley K, Russell J. Polymorphisms in CD14, mannose-binding lectin, and Toll-like receptor-2 are associated with increased prevalence of infection in critically ill adults. Crit Care Med. 2005;33:638-44 pubmed
    ..Thus, single nucleotide polymorphisms in innate immunity receptors may alter recognition and clearance of bacteria without changing outcomes of critically ill adults with systemic inflammatory response syndrome. ..
  73. Boehme K, Guerrero M, Compton T. Human cytomegalovirus envelope glycoproteins B and H are necessary for TLR2 activation in permissive cells. J Immunol. 2006;177:7094-102 pubmed
    ..Previously, we identified TLR2 as a host factor that detects and initiates inflammatory cytokine secretion in response to HCMV independent of ..
  74. Devaraj S, Dasu M, Park S, Jialal I. Increased levels of ligands of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in type 1 diabetes. Diabetologia. 2009;52:1665-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We have shown increased Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 expression and signalling in monocytes from type 1 diabetic patients...
  75. Ferwerda G, Kullberg B, de Jong D, Girardin S, Langenberg D, van Crevel R, et al. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis is recognized by Toll-like receptors and NOD2. J Leukoc Biol. 2007;82:1011-8 pubmed
    ..M. paratuberculosis stimulated human TLR2 (hTLR2)-Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells predominantly and hTLR4-CHO cells modestly...
  76. Lachheb J, Dhifallah I, Chelbi H, Hamzaoui K, Hamzaoui A. Toll-like receptors and CD14 genes polymorphisms and susceptibility to asthma in Tunisian children. Tissue Antigens. 2008;71:417-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Six single nucleotide polymorphisms TLR2 (+2408 G-->A), TLR4 (+1196 C-->T), TLR4 (+896 A-->G), TLR9 (-1237 T-->C), TLR9 (-1486 T-->C) and ..
  77. Chen K, Gu W, Zeng L, Jiang D, Zhang L, Zhou J, et al. Identification of haplotype tag SNPs within the entire TLR2 gene and their clinical relevance in patients with major trauma. Shock. 2011;35:35-41 pubmed publisher
    Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) signaling plays a critical role in orchestrating the innate immune response and the development of sepsis and subsequent organ dysfunction after trauma...
  78. Tahara T, Arisawa T, Wang F, Shibata T, Nakamura M, Sakata M, et al. Toll-like receptor 2 -196 to 174del polymorphism influences the susceptibility of Japanese people to gastric cancer. Cancer Sci. 2007;98:1790-4 pubmed
    ..The -196 to -174del polymorphism affects the TLR2 gene and alters its promoter activity...
  79. Gerold G, Abu Ajaj K, Bienert M, Laws H, Zychlinsky A, de Diego J. A Toll-like receptor 2-integrin beta3 complex senses bacterial lipopeptides via vitronectin. Nat Immunol. 2008;9:761-8 pubmed publisher
    Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) initiates inflammation in response to bacterial lipopeptide (BLP). However, the molecular mechanisms enabling the detection of BLP by TLR2 are unknown...
  80. Abu Maziad A, Schaa K, Bell E, Dagle J, Cooper M, Marazita M, et al. Role of polymorphic variants as genetic modulators of infection in neonatal sepsis. Pediatr Res. 2010;68:323-9 pubmed publisher
    ..genes including inflammatory cytokines (IL6, IL10, IL1B, and TNF), cytokine receptors (IL1RN), toll-like receptors (TLR2, TLR4, and TLR5), and cell surface receptors (CD14) were genotyped...
  81. Farhat K, Riekenberg S, Heine H, Debarry J, Lang R, Mages J, et al. Heterodimerization of TLR2 with TLR1 or TLR6 expands the ligand spectrum but does not lead to differential signaling. J Leukoc Biol. 2008;83:692-701 pubmed
    ..b>TLR2 is the receptor for a functional recognition of bacterial lipopeptides (LP) and is up-regulated during various ..
  82. Purdue M, Lan Q, Wang S, Kricker A, Menashe I, Zheng T, et al. A pooled investigation of Toll-like receptor gene variants and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Carcinogenesis. 2009;30:275-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Thirty-six tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TLR2, TLR4 and the TLR10-TLR1-TLR6 gene cluster were genotyped...
  83. Benakanakere M, Li Q, Eskan M, Singh A, Zhao J, Galicia J, et al. Modulation of TLR2 protein expression by miR-105 in human oral keratinocytes. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:23107-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Further understanding of the role of miRNA in host responses may elucidate disease susceptibility and suggest new anti-inflammatory therapeutics. ..
  84. Caws M, Thwaites G, Dunstan S, Hawn T, Lan N, Thuong N, et al. The influence of host and bacterial genotype on the development of disseminated disease with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e1000034 pubmed publisher
    ..The study provides evidence that M. tuberculosis genotype influences clinical disease phenotype and demonstrates, for the first time, a significant interaction between host and bacterial genotypes and the development of tuberculosis. ..
  85. Bottema R, Kerkhof M, Reijmerink N, Thijs C, Smit H, van Schayck C, et al. Gene-gene interaction in regulatory T-cell function in atopy and asthma development in childhood. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;126:338-46, 346.e1-10 pubmed publisher
    ..genes involved in regulatory T-cell function-IL6, IL6R, IL10, heme-oxygenase 1 (HMOX1), IL2, Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), TGFB1, TGF-beta receptor (TGFBR)-1, TGFBR2, IL2RA, and forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3)-in relation to atopy and ..
  86. Goto Y, Arigami T, Kitago M, Nguyen S, Narita N, Ferrone S, et al. Activation of Toll-like receptors 2, 3, and 4 on human melanoma cells induces inflammatory factors. Mol Cancer Ther. 2008;7:3642-53 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined TLR profiles of human melanoma cells and showed that TLR2, TLR3, and TLR4 were found to be highly expressed...
  87. Underhill D, Ozinsky A, Hajjar A, Stevens A, Wilson C, Bassetti M, et al. The Toll-like receptor 2 is recruited to macrophage phagosomes and discriminates between pathogens. Nature. 1999;401:811-5 pubmed