thymosin beta 4

Summary

Gene Symbol: thymosin beta 4
Description: thymosin beta 4 X-linked
Alias: PTMB4, TB4X, TMSB4, thymosin beta-4, prothymosin beta-4, t beta-4, thymosin, beta 4, X chromosome
Species: human
Products:     thymosin beta 4

Top Publications

  1. Reyes Gordillo K, Shah R, Popratiloff A, Fu S, Hindle A, Brody F, et al. Thymosin-?4 (T?4) blunts PDGF-dependent phosphorylation and binding of AKT to actin in hepatic stellate cells. Am J Pathol. 2011;178:2100-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, overall, our findings suggest that T?4 by sequestering actin prevents binding of AKT, thus inhibiting its phosphorylation. Therefore, T?4 has the potential to be an antifibrogenic agent. ..
  2. Huff T, Müller C, Otto A, Netzker R, Hannappel E. beta-Thymosins, small acidic peptides with multiple functions. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2001;33:205-20 pubmed
    ..However, nothing is known about the molecular mechanisms mediating the effects attributed to extracellular beta-thymosins. ..
  3. Ricci Vitiani L, Mollinari C, di Martino S, Biffoni M, Pilozzi E, Pagliuca A, et al. Thymosin beta4 targeting impairs tumorigenic activity of colon cancer stem cells. FASEB J. 2010;24:4291-301 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, T?4 may have important implications for therapeutic intervention for treatment of human colon carcinoma. ..
  4. Moon E, Im Y, Ryu Y, Kang J. Actin-sequestering protein, thymosin beta-4, is a novel hypoxia responsive regulator. Clin Exp Metastasis. 2010;27:601-9 pubmed publisher
    ..It suggests that TB4 could be a hypoxia responsive regulator to control tumor cell migration in angiogenesis and tumor metastasis...
  5. Safer D, Elzinga M, Nachmias V. Thymosin beta 4 and Fx, an actin-sequestering peptide, are indistinguishable. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:4029-32 pubmed
    ..Here we report that Fx is indistinguishable from thymosin beta 4, an acidic, heat-stable 5-kDa peptide first isolated from calf thymus and thought to be a thymic hormone...
  6. Moon H, Even Ram S, Kleinman H, Cha H. Zyxin is upregulated in the nucleus by thymosin beta4 in SiHa cells. Exp Cell Res. 2006;312:3425-31 pubmed
    ..Both zyxin and thymosin beta4 show increased localization in the nucleus. We conclude that thymosin beta4 may exert some of its migration promoting activity via increased zyxin expression. ..
  7. Qiu P, Wheater M, Qiu Y, Sosne G. Thymosin beta4 inhibits TNF-alpha-induced NF-kappaB activation, IL-8 expression, and the sensitizing effects by its partners PINCH-1 and ILK. FASEB J. 2011;25:1815-26 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the results of this study serve as a foundation for developing T?(4) as a new anti-inflammatory therapy. ..
  8. Bock Marquette I, Saxena A, White M, Dimaio J, Srivastava D. Thymosin beta4 activates integrin-linked kinase and promotes cardiac cell migration, survival and cardiac repair. Nature. 2004;432:466-72 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that thymosin beta4 promotes cardiomyocyte migration, survival and repair and the pathway it regulates may be a new therapeutic target in the setting of acute myocardial damage. ..
  9. Nemolato S, Messana I, Cabras T, Manconi B, Inzitari R, Fanali C, et al. Thymosin beta(4) and beta(10) levels in pre-term newborn oral cavity and foetal salivary glands evidence a switch of secretion during foetal development. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5109 pubmed publisher
    ..The switch observed may be an example of further secretion switches involving other exocrine and endocrine glands during foetal development. ..

More Information

Publications127 found, 100 shown here

  1. Jo J, Kang Y, Ock M, Kleinman H, Chang H, Cha H. Thymosin ?4 expression in human tissues and in tumors using tissue microarrays. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2011;19:160-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the expression of thymosin ?4 is highly related with tumorigenesis of certain tumors including the osteosarcoma and colorectal cancers. ..
  2. Ryu Y, Lee Y, Lee G, Song K, Kim Y, Moon E. Regulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 by thymosin beta-4 is associated with gastric cancer cell migration. Int J Cancer. 2012;131:2067-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, data indicated that the expression of GSK-3?, ?-catenin and E-cadherin could be negatively regulated by T?4-induced ERK phosphorylation. It suggests that T?4 could be a novel regulator to control Wnt signaling pathways. ..
  3. Malinda K, Goldstein A, Kleinman H. Thymosin beta 4 stimulates directional migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. FASEB J. 1997;11:474-81 pubmed
    b>Thymosin beta 4 (T beta 4) is a 4.9 kDa polypeptide that interacts with G-actin and is thought to be an important mediator in cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation...
  4. Hsiao H, Wang W, Chen P, Su Y. Overexpression of thymosin beta-4 renders SW480 colon carcinoma cells more resistant to apoptosis triggered by FasL and two topoisomerase II inhibitors via downregulating Fas and upregulating Survivin expression, respectively. Carcinogenesis. 2006;27:936-44 pubmed
    ..Thus, advantages such as immune evasion and resistance to anticancer drug-induced apoptosis acquired by colon cancer cells through Tbeta4 overexpression might facilitate their survival during metastasis and chemotherapy. ..
  5. Oh S, Song J, Gil J, Kim J, Yeom Y, Moon E. ERK activation by thymosin-beta-4 (TB4) overexpression induces paclitaxel-resistance. Exp Cell Res. 2006;312:1651-7 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, TB4 induced paclitaxel-resistance through the elevation of basal level of ERK phosphorylation. Therefore, TB4 could be a novel target to regulate paclitaxel-resistance. ..
  6. Faa G, Nemolato S, Cabras T, Fanni D, Gerosa C, Fanari M, et al. Thymosin ?4 expression reveals intriguing similarities between fetal and cancer cells. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2012;1269:53-60 pubmed publisher
    ..On the basis of these data, the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition could represent the unifying process that explains the role of T?4 during fetal development and in cancer progression. ..
  7. Hertzog M, van Heijenoort C, Didry D, Gaudier M, Coutant J, Gigant B, et al. The beta-thymosin/WH2 domain; structural basis for the switch from inhibition to promotion of actin assembly. Cell. 2004;117:611-23 pubmed
  8. Brieger A, Plotz G, Zeuzem S, Trojan J. Thymosin beta 4 expression and nuclear transport are regulated by hMLH1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;364:731-6 pubmed
    ..Moreover, loss of hMLH1 causes Tbeta4 deprivation and results in reduced migratory activity in vitro. These data give insight into novel functions of hMLH1 and probably disease related dysregulated mechanisms. ..
  9. Sanders M, Goldstein A, Wang Y. Thymosin beta 4 (Fx peptide) is a potent regulator of actin polymerization in living cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:4678-82 pubmed
    b>Thymosin beta 4 (beta 4) is a 5-kDa polypeptide originally identified in calf thymus. Although numerous activities have been attributed to beta 4, its physiological role remains elusive...
  10. Ballweber E, Hannappel E, Huff T, Stephan H, Haener M, Taschner N, et al. Polymerisation of chemically cross-linked actin:thymosin beta(4) complex to filamentous actin: alteration in helical parameters and visualisation of thymosin beta(4) binding on F-actin. J Mol Biol. 2002;315:613-25 pubmed
    ..However, parts of the difference map might represent subtle conformational changes of both proteins occurring upon complex formation. ..
  11. Lee S, So I, Park S, Kim I. Thymosin beta4 is involved in stabilin-2-mediated apoptotic cell engulfment. FEBS Lett. 2008;582:2161-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that thymosin beta4 is a downstream molecule of stabilin-2 that plays a role in stabilin-2-mediated cell corpse clearance. ..
  12. Safer D, Sosnick T, Elzinga M. Thymosin beta 4 binds actin in an extended conformation and contacts both the barbed and pointed ends. Biochemistry. 1997;36:5806-16 pubmed
    ..Circular dichroism data indicate that free thymosin beta 4 is predominantly unstructured, containing at most six residues of alpha-helix, and that up to six additional ..
  13. Wang W, Chen P, Hsiao H, Wang H, Liang W, Su Y. Overexpression of the thymosin beta-4 gene is associated with increased invasion of SW480 colon carcinoma cells and the distant metastasis of human colorectal carcinoma. Oncogene. 2004;23:6666-71 pubmed
  14. Huff T, Rosorius O, Otto A, Müller C, Ballweber E, Hannappel E, et al. Nuclear localisation of the G-actin sequestering peptide thymosin beta4. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:5333-41 pubmed
    ..Our data furthermore suggest that this peptide may also serve as a G-actin sequestering peptide in the nucleus, although additional nuclear functions cannot be excluded...
  15. Zoubek R, Hannappel E. Subcellular distribution of thymosin beta4. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007;1112:442-50 pubmed
    ..A passive but regulated diffusion could explain the described ability of thymosin beta(4) to shuttle into the nucleus. ..
  16. Badamchian M, Damavandy A, Damavandy H, Wadhwa S, Katz B, Goldstein A. Identification and quantification of thymosin beta4 in human saliva and tears. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007;1112:458-65 pubmed
  17. Jia Y, Shi L, Yun F, Liu X, Chen Y, Wang M, et al. Transcriptome sequencing profiles reveal lncRNAs may involve in breast cancer (ER/PR positive type) by interaction with RAS associated genes. Pathol Res Pract. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    ..7 and NEAT1, and the highest expressing mRNAs were RPL19, SCGB2A2, FTL and TMSB4 × . Of the 615 differentially expressed lncRNAs, 323 showed up regulated (P < 0...
  18. Carion T, Ebrahim A, Kracht D, Agrawal A, Strand E, Kaddurah O, et al. Thymosin Beta-4 and Ciprofloxacin Adjunctive Therapy Improves Pseudomonas aeruginosa-Induced Keratitis. Cells. 2018;7: pubmed publisher
    ..Use of adjunctive Tβ4 provides a more efficacious approach for bacterial keratitis by addressing both the infectious pathogen and deleterious host response. ..
  19. Shi B, Ding Q, He X, Zhu H, Niu Y, Cai B, et al. T?4-overexpression based on the piggyBac transposon system in cashmere goats alters hair fiber characteristics. Transgenic Res. 2017;26:77-85 pubmed publisher
    ..This indicates that T?4-overexpressing goats possess increased numbers of secondary hair follicles (SHF). Our results indicate that T?4-overexpression in cashmere goats could be a feasible strategy to increase cashmere yield. ..
  20. Henkel C, Schwamborn K, Zimmermann H, Tacke F, Kühnen E, Odenthal M, et al. From proteomic multimarker profiling to interesting proteins: thymosin-?(4) and kininogen-1 as new potential biomarkers for inflammatory hepatic lesions. J Cell Mol Med. 2011;15:2176-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the high throughput capability, the identified differential protein panel may serve as a diagnostic marker and warrants further validation in larger cohorts. ..
  21. Lee J, Ryu Y, Ji Y, Kang J, Moon E. Hypoxia/reoxygenation-experienced cancer cell migration and metastasis are regulated by Rap1- and Rac1-GTPase activation via the expression of thymosin beta-4. Oncotarget. 2015;6:9820-33 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that a combination therapy targeting both Rap1 and Rac1 activity may be an effective method of inhibiting tumor metastasis. ..
  22. Chen J, Peterson R, Schreiber S. Alpha 4 associates with protein phosphatases 2A, 4, and 6. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998;247:827-32 pubmed
    ..By analogy, alpha 4 and its associated phosphatases may participate in the mammalian rapamycin-sensitive pathway mediated by FRAP. ..
  23. Nie F, Wu J, Qin Z. [Expression of thymosin beta 4 mRNA expression in keloid tissues and fibroblasts cultured from keloid and its significance]. Zhongguo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue. 2005;17:80-3 pubmed
    To investigate the relations between thymosin beta 4 and pathologic scars by comparing the mRNA levels of thymosin beta 4 in keloid, hypertrophic scar and normal skin...
  24. Wei C, Kim I, Li L, Wu L, Gupta S. Thymosin Beta 4 protects mice from monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular hypertrophy. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e110598 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study may provide pre-clinical evidence for Tβ4 and may consider as vasculo-protective agent for the treatment of PH induced RVH. ..
  25. Sosne G. Thymosin beta 4 and the eye: the journey from bench to bedside. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2018;18:99-104 pubmed publisher
    b>Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4) has important applications in ocular repair and Phase 3 clinical trials using Tβ4 to treat dry eye and neurotrophic keratopathy are currently ongoing...
  26. Zhu L, Ren T, Zhu Z, Cheng M, Mou Q, Mu M, et al. Thymosin-β4 Mediates Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation by Interfering with CircRNA-0067835/miR-155/FoxO3 Signaling Pathway. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018;51:1389-1398 pubmed publisher
    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the primary cell type responsible for liver fibrosis. Our study proved that thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4) has anti-fibrogenic effects in HSCs through PI3K/AKT pathway...
  27. Francis Godschalk M. Pressure ulcers: a role for thymosin beta4. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007;1112:413-7 pubmed
    ..If thymosin beta4 decreases healing time, this would represent a significant advance in the treatment of pressure ulcers. ..
  28. Shah A, Youngquist S, McClung C, Tzvetkova E, Hanif M, Rosborough J, et al. Markers of progenitor cell recruitment and differentiation rise early during ischemia and continue during resuscitation in a porcine acute ischemia model. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2011;31:509-13 pubmed publisher
    ..These markers continue to rise during successful resuscitation and may represent an endogenous mechanism to recruit undifferentiated stem cells to areas of myocardial injury. ..
  29. Lee H, Yoon S, Song S, Park Y, Kim T, Kim S, et al. Interleukin-18-mediated interferon-gamma secretion is regulated by thymosin beta 4 in human NK cells. Immunobiology. 2011;216:1155-62 pubmed publisher
    b>Thymosin beta 4 (T?4) is the major G-actin sequestering molecule and is abundant in lymphoid tissues. However, it is not clear what regulates T?4 expression and what its function is on natural killer (NK) cells...
  30. Gemoll T, Strohkamp S, Schillo K, Thorns C, Habermann J. MALDI-imaging reveals thymosin beta-4 as an independent prognostic marker for colorectal cancer. Oncotarget. 2015;6:43869-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Among these, m/z 4,977 was identified as thymosin beta 4 (Tβ-4)...
  31. Al Nedawi K, Czyz M, Bednarek R, Szemraj J, Swiatkowska M, Cierniewska Cieslak A, et al. Thymosin beta 4 induces the synthesis of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 in cultured endothelial cells and increases its extracellular expression. Blood. 2004;103:1319-24 pubmed
    b>Thymosin beta 4(T beta 4), a 4.9-kDa polypeptide primarily known as a main G-actin-sequestering peptide, is present in high concentrations in various cells and in the circulation...
  32. Wang L, Chopp M, Szalad A, Lu X, Lu M, Zhang T, et al. Angiopoietin-1/Tie2 signaling pathway contributes to the therapeutic effect of thymosin β4 on diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Neurosci Res. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) and its receptor Tie2 regulate vascular function. Our previous study demonstrated that thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4) ameliorates neurological function of diabetic peripheral neuropathy...
  33. Han H, Kim S, Kwon J. Thymosin beta 4-Induced Autophagy Increases Cholinergic Signaling in PrP (106-126)-Treated HT22 Cells. Neurotox Res. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..b>Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4) plays a key role in the nervous system, providing a neuronal growth effect that includes ..
  34. Van Troys M, Dewitte D, Goethals M, Carlier M, Vandekerckhove J, Ampe C. The actin binding site of thymosin beta 4 mapped by mutational analysis. EMBO J. 1996;15:201-10 pubmed
    We characterized in detail the actin binding site of the small actin-sequestering protein thymosin beta 4 (T beta 4) using chemically synthesized full-length T beta 4 variants...
  35. Feinberg J, Heitz F, Benyamin Y, Roustan C. The N-terminal sequences (5-20) of thymosin beta 4 binds to monomeric actin in an alpha-helical conformation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996;222:127-32 pubmed
    ..The N-terminal part of thymosin beta 4, including the 5-20 sequences, is implicated in binding to monomeric actin...
  36. Larsson L, Holck S. Occurrence of thymosin beta4 in human breast cancer cells and in other cell types of the tumor microenvironment. Hum Pathol. 2007;38:114-9 pubmed
    ..Such heterogeneity of expression should be taken into account when the role of thymosin beta4 in tumor biology is assessed. ..
  37. Huff T, Müller C, Hannappel E. Thymosin beta4 is not always the main beta-thymosin in mammalian platelets. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007;1112:451-7 pubmed
  38. Bollini S, Vieira J, Howard S, Dubè K, Balmer G, Smart N, et al. Re-activated adult epicardial progenitor cells are a heterogeneous population molecularly distinct from their embryonic counterparts. Stem Cells Dev. 2014;23:1719-30 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously revealed that the peptide thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4) can reactivate adult epicardium-derived cells (EPDCs) after myocardial infarction (MI), to ..
  39. Chi L, Chang W, Chang Y, Chan Y, Tai C, Leung K, et al. Global Proteomics-based Identification and Validation of Thymosin Beta-4 X-Linked as a Prognostic Marker for Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Sci Rep. 2017;7:9031 pubmed publisher
    ..TMSB4X may be a potential therapeutic target for treating HNSCC patients. ..
  40. Gomez Marquez J, Dosil M, Segade F, Bustelo X, Pichel J, Dominguez F, et al. Thymosin-beta 4 gene. Preliminary characterization and expression in tissues, thymic cells, and lymphocytes. J Immunol. 1989;143:2740-4 pubmed
    ..The analysis of genomic DNA from different species ranging from humans to Escherichia coli showed that this gene is only highly conserved in mammals. ..
  41. Kim S, Kwon J. Thymosin beta 4 improves dermal burn wound healing via downregulation of receptor of advanced glycation end products in db/db mice. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1840:3452-9 pubmed publisher
    ..T?4 exerts effects to remedy burn wounds via downregulation of RAGE. Our results suggest the potential importance of T?4 as a new therapy for impaired burn wound healing that is associated with diabetes. ..
  42. Sosne G, Rimmer D, Kleinman H, Ousler G. Thymosin Beta 4: A Potential Novel Therapy for Neurotrophic Keratopathy, Dry Eye, and Ocular Surface Diseases. Vitam Horm. 2016;102:277-306 pubmed publisher
    ..Increasing evidence suggests that thymosin beta 4 (T?4), a naturally occurring polypeptide, can elicit this spectrum of therapeutic responses: a rapid corneal ..
  43. Drum C, Tan W, Chan S, Pakkiri L, Chong J, Liew O, et al. Thymosin Beta-4 Is Elevated in Women With Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction. J Am Heart Assoc. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
    ..Because TB4 can preserve EF in animal studies of cardiac injury, the relation of endogenous, circulating TB4 to X chromosome biology and differential outcomes in female heart disease warrants further study. ..
  44. Zhang J, Wu J, Zeng W, Yao K, Zu H, Zhao Y. Function of Thymosin Beta-4 in Ethanol-Induced Microglial Activation. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016;38:2230-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This study is the first to demonstrate the function of Tβ4 in ethanol-induced microglia activation, thus contributing to a more robust understanding of the role of Tβ4 treatment in CNS disease. ..
  45. Simenel C, Van Troys M, Vandekerckhove J, Ampe C, Delepierre M. Structural requirements for thymosin beta4 in its contact with actin. An NMR-analysis of thymosin beta4 mutants in solution and correlation with their biological activity. Eur J Biochem. 2000;267:3530-8 pubmed
    ..The correct termination of this helix is connected to a specific orientation of the polypeptide essential for a cooperative action of the thymosin beta4 binding entities required for full activity. ..
  46. Nemolato S, Cabras T, Cau F, Fanari M, Fanni D, Manconi B, et al. Different thymosin Beta 4 immunoreactivity in foetal and adult gastrointestinal tract. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9111 pubmed publisher
    b>Thymosin beta 4 (Tbeta(4)) is a member of beta-thymosins, a family of peptides that play essential roles in many cellular functions. A recent study from our group suggested a role for Tbeta(4) in the development of human salivary glands...
  47. Kim J, Wang S, Hyun J, Choi S, Cha H, Ock M, et al. Hepatic stellate cells express thymosin Beta 4 in chronically damaged liver. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0122758 pubmed publisher
  48. Liu Y, Liu M, Shi Y, Liu Y. Serum Thymosin ?4 Concentrations in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome Patients. J Clin Lab Anal. 2016;30:736-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Then multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that only disease severity remained to be associated with serum thymosin ?4. Serum thymosin ?4 concentrations were correlated with the occurrence and severity of OSAS. ..
  49. Sun M, Ahmad N, Zhang R, Graw J. Crybb2 associates with Tmsb4X and is crucial for dendrite morphogenesis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;503:123-130 pubmed publisher
    ..The current study uncovers a new function of Crybb2 in brain development, especially in dendritogenesis, and the possible interplay partner Tmsb4X involved in this process. ..
  50. Morita T, Hayashi K. Tumor Progression Is Mediated by Thymosin-β4 through a TGFβ/MRTF Signaling Axis. Mol Cancer Res. 2018;16:880-893 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Implications: These findings define a molecular mechanism underlying a tumor-promoting function of thymosin β4 through activation of MRTF/SRF signaling. Mol Cancer Res; 16(5); 880-93. ©2018 AACR. ..
  51. Zhang Y, Feurino L, Zhai Q, Wang H, Fisher W, Chen C, et al. Thymosin Beta 4 is overexpressed in human pancreatic cancer cells and stimulates proinflammatory cytokine secretion and JNK activation. Cancer Biol Ther. 2008;7:419-23 pubmed
    b>Thymosin beta 4 (T beta 4) has been shown to be associated with tumor metastasis and angiogenesis; however, its role in pancreatic cancer has not been understood...
  52. Kleinman H, Sosne G. Thymosin ?4 Promotes Dermal Healing. Vitam Horm. 2016;102:251-75 pubmed publisher
    No agent has been identified that significantly accelerates the repair of chronic dermal wounds in humans. Thymosin beta 4 (T?4) is a small, abundant, naturally occurring regenerative protein that is found in body fluids and inside cells...
  53. Micera A, Bonini S, Lambiase A, Lapucci G, Bonini S, Rasi G. Conjunctival expression of thymosin-beta4 in vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Mol Vis. 2006;12:1594-600 pubmed
  54. Hao Q, He L, Zhou J, Yuan Y, Ma X, Pang Z, et al. A dimeric thymosin beta 4 with novel bio-activity protects post-ischemic cardiac function by accelerating vascular endothelial cell proliferation. Int J Cardiol. 2018;261:146-154 pubmed publisher
    b>Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4) is a 43-amino-acid peptide with protective properties in myocardium injury. Previously, we produced a recombinant human dimeric Tβ4 (DTβ4)...
  55. Yoon S, Lee H, Park Y, Kim J, Kim S, Yoon S, et al. Thymosin ?4 expression correlates with lymph node metastasis through hypoxia inducible factor-? induction in breast cancer. Oncol Rep. 2011;25:23-31 pubmed
    ..Ultimately, these results highlight T?4 as a potentially therapeutic target in malignant cancers. ..
  56. Martin Lorenzo M, Balluff B, Maroto A, Carreira R, van Zeijl R, Gonzalez Calero L, et al. Molecular anatomy of ascending aorta in atherosclerosis by MS Imaging: Specific lipid and protein patterns reflect pathology. J Proteomics. 2015;126:245-51 pubmed publisher
    ..This overexpression and localization was confirmed in human aortas. In conclusion, molecular histology by MS Imaging identifies spatial organization of arterial tissue in response to atherosclerosis. ..
  57. Gao X, Liang H, Hou F, Zhang Z, Nuo M, Guo X, et al. Thymosin Beta-4 Induces Mouse Hair Growth. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0130040 pubmed publisher
    ..Tβ4 appears to regulate P38/ERK/AKT signaling via its effect on VEGF expression, with a resultant effect on the speed of hair growth, the pattern of HFs and the number of hair shafts. ..
  58. Santra M, Chopp M, Santra S, Nallani A, Vyas S, Zhang Z, et al. Thymosin beta 4 up-regulates miR-200a expression and induces differentiation and survival of rat brain progenitor cells. J Neurochem. 2016;136:118-32 pubmed publisher
    b>Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4), a secreted 43 amino acid peptide, promotes oligodendrogenesis, and improves neurological outcome in rat models of neurologic injury...
  59. Belsky J, Morris D, Bouchebl R, Filbin M, Bobbitt K, Jaehne A, et al. Plasma levels of F-actin and F:G-actin ratio as potential new biomarkers in patients with septic shock. Biomarkers. 2016;21:180-5 pubmed publisher
    To compare plasma levels of F-actin, G-actin and thymosin beta 4 (TB4) in humans with septic shock, noninfectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and healthy controls...
  60. Wong S, Yao Y, Hong Y, Ma Z, Kok S, Sun S, et al. Preventive Effects of Poloxamer 188 on Muscle Cell Damage Mechanics Under Oxidative Stress. Ann Biomed Eng. 2017;45:1083-1092 pubmed publisher
    ..The actin polymerization dynamics largely remained stable in term of the expression of cofilin, thymosin beta 4 and profilin...
  61. De Santis M, Inzitari R, Bosello S, Peluso G, Fanali C, Iavarone F, et al. ?-Thymosins and interstitial lung disease: study of a scleroderma cohort with a one-year follow-up. Respir Res. 2011;12:22 pubmed publisher
    ..Thymosin ?4 seems to have a protective role against lung tissue damage, while its oxidation product mirrors an alveolar inflammatory status. ..
  62. de Sousa Pereira P, Abrantes J, Colaço B, Castagnola M, Amado F, Esteves P, et al. Characterization of thymosin ?4 in mammals' saliva. Peptides. 2013;40:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Detection in these mammal species and its amino acid conservation suggest an important role of T?4 in the homeostasis of the mammalian oral cavity. ..
  63. Kim J, Jung Y. Potential role of thymosin Beta 4 in liver fibrosis. Int J Mol Sci. 2015;16:10624-35 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4), a major actin-sequestering protein, is known to be involved in various cellular responses...
  64. Mirams M, Ayodele B, Tatarczuch L, Henson F, Pagel C, Mackie E. Identification of novel osteochondrosis--Associated genes. J Orthop Res. 2016;34:404-11 pubmed publisher
    ..integrin αV, low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4, lumican, osteopontin, and thymosin β4 (TMSB4) were expressed at higher levels in lesions than in control cartilage...
  65. Li J, Zhang Y, Liu Y, Zhang Y, Xiang Z, Qu F, et al. A thymosin beta-4 is involved in production of hemocytes and immune defense of Hong Kong oyster, Crassostrea hongkongensis. Dev Comp Immunol. 2016;57:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that ChTβ4 is a thymosin beta-4 homolog and plays a vital role in the immune defense of C. hongkongensis. ..
  66. Wei M, Duan D, Liu Y, Wang Z, Li Z. Increased thymosin ?4 levels in the serum and SF of knee osteoarthritis patients correlate with disease severity. Regul Pept. 2013;185:34-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The thymosin ?4 levels in the serum and SF may serve as effective biomarkers for the severity of OA. ..
  67. Pipes G, Yang J. Cardioprotection by Thymosin Beta 4. Vitam Horm. 2016;102:209-26 pubmed publisher
    Treatment with thymosin beta 4 (T?4) reduces infarct volume and preserves cardiac function in preclinical models of cardiac ischemic injury...
  68. Huang D, Wang S, Wang A, Chen X, Zhang H. Thymosin beta 4 silencing suppresses proliferation and invasion of non-small cell lung cancer cells by repressing Notch1 activation. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2016;48:788-94 pubmed publisher
    b>Thymosin beta 4 (T?4), a pleiotropic actin-sequestering polypeptide that is involved in wound healing and developmental processes, has been reported to be strongly associated with tumorigenesis...
  69. Hinkel R, Howe A, Renner S, Ng J, Lee S, Klett K, et al. Diabetes Mellitus-Induced Microvascular Destabilization in the Myocardium. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017;69:131-143 pubmed publisher
    ..virus (rAAV) (5 × 1012 viral particles encoding vascular endothelial growth factor-A [VEGF-A] or thymosin beta 4 [Tβ4]) was applied regionally...
  70. Müller C, Huff T, Hannappel E. Reduction of thymosin beta4 and actin in HL60 cells during apoptosis is preceded by a decrease of their mRNAs. Mol Cell Biochem. 2003;250:179-88 pubmed
    ..According to our data araC has a significant influence on the transcriptional level of thymosin beta4 and actin. ..
  71. Yang S, Lee H, Su Y. Molecular cloning and structural characterization of the functional human thymosin beta4 gene. Mol Cell Biochem. 2005;272:97-105 pubmed
    ..5-kb 5'-flanking region. Taken together, our data provide crucial information for further dissection of the molecular mechanism(s) underlying aberrant expression of the Tbeta4 gene during malignant progression of human cancers. ..
  72. Kang Y, Jo J, Ock M, Chang H, Lee S, Ahn B, et al. Thymosin ?4 was upregulated in recurred colorectal cancers. J Clin Pathol. 2014;67:188-90 pubmed publisher
  73. Ayodele B, Mirams M, Pagel C, Mackie E. The vacuolar H+ ATPase V0 subunit d2 is associated with chondrocyte hypertrophy and supports chondrocyte differentiation. Bone Rep. 2017;7:98-107 pubmed publisher
    ..i>BAK1, DDX5, GNB1, PIP4K2A, RAP1B, RPS7, SRSF3, SUB1, TMSB4, TPI1 and WSB2) were found to be more highly expressed in the zone of hypertrophic chondrocytes ..
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    ..b>Thymosin beta 4 is a peptide with cardioprotective, anti-oxidant and anti-fibrotic properties and we further investigated ..
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    b>Thymosin beta 4 (T beta 4), a 5-kD peptide which binds G-actin and inhibits its polymerization (Safer, D., M. Elzinga, and V. T. Nachmias. 1991. J. Biol. Chem...
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    ..These data encourage testing latrunculin A-like and other agents interfering with thymosin beta4 for treatment of thymosin beta4-overexpressing tumors with high invasive and metastatic potential. ..
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    ..While greater improvement in thymosin beta4 value was found in those who recovered from the disease. Serum thymosin beta4 can be used as an important potential predictor for liver failure caused by chronic HBV infection. ..
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    ..This study correlates LL-37 with MSC functions (specifically those of ASCs), including cell expansion, cell migration, and paracrine actions, which may be useful in terms of implantation for tissue regeneration. ..
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    ..Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the primary cell type responsible for fibrosis. Thymosin beta 4 (T?4) has a potential role in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis and that it is especially associated with ..
  80. Hong K, Lee J, Hong S, Hong S. Thymosin β4 induces proliferation, invasion, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Amino Acids. 2016;48:117-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Further investigation on the Tβ4 molecule would encourage the development of specific targets for cancer treatment. ..
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    ..T?4 exerts a protective effect on murine colitis, indicating that AAV-T?4 could potentially be developed into a promising agent for the therapy of inflammatory bowel diseases. ..
  82. Huff T, Ballweber E, Humeny A, Bonk T, Becker C, Müller C, et al. Thymosin beta(4) serves as a glutaminyl substrate of transglutaminase. Labeling with fluorescent dansylcadaverine does not abolish interaction with G-actin. FEBS Lett. 1999;464:14-20 pubmed
    ..Taking these data together, it is tempting to speculate that thymosin beta(4) may serve as a glutaminyl substrate for transglutaminases in vivo and play an important role in transglutaminase-related processes. ..
  83. Ji Y, Lee B, Kang Y, Jo J, Lee S, Kim H, et al. Expression patterns of Thymosin ?4 and cancer stem cell marker CD133 in ovarian cancers. Pathol Oncol Res. 2013;19:237-45 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that T?4 expression is strongly related to CD133 expression and is a characteristic of stem cells or cancer stem cells. ..
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    ..The punctuate pattern of nuclear T?4 immunostaining associated with T?4 absence in the nucleoplasm suggest that this peptide might be localized in the nuclear pores, where it could regulate the pore permeability. ..
  85. Sui P, Watanabe H, Artemenko K, Sun W, Bakalkin G, Andersson M, et al. Neuropeptide imaging in rat spinal cord with MALDI-TOF MS: Method development for the application in pain-related disease studies. Eur J Mass Spectrom (Chichester). 2017;23:105-115 pubmed publisher
    ..that in naive rat spinal cord the molecular distribution of haeme, phosphatidylcholine, substance P and thymosin beta 4 were well in line with histological features...
  86. Sun Y, Chen X, Xu Y, Liu Q, Jiang X, Wang S, et al. Thymosin ?4 is involved in the antimicrobial immune response of Golden pompano, Trachinotus ovatus. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2017;69:90-98 pubmed publisher
    ..In the current study, we cloned and identified thymosin beta 4 from the teleost fish Golden pompano (Trachinotus ovatus), which we have named TroT?4...
  87. Wirsching H, Krishnan S, Florea A, Frei K, Krayenbuhl N, Hasenbach K, et al. Thymosin ? 4 gene silencing decreases stemness and invasiveness in glioblastoma. Brain. 2014;137:433-48 pubmed publisher
    b>Thymosin beta 4 is a pleiotropic actin-sequestering polypeptide that is involved in wound healing and developmental processes...
  88. Theunissen W, Fanni D, Nemolato S, Di Felice E, Cabras T, Gerosa C, et al. Thymosin beta 4 and thymosin beta 10 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma. Eur J Histochem. 2014;58:2242 pubmed publisher
    b>Thymosin beta 4 (T?4) and thymosin beta 10 (T?10) are two members of the beta-thymosin family involved in many cellular processes such as cellular motility, angiogenesis, inflammation, cell survival and wound healing...
  89. Xue B, Leyrat C, Grimes J, Robinson R. Structural basis of thymosin-β4/profilin exchange leading to actin filament polymerization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:E4596-605 pubmed publisher
    ..The sensitivity of profilin to the conformational state of actin indicates a similar allosteric mechanism for the dissociation of profilin during filament elongation. ..
  90. Friedman R, Manly S, McMahon M, Kerr I, Stark G. Transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of interferon-induced gene expression in human cells. Cell. 1984;38:745-55 pubmed
    ..This rate begins to fall after 4-6 hr, reaching the uninduced level by 8-12 hr. Since the mRNA continues to accumulate after 8-12 hr, posttranscriptional events must also play a role in increasing its level. ..
  91. Pantaloni D, Carlier M. How profilin promotes actin filament assembly in the presence of thymosin beta 4. Cell. 1993;75:1007-14 pubmed
    ..As a consequence, in the presence of thymosin beta 4 (T beta 4), low amounts of profilin promote extensive actin assembly off of the pool of actin-T beta 4 ..