Gene Symbol: tie-2
Description: TEK receptor tyrosine kinase
Alias: CD202B, GLC3E, TIE-2, TIE2, VMCM, VMCM1, angiopoietin-1 receptor, TEK tyrosine kinase, endothelial, endothelial tyrosine kinase, tunica interna endothelial cell kinase, tyrosine kinase with Ig and EGF homology domains-2, tyrosine-protein kinase receptor TEK, tyrosine-protein kinase receptor TIE-2
Species: human
Products:     tie-2

Top Publications

  1. Shewchuk L, Hassell A, Ellis B, Holmes W, Davis R, Horne E, et al. Structure of the Tie2 RTK domain: self-inhibition by the nucleotide binding loop, activation loop, and C-terminal tail. Structure. 2000;8:1105-13 pubmed
    ..b>Tie2 (also known as Tek) is an endothelium-specific receptor tyrosine kinase involved in both angiogenesis and ..
  2. Debusk L, Hallahan D, Lin P. Akt is a major angiogenic mediator downstream of the Ang1/Tie2 signaling pathway. Exp Cell Res. 2004;298:167-77 pubmed
    b>Tie2 and VEGF receptors (VEGFRs) are tyrosine kinases that play essential roles in angiogenesis. Activation of both receptors leads to the activation of Akt, an important mediator of cell survival and cell motility...
  3. Tammela T, Saaristo A, Lohela M, Morisada T, Tornberg J, Norrmen C, et al. Angiopoietin-1 promotes lymphatic sprouting and hyperplasia. Blood. 2005;105:4642-8 pubmed
    Angiopoietin 1 (Ang1), a ligand for the receptor tyrosine kinase Tie2, regulates the formation and stabilization of the blood vessel network during embryogenesis...
  4. Peters K, Kontos C, Lin P, Wong A, Rao P, Huang L, et al. Functional significance of Tie2 signaling in the adult vasculature. Recent Prog Horm Res. 2004;59:51-71 pubmed
    ..b>Tie2 recently was identified as a receptor tyrosine kinase expressed principally on vascular endothelium...
  5. Saharinen P, Eklund L, Miettinen J, Wirkkala R, Anisimov A, Winderlich M, et al. Angiopoietins assemble distinct Tie2 signalling complexes in endothelial cell-cell and cell-matrix contacts. Nat Cell Biol. 2008;10:527-37 pubmed publisher
    The receptor tyrosine kinase Tie2, and its activating ligand Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1), are required for vascular remodelling and vessel integrity, whereas Ang2 may counteract these functions...
  6. Cascone I, Audero E, Giraudo E, Napione L, Maniero F, Philips M, et al. Tie-2-dependent activation of RhoA and Rac1 participates in endothelial cell motility triggered by angiopoietin-1. Blood. 2003;102:2482-90 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results further expand our understanding of angiopoietin-1-mediated endothelial cell motility during vascular network assembly and angiogenesis. ..
  7. Margaritopoulos G, Antoniou K, Karagiannis K, Vassalou E, Lasithiotaki I, Lambiri I, et al. Investigation of angiogenetic axis Angiopoietin-1 and -2/Tie-2 in fibrotic lung diseases: a bronchoalveolar lavage study. Int J Mol Med. 2010;26:919-23 pubmed
    ..A differential angiogenetic profile regarding Ang-2 was detected between IPF and CTD-IPs. ..
  8. Mammoto T, Chen J, Jiang E, Jiang A, Smith L, Ingber D, et al. LRP5 regulates development of lung microvessels and alveoli through the angiopoietin-Tie2 pathway. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e41596 pubmed publisher
    ..angiogenesis and alveolar formation in the lung by modulating expression of the angiopoietin (Ang) receptor, Tie2, in vascular endothelial cells (ECs)...
  9. Suri C, Jones P, Patan S, Bartunkova S, Maisonpierre P, Davis S, et al. Requisite role of angiopoietin-1, a ligand for the TIE2 receptor, during embryonic angiogenesis. Cell. 1996;87:1171-80 pubmed
    ..Only one other family of receptor tyrosine kinases, comprising TIE1 and TIE2, is largely endothelial cell specific. We have recently cloned a ligand for TIE2, termed Angiopoietin-1...

More Information


  1. Maisonpierre P, Suri C, Jones P, Bartunkova S, Wiegand S, Radziejewski C, et al. Angiopoietin-2, a natural antagonist for Tie2 that disrupts in vivo angiogenesis. Science. 1997;277:55-60 pubmed
    ..Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) is an angiogenic factor that signals through the endothelial cell-specific Tie2 receptor tyrosine kinase...
  2. Wouters V, Limaye N, Uebelhoer M, Irrthum A, Boon L, Mulliken J, et al. Hereditary cutaneomucosal venous malformations are caused by TIE2 mutations with widely variable hyper-phosphorylating effects. Eur J Hum Genet. 2010;18:414-20 pubmed publisher
    Mutations in the angiopoietin receptor TIE2/TEK have been identified as the cause for autosomal dominantly inherited cutaneomucosal venous malformation (VMCM)...
  3. Martin V, Xu J, Pabbisetty S, Alonso M, Liu D, Lee O, et al. Tie2-mediated multidrug resistance in malignant gliomas is associated with upregulation of ABC transporters. Oncogene. 2009;28:2358-63 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously found that abnormal high expression of the Tie2 receptor in gliomas was associated with tumor malignancy...
  4. Partanen J, Armstrong E, Mäkelä T, Korhonen J, Sandberg M, Renkonen R, et al. A novel endothelial cell surface receptor tyrosine kinase with extracellular epidermal growth factor homology domains. Mol Cell Biol. 1992;12:1698-707 pubmed
    ..The tie receptor tyrosine kinase may have evolved for multiple protein-protein interactions, possibly including cell adhesion to the vascular endothelium. ..
  5. Marron M, Hughes D, Edge M, Forder C, Brindle N. Evidence for heterotypic interaction between the receptor tyrosine kinases TIE-1 and TIE-2. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:39741-6 pubmed
    ..The data suggest Tie-1 does not signal via ligand-induced kinase activation involving homo-oligomerization. The physical association between Tie-1 and Tie-2 is consistent with Tie-1 having a role in modulating Tie-2 signaling. ..
  6. Murray B, Padrique E, Pinko C, McTigue M. Mechanistic effects of autophosphorylation on receptor tyrosine kinase catalysis: enzymatic characterization of Tie2 and phospho-Tie2. Biochemistry. 2001;40:10243-53 pubmed
    ..Autophosphorylation of the angiogenic receptor tyrosine kinase Tie2 was studied in terms of the autophosphorylation sites, sequence of phosphorylation at these sites, kinetic effects, ..
  7. FINDLEY C, Cudmore M, Ahmed A, Kontos C. VEGF induces Tie2 shedding via a phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt dependent pathway to modulate Tie2 signaling. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2007;27:2619-26 pubmed
    b>Tie2 and its ligands, the angiopoietins (Ang), are required for embryonic and postnatal angiogenesis...
  8. Takahara K, Iioka T, Furukawa K, Uchida T, Nakashima M, Tsukazaki T, et al. Autocrine/paracrine role of the angiopoietin-1 and -2/Tie2 system in cell proliferation and chemotaxis of cultured fibroblastic synoviocytes in rheumatoid arthritis. Hum Pathol. 2004;35:150-8 pubmed
    ..We previously reported that Tie1 and Tie2, endothelium-specific tyrosine kinase receptors essential for angiogenesis, are expressed not only by vascular ..
  9. Jones N, Chen S, Sturk C, Master Z, Tran J, Kerbel R, et al. A unique autophosphorylation site on Tie2/Tek mediates Dok-R phosphotyrosine binding domain binding and function. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:2658-68 pubmed
    b>Tie2/Tek is an endothelial cell receptor tyrosine kinase that induces signal transduction pathways involved in cell migration upon angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) stimulation...
  10. Mammoto T, Parikh S, Mammoto A, Gallagher D, Chan B, Mostoslavsky G, et al. Angiopoietin-1 requires p190 RhoGAP to protect against vascular leakage in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:23910-8 pubmed
    ..These results provide mechanistic evidence that targeting the endothelium through Tie-2 may offer specific therapeutic strategies in life-threatening endotoxemic conditions such as sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome. ..
  11. Fachinger G, Deutsch U, Risau W. Functional interaction of vascular endothelial-protein-tyrosine phosphatase with the angiopoietin receptor Tie-2. Oncogene. 1999;18:5948-53 pubmed
    ..Based on its potential role as a regulator of blood vessel morphogenesis and maintainance, VE-PTP is a candidate gene for inherited vascular malformations similar to the Tie-2 gene. ..
  12. Valenzuela D, Griffiths J, Rojas J, Aldrich T, Jones P, Zhou H, et al. Angiopoietins 3 and 4: diverging gene counterparts in mice and humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:1904-9 pubmed
    ..angiopoietin-1, as well as a naturally occurring antagonist, angiopoietin-2, both of which act by means of the Tie2 receptor...
  13. Fukuhara S, Sako K, Minami T, Noda K, Kim H, Kodama T, et al. Differential function of Tie2 at cell-cell contacts and cell-substratum contacts regulated by angiopoietin-1. Nat Cell Biol. 2008;10:513-26 pubmed publisher
    b>Tie2 belongs to the receptor tyrosine kinase family and functions as a receptor for Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1)...
  14. Asahara T, Chen D, Takahashi T, Fujikawa K, Kearney M, Magner M, et al. Tie2 receptor ligands, angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2, modulate VEGF-induced postnatal neovascularization. Circ Res. 1998;83:233-40 pubmed
    ..Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) has been recently identified as the major physiological ligand for the tyrosine kinase receptor Tie2 and assigned responsibility for recruiting and sustaining periendothelial support cells...
  15. Thomas M, Felcht M, Kruse K, Kretschmer S, Deppermann C, Biesdorf A, et al. Angiopoietin-2 stimulation of endothelial cells induces alphavbeta3 integrin internalization and degradation. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:23842-9 pubmed publisher
    ..and Ang-2) have been identified as agonistic and antagonistic ligands of the endothelial receptor tyrosine kinase Tie2, respectively. Both ligands have been demonstrated to induce translocation of Tie2 to cell-cell junctions...
  16. Boon L, Mulliken J, Vikkula M, Watkins H, Seidman J, Olsen B, et al. Assignment of a locus for dominantly inherited venous malformations to chromosome 9p. Hum Mol Genet. 1994;3:1583-7 pubmed
    ..Characterization of the gene responsible for this disorder should yield insights into the precise pathogenic mechanisms for venous malformations. ..
  17. Barton W, Tzvetkova D, Nikolov D. Structure of the angiopoietin-2 receptor binding domain and identification of surfaces involved in Tie2 recognition. Structure. 2005;13:825-32 pubmed
    ..They exert their effects through a member of the tyrosine kinase receptor family, Tie2. Angiopoietin/Tie2 signaling is unique among tyrosine kinase receptor-ligand systems in that distinct angiopoietin ..
  18. Bogdanovic E, Nguyen V, Dumont D. Activation of Tie2 by angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2 results in their release and receptor internalization. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:3551-60 pubmed
    The receptor tyrosine kinase Tie2 is highly expressed in endothelial cells and is crucial for angiogenesis and vascular maintenance...
  19. Barton W, Tzvetkova Robev D, Miranda E, Kolev M, Rajashankar K, Himanen J, et al. Crystal structures of the Tie2 receptor ectodomain and the angiopoietin-2-Tie2 complex. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2006;13:524-32 pubmed
    ..Here we present the crystal structures of the Tie2 ligand-binding region alone and in complex with Ang2...
  20. Harfouche R, Malak N, Brandes R, Karsan A, Irani K, Hussain S. Roles of reactive oxygen species in angiopoietin-1/tie-2 receptor signaling. FASEB J. 2005;19:1728-30 pubmed
  21. Vikkula M, Boon L, Carraway K, Calvert J, Diamonti A, Goumnerov B, et al. Vascular dysmorphogenesis caused by an activating mutation in the receptor tyrosine kinase TIE2. Cell. 1996;87:1181-90 pubmed
    ..in an arginine-to-tryptophan substitution at position 849 in the kinase domain of the receptor tyrosine kinase TIE2 segregates with dominantly inherited VM in two unrelated families...
  22. Davis S, Aldrich T, Jones P, Acheson A, Compton D, Jain V, et al. Isolation of angiopoietin-1, a ligand for the TIE2 receptor, by secretion-trap expression cloning. Cell. 1996;87:1161-9 pubmed
    b>TIE2 is a receptor-like tyrosine kinase expressed almost exclusively in endothelial cells and early hemopoietic cells and required for the normal development of vascular structures during embryogenesis...
  23. Kontos C, Stauffer T, Yang W, York J, Huang L, Blanar M, et al. Tyrosine 1101 of Tie2 is the major site of association of p85 and is required for activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and Akt. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:4131-40 pubmed
    b>Tie2 is an endothelium-specific receptor tyrosine kinase that is required for both normal embryonic vascular development and tumor angiogenesis and is thought to play a role in vascular maintenance...
  24. Winderlich M, Keller L, Cagna G, Broermann A, Kamenyeva O, Kiefer F, et al. VE-PTP controls blood vessel development by balancing Tie-2 activity. J Cell Biol. 2009;185:657-71 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that VE-PTP is required to balance Tie-2 activity and endothelial cell proliferation, thereby controlling blood vessel development and vessel size. ..
  25. Limaye N, Wouters V, Uebelhoer M, Tuominen M, Wirkkala R, Mulliken J, et al. Somatic mutations in angiopoietin receptor gene TEK cause solitary and multiple sporadic venous malformations. Nat Genet. 2009;41:118-24 pubmed publisher
    ..TIE2 (encoded by TEK) cause a rare, inherited form of venous anomaly known as a mucocutaneous venous malformation (VMCM; refs. 1, 2, 3 and V.W., N.L., M.U., A. Irrthum, L.M.B. et al., unpublished data)...
  26. Calvert J, Riney T, Kontos C, Cha E, Prieto V, Shea C, et al. Allelic and locus heterogeneity in inherited venous malformations. Hum Mol Genet. 1999;8:1279-89 pubmed
    ..occur sporadically but also as an autosomal dominant condition termed venous malformations, cutaneous and mucosal (VMCM; OMIM 600195)...
  27. Master Z, Jones N, Tran J, Jones J, Kerbel R, Dumont D. Dok-R plays a pivotal role in angiopoietin-1-dependent cell migration through recruitment and activation of Pak. EMBO J. 2001;20:5919-28 pubmed
    ..Our study outlines a novel signaling pathway underlying Ang1-driven cell migration that involves Dok-R and its recruitment of Nck and the subsequent activation of Pak. ..
  28. Zhang J, Fukuhara S, Sako K, Takenouchi T, Kitani H, Kume T, et al. Angiopoietin-1/Tie2 signal augments basal Notch signal controlling vascular quiescence by inducing delta-like 4 expression through AKT-mediated activation of beta-catenin. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:8055-66 pubmed publisher
    Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) regulates both vascular quiescence and angiogenesis through the receptor tyrosine kinase Tie2. We and another group previously showed that Ang1 and Tie2 form distinct signaling complexes at cell-cell and cell-matrix ..
  29. Tsiamis A, Morris P, Marron M, Brindle N. Vascular endothelial growth factor modulates the Tie-2:Tie-1 receptor complex. Microvasc Res. 2002;63:149-58 pubmed
    ..Such cross-talk is likely to be important in the coordinate control of blood vessel formation during development and in postnatal angiogenesis. ..
  30. Fiedler U, Krissl T, Koidl S, Weiss C, Koblizek T, Deutsch U, et al. Angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2 share the same binding domains in the Tie-2 receptor involving the first Ig-like loop and the epidermal growth factor-like repeats. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:1721-7 pubmed
  31. Yuan H, Venkatesha S, Chan B, Deutsch U, Mammoto T, Sukhatme V, et al. Activation of the orphan endothelial receptor Tie1 modifies Tie2-mediated intracellular signaling and cell survival. FASEB J. 2007;21:3171-83 pubmed
    ..We report here that Ang1 induces Tie1 phosphorylation in endothelial cells. Tie1 phosphorylation was, however, Tie2 dependent because 1) Ang1 failed to induce Tie1 phosphorylation when Tie2 was down-regulated in endothelial cells; ..
  32. Yu Y, Varughese J, Brown L, Mulliken J, Bischoff J. Increased Tie2 expression, enhanced response to angiopoietin-1, and dysregulated angiopoietin-2 expression in hemangioma-derived endothelial cells. Am J Pathol. 2001;159:2271-80 pubmed
    ..KDR, Flt-1, Tie1, Tie2, and angiopoietin-2 (Ang2) were strongly expressed in cultured hemangioma-derived endothelial cells and in ..
  33. Marron M, Singh H, Tahir T, Kavumkal J, Kim H, Koh G, et al. Regulated proteolytic processing of Tie1 modulates ligand responsiveness of the receptor-tyrosine kinase Tie2. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:30509-17 pubmed
    ..We also find that regulated Tie1 processing modulates ligand responsiveness of the Tie-1-associated receptor Tie2. Activation of Tie1 ectodomain cleavage increases cartilage oligomeric protein angiopoietin 1 activation of Tie2...
  34. Witzenbichler B, Maisonpierre P, Jones P, Yancopoulos G, Isner J. Chemotactic properties of angiopoietin-1 and -2, ligands for the endothelial-specific receptor tyrosine kinase Tie2. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:18514-21 pubmed
    ..Excess soluble Tie2, but not Tie1 receptor, abolish the chemotactic response of endothelial cells toward angiopoietin-1...
  35. Audero E, Cascone I, Maniero F, Napione L, Arese M, Lanfrancone L, et al. Adaptor ShcA protein binds tyrosine kinase Tie2 receptor and regulates migration and sprouting but not survival of endothelial cells. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:13224-33 pubmed
    ..sprouting, and survival of endothelial cells through activation of different signaling pathways triggered by the Tie2 tyrosine kinase receptor...
  36. Abou Khalil R, Le Grand F, Pallafacchina G, Valable S, Authier F, Rudnicki M, et al. Autocrine and paracrine angiopoietin 1/Tie-2 signaling promotes muscle satellite cell self-renewal. Cell Stem Cell. 2009;5:298-309 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Ang1/Tie-2 signaling regulates mpc self-renewal by controlling the return to quiescence of a subset of satellite cells...
  37. Onimaru M, Yonemitsu Y, Suzuki H, Fujii T, Sueishi K. An autocrine linkage between matrix metalloproteinase-14 and Tie-2 via ectodomain shedding modulates angiopoietin-1-dependent function in endothelial cells. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010;30:818-26 pubmed publisher
  38. Backen A, Renehan A, Clamp A, Berzuini C, Zhou C, Oza A, et al. The combination of circulating Ang1 and Tie2 levels predicts progression-free survival advantage in bevacizumab-treated patients with ovarian cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2014;20:4549-4558 pubmed publisher
    ..The combined values of circulating Ang1 (angiopoietin 1) and Tie2 (Tunica internal endothelial cell kinase 2) concentrations predicted improved PFS in bevacizumab-treated patients ..
  39. Singh H, Hansen T, Patel N, Brindle N. The molecular balance between receptor tyrosine kinases Tie1 and Tie2 is dynamically controlled by VEGF and TNFα and regulates angiopoietin signalling. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e29319 pubmed publisher
    Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) signals via the receptor tyrosine kinase Tie2 which exists in complex with the related protein Tie1 at the endothelial cell surface...
  40. Felcht M, Luck R, Schering A, Seidel P, Srivastava K, Hu J, et al. Angiopoietin-2 differentially regulates angiogenesis through TIE2 and integrin signaling. J Clin Invest. 2012;122:1991-2005 pubmed publisher
    ..ANG-2 binds the endothelial-specific receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (TIE2) and acts as a negative regulator of ANG-1/TIE2 signaling during angiogenesis, thereby controlling the ..
  41. Ziegler S, Bird T, Schneringer J, Schooley K, Baum P. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel receptor protein tyrosine kinase from human placenta. Oncogene. 1993;8:663-70 pubmed
    ..The HPK-6 cDNA, when transfected into COS-7 cells, encodes a 140-kDa protein with in vitro kinase activity. ..
  42. Daly C, Eichten A, Castanaro C, Pasnikowski E, Adler A, Lalani A, et al. Angiopoietin-2 functions as a Tie2 agonist in tumor models, where it limits the effects of VEGF inhibition. Cancer Res. 2013;73:108-18 pubmed publisher
    ..ANGPT1) and Ang2 (ANGPT2) are secreted factors that bind to the endothelial cell-specific receptor tyrosine kinase Tie2 (TEK) and regulate angiogenesis. Ang1 activates Tie2 to promote blood vessel maturation and stabilization...
  43. Huang Y, Wu M, Pan S, Su W, Chen Y, Wu L. STAT1 activation by venous malformations mutant Tie2-R849W antagonizes VEGF-A-mediated angiogenic response partly via reduced bFGF production. Angiogenesis. 2013;16:207-22 pubmed publisher
    A missense mutation from arginine to tryptophan at residue 849 in the kinase domain of Tie2 (Tie2-R849W) is commonly identified in familial venous malformations...
  44. Yuan H, Khankin E, Karumanchi S, Parikh S. Angiopoietin 2 is a partial agonist/antagonist of Tie2 signaling in the endothelium. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:2011-22 pubmed publisher
    Angiopoietin 2 (Ang2) was originally shown to be a competitive antagonist for Ang1 of the receptor tyrosine kinase Tie2 in endothelial cells (ECs). Since then, reports have conflicted on whether Ang2 is an agonist or antagonist of Tie2...
  45. Debusk L, Chen Y, Nishishita T, Chen J, Thomas J, Lin P. Tie2 receptor tyrosine kinase, a major mediator of tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced angiogenesis in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2003;48:2461-71 pubmed
    ..Our objective was to study the role of an endothelium-specific receptor tyrosine kinase, Tie2, in angiogenesis of inflammatory arthritis...
  46. Jones N, Dumont D. The Tek/Tie2 receptor signals through a novel Dok-related docking protein, Dok-R. Oncogene. 1998;17:1097-108 pubmed
    Tek/Tie2 is an endothelial cell-specific receptor tyrosine kinase that has been shown to play a role in vascular development of the mouse...
  47. Ge S, Murugesan N, Pachter J. Astrocyte- and endothelial-targeted CCL2 conditional knockout mice: critical tools for studying the pathogenesis of neuroinflammation. J Mol Neurosci. 2009;39:269-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Specifically, mice containing a floxed CCL2 allele were intercrossed with GFAP-Cre or Tie2-Cre transgenic mice to generate mice with CCL2-deficient astrocytes (astrocyte KO) or endothelial cells (..
  48. Kawaguchi M, Kitajima K, Kanokoda M, Suzuki H, Miyashita K, Nakajima M, et al. Efficient production of platelets from mouse embryonic stem cells by enforced expression of Gata2 in late hemogenic endothelial cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;474:462-468 pubmed publisher
    ..was added to day 5 hemogenic endothelial cells in the in vitro differentiation culture of iGata2-ESCs, c-Kit(-)Tie2(-)CD41(+) Mks were predominantly generated...
  49. Soblet J, Kangas J, Nätynki M, Mendola A, Helaers R, Uebelhoer M, et al. Blue Rubber Bleb Nevus (BRBN) Syndrome Is Caused by Somatic TEK (TIE2) Mutations. J Invest Dermatol. 2017;137:207-216 pubmed publisher
    ..We discovered somatic mutations in TEK, the gene encoding TIE2, in 15 of 17 individuals with blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome...
  50. Silvestris N, Danza K, Longo V, Brunetti O, Fucci L, Argentiero A, et al. Angiogenesis in adenosquamous cancer of pancreas. Oncotarget. 2017;8:95773-95779 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data demonstrate an important angiogenic activity in ASCP with a putative role of miR-21-5p, miR-181a-5p, miR-122-5p and miR-27a-3p in the regulation of this process...
  51. Lukasz A, Beneke J, Thamm K, Kielstein J, Menne J, Mikesch J, et al. Involvement of Angiopoietin-2 and Tie2 Receptor Phosphorylation in STEC-HUS Mediated by Escherichia coli O104:H4. Mediators Inflamm. 2015;2015:670248 pubmed publisher
    ..As indicated by recent studies, dysregulation of the angiopoietin (Angpt)/Tie2 ligand receptor system may be crucial for endothelial dysfunction in HUS...
  52. Massarsky A, Abdel A, Glazer L, Levin E, Di Giulio R. Neurobehavioral effects of 1,2-propanediol in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Neurotoxicology. 2018;65:111-124 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first study to demonstrate that developmental exposure to 1,2-propanediol has long-term neurobehavioral consequences in adult zebrafish, showing that e-cigarettes contain substances potentially harmful to neurodevelopment. ..
  53. Lieb W, Zachariah J, Xanthakis V, Safa R, Chen M, Sullivan L, et al. Clinical and genetic correlates of circulating angiopoietin-2 and soluble Tie-2 in the community. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2010;3:300-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations are consistent with the notion that angiogenesis and vascular remodeling are determined in part by genetic influences and associated with metabolic risk factors. ..
  54. Seegar T, Eller B, Tzvetkova Robev D, Kolev M, Henderson S, Nikolov D, et al. Tie1-Tie2 interactions mediate functional differences between angiopoietin ligands. Mol Cell. 2010;37:643-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite considerable similarity, experiments with Tie1- or Tie2-deficient mice highlight distinct functions for these receptors in vivo...
  55. Demir R. Expression of VEGF receptors VEFGR-1 and VEGFR-2, angiopoietin receptors Tie-1 and Tie-2 in chorionic villi tree during early pregnancy. Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2009;47:435-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Probably, this event may be related to complete vasculugenesis and angiogenesis in placental villi...
  56. Molskness T, Stouffer R, Burry K, Gorrill M, Lee D, Patton P. Circulating levels of total angiopoietin-2 and the soluble Tie-2 receptor in women during ovarian stimulation and early gestation. Fertil Steril. 2006;86:1531-3 pubmed
    ..During the postimplantation period, the rise in Ang-2 (but not sTie-2) levels probably reflects placental rather than luteal production. ..
  57. Parikh S. Angiopoietins and Tie2 in vascular inflammation. Curr Opin Hematol. 2017;24:432-438 pubmed publisher
    ..The study suggests that this host vascular response may be both measurable and potentially targetable. Tie2 is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) heavily enriched in the vascular endothelium whose tonic signaling actively ..
  58. Tian S, Zhu F, Hu R, Tian S, Chen X, Lou D, et al. The anti-apoptotic effect of fluid mechanics preconditioning by cells membrane and mitochondria in rats brain microvascular endothelial cells. Neurosci Lett. 2018;662:6-11 pubmed publisher
    ..It showed that fluid mechanics preconditioning could inhibit the apoptosis of endothelial cells, and this process might be mediated by the shear stress activation of Tie-2 on cells membrane surface and Bcl-2 on the mitochondria surface. ..
  59. Hughes D, Marron M, Brindle N. The antiinflammatory endothelial tyrosine kinase Tie2 interacts with a novel nuclear factor-kappaB inhibitor ABIN-2. Circ Res. 2003;92:630-6 pubmed
    b>Tie2 is a receptor tyrosine kinase expressed predominantly in endothelial cells and is essential for blood vessel formation and maintenance...
  60. Chlench S, Mecha Disassa N, Hohberg M, Hoffmann C, Pohlkamp T, Beyer G, et al. Regulation of Foxo-1 and the angiopoietin-2/Tie2 system by shear stress. FEBS Lett. 2007;581:673-80 pubmed
    ..Since shear stress activates Akt, we determined whether Foxo-1 and the Foxo-1-dependent, angiogenesis-related Ang-2/Tie2-system are influenced by shear stress in endothelial cells...
  61. Sun Y, Shan Y, Li C, Si R, Pan X, Wang B, et al. Discovery of novel anti-angiogenesis agents. Part 8: Diaryl thiourea bearing 1H-indazole-3-amine as multi-target RTKs inhibitors. Eur J Med Chem. 2017;141:373-385 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, 1H-indazole-3-amine could serve as a promising hinge binding group for multi-target inhibitors of VEGFR-2, Tie-2, and EphB4...