Gene Symbol: TIMM22
Description: translocase of inner mitochondrial membrane 22
Alias: TEX4, TIM22, mitochondrial import inner membrane translocase subunit Tim22, testis-expressed protein 4, testis-expressed sequence 4, translocase of inner mitochondrial membrane 22 homolog
Species: human
Products:     TIMM22

Top Publications

  1. Ellenrieder L, Dieterle M, Doan K, Mårtensson C, Floerchinger A, Campo M, et al. Dual Role of Mitochondrial Porin in Metabolite Transport across the Outer Membrane and Protein Transfer to the Inner Membrane. Mol Cell. 2019;73:1056-1065.e7 pubmed publisher
    ..mitochondria by the translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) and the carrier translocase of the inner membrane (TIM22)...
  2. Perazza D, Laporte F, Balagué C, Chevalier F, Remo S, Bourge M, et al. GeBP/GPL transcription factors regulate a subset of CPR5-dependent processes. Plant Physiol. 2011;157:1232-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide clues on how CPR5 and GeBP/GPLs play opposite roles in the control of cell expansion and suggest that the CPR5 protein is involved in transcription. ..
  3. Liu M, Zhang P, Zhu Y, Lu T, Wang Y, Cao G, et al. Novel Two-Component System MacRS Is a Pleiotropic Regulator That Controls Multiple Morphogenic Membrane Protein Genes in Streptomyces coelicolor. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2019;85: pubmed publisher
  4. Park Y, Lee J, Ko K. Transcriptomic analysis of colistin-susceptible and colistin-resistant isolates identifies genes associated with colistin resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2015;21:765.e1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..baumannii strains. ..
  5. Smith J, Singha U, Misra S, Chaudhuri M. Divergent Small Tim Homologues Are Associated with TbTim17 and Critical for the Biogenesis of TbTim17 Protein Complexes in Trypanosoma brucei. mSphere. 2018;3: pubmed publisher
    ..brucei small Tim proteins, TbTim9, TbTim10, and TbTim8/13. Although the parasite does not have the classical TIM22 complex that imports mitochondrial inner membrane proteins containing internal targeting signals in yeast or ..
  6. Weems E, Singha U, Hamilton V, Smith J, Waegemann K, Mokranjac D, et al. Functional complementation analyses reveal that the single PRAT family protein of trypanosoma brucei is a divergent homolog of Tim17 in saccharomyces cerevisiae. Eukaryot Cell. 2015;14:286-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that TbTim17 cannot rescue Tim17, Tim23, or Tim22 mutants of S. cerevisiae. We expressed S. cerevisiae Tim23, Tim17, and Tim22 in T. brucei...
  7. Brock C, Bañó Polo M, Garcia Murria M, Mingarro I, Esteve Gasent M. Characterization of the inner membrane protein BB0173 from Borrelia burgdorferi. BMC Microbiol. 2017;17:219 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of these functional domains and the highly conserved nature of this protein, strongly suggests a required function of BB0173 in the survival of B. burgdorferi. ..
  8. Zhao F, Zong Z. Kluyvera ascorbata Strain from Hospital Sewage Carrying the mcr-1 Colistin Resistance Gene. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2016;60:7498-7501 pubmed
    ..Unlike in a previous report, mcr-1 was not associated with ISApl1 and was inserted into a gene encoding a putative membrane protein by an unknown mechanism. This study highlights that mcr-1 has spread to multiple bacterial species. ..
  9. Chen H, Xiong Z, Liu K, Li S, Wang R, Wang X, et al. Transcriptional profiling of the two-component regulatory system VraSR in Staphylococcus aureus with low-level vancomycin resistance. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2016;47:362-7 pubmed publisher
    ..aureus. In conclusion, VraSR plays an important role in S. aureus strains with low-level vancomycin resistance. PrsA, FmtA, glycosyltransferase and TcaA are regulated directly or indirectly by VraSR. ..

More Information


  1. Ogurusu T, Sakata K, Wakabayashi T, Shimizu Y, Shingai R. The Caenorhabditis elegans R13A5.9 gene plays a role in synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015;463:994-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This was supported by the observation that an R13A5.9 mutant strain exhibited an excessive accumulation of synaptic vesicles. Collectively, these results suggest a functional role for R13A5.9 in synaptic vesicle exocytosis. ..
  2. Mshana S, Fritzenwanker M, Falgenhauer L, Domann E, Hain T, Chakraborty T, et al. Molecular epidemiology and characterization of an outbreak causing Klebsiella pneumoniae clone carrying chromosomally located bla(CTX-M-15) at a German University-Hospital. BMC Microbiol. 2015;15:122 pubmed publisher
  3. Wrobel L, Sokol A, Chojnacka M, Chacinska A. The presence of disulfide bonds reveals an evolutionarily conserved mechanism involved in mitochondrial protein translocase assembly. Sci Rep. 2016;6:27484 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Tim22, a membrane protein and core component of the mitochondrial translocase TIM22, forms an intramolecular disulfide ..
  4. Schuler M, Di Bartolomeo F, Mårtensson C, Daum G, Becker T. Phosphatidylcholine Affects Inner Membrane Protein Translocases of Mitochondria. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:18718-29 pubmed publisher
    ..The carrier translocase (TIM22 complex) inserts multispanning proteins into the inner membrane...
  5. Chiusolo V, Jacquemin G, Yonca Bassoy E, Vinet L, Liguori L, Walch M, et al. Granzyme B enters the mitochondria in a Sam50-, Tim22- and mtHsp70-dependent manner to induce apoptosis. Cell Death Differ. 2017;24:747-758 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, GB breaches the inner membrane through Tim22, the metabolite carrier translocase pore, in a mitochondrial heat-shock protein 70 (mtHsp70)-dependent manner...
  6. Kolli R, Soll J, Carrie C. Plant Mitochondrial Inner Membrane Protein Insertion. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19: pubmed publisher
    ..most nuclear-encoded inner membrane proteins are laterally released into the membrane by the TIM23 and the TIM22 machinery during their import into mitochondria...
  7. Rossig C, Gray J, Valdés O, Rustgi S, von Wettstein D, Reinbothe C, et al. HP30-2, a mitochondrial PRAT protein for import of signal sequence-less precursor proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana. J Integr Plant Biol. 2017;59:535-551 pubmed publisher
    ..of mitochondrial HP30-2 with two distinct protein complexes, one containing the inner membrane translocase TIM22 and the other containing an alternative NAD(P)H dehydrogenase subunit (NDC1) implicated in a respiratory complex 1-..
  8. Kang Y, Baker M, Liem M, Louber J, McKenzie M, Atukorala I, et al. Tim29 is a novel subunit of the human TIM22 translocase and is involved in complex assembly and stability. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher
    The TIM22 complex mediates the import of hydrophobic carrier proteins into the mitochondrial inner membrane. While the TIM22 machinery has been well characterised in yeast, the human complex remains poorly characterised...
  9. Turakhiya U, von der Malsburg K, Gold V, Guiard B, Chacinska A, van der Laan M, et al. Protein Import by the Mitochondrial Presequence Translocase in the Absence of a Membrane Potential. J Mol Biol. 2016;428:1041-1052 pubmed publisher
    ..complex), while other precursors containing internal targeting signals are imported by the carrier translocase (TIM22 complex). Both TIM23 and TIM22 are activated by the transmembrane electrochemical potential...
  10. Peng L, Jiang Q, Pan J, Deng C, Yu J, Wu X, et al. Involvement of polyphosphate kinase in virulence and stress tolerance of uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis. Med Microbiol Immunol. 2016;205:97-109 pubmed publisher
    ..As a whole, these results indicate that PPK is an important regulator and plays a crucial role in stress tolerance and virulence in uropathogenic P. mirabilis. ..
  11. Žárský V, Doležal P. Evolution of the Tim17 protein family. Biol Direct. 2016;11:54 pubmed
    ..Three Tim17 family proteins, Tim17, Tim22, and Tim23, are the central components of the widely conserved multi-subunit protein translocases, TIM23 and TIM22,..
  12. Andreeva N, Kulakovskaya E, Zvonarev A, Penin A, Eliseeva I, Teterina A, et al. Transcriptome profile of yeast reveals the essential role of PMA2 and uncharacterized gene YBR056W-A (MNC1) in adaptation to toxic manganese concentration. Metallomics. 2017;9:175-182 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that these genes are essential for the adaptation to toxic manganese concentration and propose an extended scheme of manganese detoxification in yeast. ..
  13. Oppegård C, Kjos M, Veening J, Nissen Meyer J, Kristensen T. A putative amino acid transporter determines sensitivity to the two-peptide bacteriocin plantaricin JK. Microbiologyopen. 2016;5:700-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The APC superfamily transporter thus is likely to serve as a target for plantaricin JK on sensitive cells. ..
  14. Mühlenbein N, Hofmann S, Rothbauer U, Bauer M. Organization and function of the small Tim complexes acting along the import pathway of metabolite carriers into mammalian mitochondria. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:13540-6 pubmed
    ..In yeast, members of this family act along the TIM22 import pathway during import of metabolite carriers and other integral inner membrane proteins...
  15. Bauer M, Rothbauer U, Mühlenbein N, Smith R, Gerbitz K, Neupert W, et al. The mitochondrial TIM22 preprotein translocase is highly conserved throughout the eukaryotic kingdom. FEBS Lett. 1999;464:41-7 pubmed
    ..We report the identification, chromosomal localization and expressional analysis of six human family members which represent further candidate genes for neurodegenerative diseases. ..
  16. Callegari S, Richter F, Chojnacka K, Jans D, Lorenzi I, Pacheu Grau D, et al. TIM29 is a subunit of the human carrier translocase required for protein transport. FEBS Lett. 2016;590:4147-4158 pubmed publisher
    ..membrane proteins with internal targeting signals, such as the metabolite carriers, use the carrier translocase (TIM22 complex) for transport into the inner membrane...
  17. Rajavel M, Philip B, Buehrer B, Errede B, Levin D. Mid2 is a putative sensor for cell integrity signaling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:3969-76 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Hcs77 is dedicated to signaling cell wall stress during vegetative growth and that Mid2 participates in this signaling, but its primary role is in signaling wall stress during pheromone-induced morphogenesis...
  18. Kovermann P, Truscott K, Guiard B, Rehling P, Sepuri N, Muller H, et al. Tim22, the essential core of the mitochondrial protein insertion complex, forms a voltage-activated and signal-gated channel. Mol Cell. 2002;9:363-73 pubmed
    ..We report the unexpected observation that Tim22 is the only essential membrane-integrated subunit of the complex...
  19. Vukotic M, Nolte H, König T, Saita S, Ananjew M, Kruger M, et al. Acylglycerol Kinase Mutated in Sengers Syndrome Is a Subunit of the TIM22 Protein Translocase in Mitochondria. Mol Cell. 2017;67:471-483.e7 pubmed publisher
    ..AGK assembles with TIMM22 and TIMM29 and supports the import of a subset of multi-spanning membrane proteins...
  20. Kang Y, Stroud D, Baker M, De Souza D, Frazier A, Liem M, et al. Sengers Syndrome-Associated Mitochondrial Acylglycerol Kinase Is a Subunit of the Human TIM22 Protein Import Complex. Mol Cell. 2017;67:457-470.e5 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we identified AGK as a subunit of the mitochondrial TIM22 protein import complex...
  21. Mårtensson C, Becker T. Acylglycerol Kinase: Mitochondrial Protein Transport Meets Lipid Biosynthesis. Trends Cell Biol. 2017;27:700-702 pubmed publisher
    The carrier translocase (TIM22 complex) inserts hydrophobic proteins into the mitochondrial inner membrane. Recently, the acylglycerol kinase (AGK) mutated in Sengers syndrome was identified as a novel subunit of the human TIM22 complex...