Gene Symbol: THRB
Description: thyroid hormone receptor beta
Alias: C-ERBA-2, C-ERBA-BETA, ERBA2, GRTH, NR1A2, PRTH, THR1, THRB1, THRB2, thyroid hormone receptor beta, nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group A member 2, oncogene ERBA2, thyroid hormone nuclear receptor beta variant 1, thyroid hormone receptor, beta (erythroblastic leukemia viral (v-erb-a) oncogene homolog 2, avian)
Species: human
Products:     THRB

Top Publications

  1. Weinberger C, Thompson C, Ong E, Lebo R, Gruol D, Evans R. The c-erb-A gene encodes a thyroid hormone receptor. Nature. 1986;324:641-6 pubmed
    ..Binding studies with the protein show it to be a receptor for thyroid hormones. ..
  2. Puzianowska Kuznicka M, Nauman A, Madej A, Tanski Z, Cheng S, Nauman J. Expression of thyroid hormone receptors is disturbed in human renal clear cell carcinoma. Cancer Lett. 2000;155:145-52 pubmed
    ..6x overexpressed in tumors. TRbeta1 mRNA amount was overexpressed in 30% and significantly decreased in 70% of examined tumors. On the protein level, TRbeta1 amount was 1.7x lower in tumors than in healthy controls. ..
  3. González Sancho J, Garcia V, Bonilla F, Munoz A. Thyroid hormone receptors/THR genes in human cancer. Cancer Lett. 2003;192:121-32 pubmed
    ..T3 actions are mediated by specific high affinity nuclear receptors (TR) which are encoded by two genes, THRA and THRB. Several TRalpha and TRbeta receptor isoforms are expressed...
  4. Machado D, SABET A, Santiago L, Sidhaye A, Chiamolera M, Ortiga Carvalho T, et al. A thyroid hormone receptor mutation that dissociates thyroid hormone regulation of gene expression in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:9441-6 pubmed publisher
  5. Moeller L, Haselhorst N, Dumitrescu A, Cao X, Seo H, Refetoff S, et al. Stanniocalcin 1 induction by thyroid hormone depends on thyroid hormone receptor β and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2011;119:81-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These results establish STC1 as a TH target gene in humans. Furthermore, we show that STC1 induction by TH depends on both TRβ and PI3K activation. ..
  6. Alberobello A, Congedo V, Liu H, Cochran C, Skarulis M, Forrest D, et al. An intronic SNP in the thyroid hormone receptor ? gene is associated with pituitary cell-specific over-expression of a mutant thyroid hormone receptor ?2 (R338W) in the index case of pituitary-selective resistance to thyroid hormone. J Transl Med. 2011;9:144 pubmed publisher
    The syndrome of resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is caused by mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor ? gene (THRB)...
  7. Frankton S, Harvey C, Gleason L, Fadel A, Williams G. Multiple messenger ribonucleic acid variants regulate cell-specific expression of human thyroid hormone receptor beta1. Mol Endocrinol. 2004;18:1631-42 pubmed
    ..The THRA and THRB genes have discrete physiological roles but their mRNAs are expressed widely in overlapping patterns...
  8. Kim W, Zhu X, Kim D, Zhang L, Kebebew E, Cheng S. Reactivation of the silenced thyroid hormone receptor ? gene expression delays thyroid tumor progression. Endocrinology. 2013;154:25-35 pubmed publisher
    That a knock-in mouse harboring a dominant-negative thyroid hormone receptor (TR)-? (Thrb) mutation develops metastatic thyroid cancer strongly suggests the involvement of TR? in carcinogenesis...
  9. Sasaki S, Lesoon Wood L, Dey A, Kuwata T, Weintraub B, Humphrey G, et al. Ligand-induced recruitment of a histone deacetylase in the negative-feedback regulation of the thyrotropin beta gene. EMBO J. 1999;18:5389-98 pubmed
    ..We suggest that ligand-dependent histone deacetylase recruitment is a mechanism of the negative-feedback regulation, a critical function of the pituitary-thyroid axis. ..

More Information

Publications130 found, 100 shown here

  1. Martinez L, Nascimento A, Nunes F, Phillips K, Aparicio R, Dias S, et al. Gaining ligand selectivity in thyroid hormone receptors via entropy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:20717-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Similar effects could potentially be exploited in nuclear receptor drug design. ..
  2. Iwasaki Y, Sunaga N, Tomizawa Y, Imai H, Iijima H, Yanagitani N, et al. Epigenetic inactivation of the thyroid hormone receptor beta1 gene at 3p24.2 in lung cancer. Ann Surg Oncol. 2010;17:2222-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first study to demonstrate epigenetic inactivation of TRbeta1 through aberrant methylation in lung cancer, while TRbeta1 mutations are not common in lung cancer. ..
  3. Master A, Wojcicka A, Piekiełko Witkowska A, Bogusławska J, Popławski P, Tanski Z, et al. Untranslated regions of thyroid hormone receptor beta 1 mRNA are impaired in human clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1802:995-1005 pubmed publisher
    ..TR?1 functions as a tumor suppressor and disturbances of the THRB gene are frequent findings in cancer...
  4. Nagaya T, Madison L, Jameson J. Thyroid hormone receptor mutants that cause resistance to thyroid hormone. Evidence for receptor competition for DNA sequences in target genes. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:13014-9 pubmed
    ..have been reported in kindreds with the autosomal dominant syndrome of generalized resistance to thyroid hormone (GRTH)...
  5. Sakurai A, Nakai A, DeGroot L. Structural analysis of human thyroid hormone receptor beta gene. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1990;71:83-91 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that hTR beta has at least two mRNA forms having different lengths of the 3' untranslated region. We also note several nucleotide corrections of hTR beta 1 cDNA sequence. ..
  6. Chan I, Privalsky M. Isoform-specific transcriptional activity of overlapping target genes that respond to thyroid hormone receptors alpha1 and beta1. Mol Endocrinol. 2009;23:1758-75 pubmed publisher
  7. Garcia Silva S, Martínez Iglesias O, Ruiz Llorente L, Aranda A. Thyroid hormone receptor ?1 domains responsible for the antagonism with the ras oncogene: role of corepressors. Oncogene. 2011;30:854-64 pubmed publisher
    ..This shows an important functional role of endogenous corepressors in suppression of ras-mediated transformation and tumorigenesis by TR?1. ..
  8. Näär A, Boutin J, Lipkin S, Yu V, Holloway J, Glass C, et al. The orientation and spacing of core DNA-binding motifs dictate selective transcriptional responses to three nuclear receptors. Cell. 1991;65:1267-79 pubmed
    ..The orientation and spacing of core binding motifs may thus function in concert as a code that accounts for the selective patterns of transcriptional responses of hormonally regulated promoters. ..
  9. Kawa M, Grymula K, Paczkowska E, Baskiewicz Masiuk M, Dabkowska E, Koziolek M, et al. Clinical relevance of thyroid dysfunction in human haematopoiesis: biochemical and molecular studies. Eur J Endocrinol. 2010;162:295-305 pubmed publisher
  10. Ling Y, Xu X, Hao J, Ling X, Du X, Liu X, et al. Aberrant methylation of the THRB gene in tissue and plasma of breast cancer patients. Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2010;196:140-5 pubmed publisher
    ..b>THRB, the gene encoding TRbeta1, is considered a potential cancer suppressor...
  11. Parrilla R, Mixson A, McPherson J, McClaskey J, Weintraub B. Characterization of seven novel mutations of the c-erbA beta gene in unrelated kindreds with generalized thyroid hormone resistance. Evidence for two "hot spot" regions of the ligand binding domain. J Clin Invest. 1991;88:2123-30 pubmed
    ..In view of the diversity of clinical phenotypes manifested, the distinct topographic clustering of the mutations provides an invaluable genetic tool for the molecular dissection of thyroid receptor function. ..
  12. Sakurai A, Takeda K, Ain K, Ceccarelli P, Nakai A, Seino S, et al. Generalized resistance to thyroid hormone associated with a mutation in the ligand-binding domain of the human thyroid hormone receptor beta. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:8977-81 pubmed
    ..Thus, generalized resistance to thyroid hormone can result from expression of an abnormal thyroid hormone nuclear receptor molecule. ..
  13. Adams M, Matthews C, Collingwood T, Tone Y, Beck Peccoz P, Chatterjee K. Genetic analysis of 29 kindreds with generalized and pituitary resistance to thyroid hormone. Identification of thirteen novel mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor beta gene. J Clin Invest. 1994;94:506-15 pubmed
    ..Affected individuals were heterozygous for single nucleotide substitutions in the thyroid hormone receptor beta gene, except for a single case of a seven nucleotide insertion...
  14. Joseph B, Ji M, Liu D, Hou P, Xing M. Lack of mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor (TR) alpha and beta genes but frequent hypermethylation of the TRbeta gene in differentiated thyroid tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:4766-70 pubmed
  15. Jazdzewski K, Boguslawska J, Jendrzejewski J, Liyanarachchi S, Pachucki J, Wardyn K, et al. Thyroid hormone receptor beta (THRB) is a major target gene for microRNAs deregulated in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96:E546-53 pubmed publisher
    Loss of the thyroid hormone receptor is common in tumors. In mouse models, a truncated THRB gene leads to thyroid cancer...
  16. Gauthier K. Protocols for Studying How Thyroid Hormone Receptors Trigger Adaptive Thermogenesis in Mice. Methods Mol Biol. 2018;1801:105-110 pubmed publisher
    ..Mol Endocrinol 21:2350-2360, 2007) and THRB (Billon et al., Endocrinology 155:2735-2745, 2014)...
  17. Tamura K, Takayama S, Ishii T, Mawaribuchi S, Takamatsu N, Ito M. Apoptosis and differentiation of Xenopus tail-derived myoblasts by thyroid hormone. J Mol Endocrinol. 2015;54:185-92 pubmed publisher
    ..of the cells with T3 increased transcription of genes for matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and thyroid hormone receptor beta. Interestingly, the T3-treatment also increased myoD transcripts, but decreased the amounts of ..
  18. Gibson L, Koch I, Reimer K, Cullen W, Langlois V. Life cycle exposure of the frog Silurana tropicalis to arsenate: Steroid- and thyroid hormone-related genes are differently altered throughout development. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2016;234:133-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Specifically, thyroid hormone receptor beta and deiodinase type 2 mRNA levels were significantly reduced after arsenate treatment in the gonadal ..
  19. Marziali L, Correale J, Garcia C, Pasquini J. Combined effects of transferrin and thyroid hormone during oligodendrogenesis In vitro. Glia. 2016;64:1879-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Exposure to TH could then regulate Tf expression through TRα1 and promote the induction of thyroid hormone receptor beta (TRβ) expression, which mediates TH effects on myelination through the activation of final OLG ..
  20. Jianjie C, Wenjuan X, Jinling C, Jie S, Ruhui J, Meiyan L. Fluoride caused thyroid endocrine disruption in male zebrafish (Danio rerio). Aquat Toxicol. 2016;171:48-58 pubmed publisher
    ..DIO2), UDP glucuronosyltransferase 1 family a, b (UGT1ab), transthyretin (TTR), and thyroid hormone receptor beta (TRβ)...
  21. Dibba P, Li A, Perumpail B, John N, Sallam S, Shah N, et al. Emerging Therapeutic Targets and Experimental Drugs for the Treatment of NAFLD. Diseases. 2018;6: pubmed publisher
    ..Emerging data are promising and further updates from ongoing clinical trials are eagerly awaited. ..
  22. Fu W, Lee W, Abasht B. Detection of genomic signatures of recent selection in commercial broiler chickens. BMC Genet. 2016;17:122 pubmed publisher
    ..genes for recent selection in multiple lines, such as SOX6 (Sex Determining Region Y-Box 6) and cTR (Thyroid hormone receptor beta)...
  23. Lötsch J, Daiker H, Hähner A, Ultsch A, Hummel T. Drug-target based cross-sectional analysis of olfactory drug effects. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2015;71:461-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Besides agonistic targeting of thyroid hormone receptors (genes THRA1, THRB1) agreeing with the above result, antagonistically targeting the adrenoceptor alpha 1A (gene ADRA1A) by several ..
  24. Kalikiri M, Mamidala M, Rao A, Rajesh V. Analysis and functional characterization of sequence variations in ligand binding domain of thyroid hormone receptors in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) patients. Autism Res. 2017;10:1919-1928 pubmed publisher
    ..To achieve this objective, we performed genetic analysis of ligand binding domain of THRA and THRB receptor genes in 30 ASD subjects and in age matched controls from India...
  25. Samarut J, Plateroti M. Thyroid Hormone Receptors: Several Players for One Hormone and Multiple Functions. Methods Mol Biol. 2018;1801:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In Vertebrates two genes, THRA and THRB, encode respectively many isotypes and isoforms of receptors TRα and TRβ, resulting from alternative splicing and/..
  26. Portela Bens S, Merlo M, Rodríguez M, Cross I, Manchado M, Kosyakova N, et al. Integrated gene mapping and synteny studies give insights into the evolution of a sex proto-chromosome in Solea senegalensis. Chromosoma. 2017;126:261-277 pubmed publisher
    ..senegalensis that are similar in shape and size. The mFISH analysis shows the following co-localizations in the same chromosomes: dmrt1-dmrt2-dmrt3, dmrt4-sox9-thrb, aqp3-sox8, cyp19a1a-fshb, igsf9b-sox3, and lysg-sox6.
  27. Boglino A, Ponce M, Cousin X, Gisbert E, Manchado M. Transcriptional regulation of genes involved in retinoic acid metabolism in Senegalese sole larvae. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2017;203:35-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, five retinoic receptors that mediate RA actions, the thyroid receptor thrb, and five IGF binding proteins changed differentially their expression...
  28. Pappa T, Anselmo J, Mamanasiri S, Dumitrescu A, Weiss R, Refetoff S. Prenatal Diagnosis of Resistance to Thyroid Hormone and Its Clinical Implications. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2017;102:3775-3782 pubmed publisher
    ..Individuals with RTH-? have high TH levels usually due to mutations in the TH receptor-? (THRB) gene...
  29. Nayeri S, Sargolzaei M, Abo Ismail M, Miller S, Schenkel F, Moore S, et al. Genome-wide association study for lactation persistency, female fertility, longevity, and lifetime profit index traits in Holstein dairy cattle. J Dairy Sci. 2017;100:1246-1258 pubmed publisher
    ..genes supported by this work include DGAT1, GRINA, and CPSF1, whereas new candidate genes are SLC2A4RG and THRB. Thus, the chromosomal regions identified in this study not only confirm several previous findings but also ..
  30. Piasecka A, Czapinska H, Vielberg M, Szczepanowski R, Kiefersauer R, Reed S, et al. The Y. bercovieri Anbu crystal structure sheds light on the evolution of highly (pseudo)symmetric multimers. J Mol Biol. 2018;430:611-627 pubmed publisher
    ..subunits have the Ntn-hydrolase fold, a putative S1 pocket and conserved candidate catalytic residues Thr1, Asp17 and Lys32(33). Nevertheless, we did not detect any YbAnbu peptidase or amidase activity...
  31. Trifa A, Bănescu C, Bojan A, Voina C, Popa Ș, Visan S, et al. MECOM, HBS1L-MYB, THRB-RARB, JAK2, and TERT polymorphisms defining the genetic predisposition to myeloproliferative neoplasms: A study on 939 patients. Am J Hematol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..aimed to establish the additional contribution of the recently described MECOM rs2201862, HBS1L-MYB rs9376092 and THRB-RARB rs4858647 polymorphisms to the occurrence of MPN...
  32. Hörlein A, Näär A, Heinzel T, Torchia J, Gloss B, Kurokawa R, et al. Ligand-independent repression by the thyroid hormone receptor mediated by a nuclear receptor co-repressor. Nature. 1995;377:397-404 pubmed
  33. Rastinejad F, Perlmann T, Evans R, Sigler P. Structural determinants of nuclear receptor assembly on DNA direct repeats. Nature. 1995;375:203-11 pubmed
    ..The stereochemistry suggests a mechanism by which heterodimers recognize the inter-half-site spacing between direct repeats. ..
  34. Zhu X, Park K, Kaneshige M, Bhat M, Zhu Q, Mariash C, et al. The orphan nuclear receptor Ear-2 is a negative coregulator for thyroid hormone nuclear receptor function. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:2604-18 pubmed
    ..These findings further strengthen the hypothesis that the diverse activities of TR are achieved via a large network of coregulators that includes Ear-2. ..
  35. Mannavola D, Vannucchi G, Fugazzola L, Cerutti N, Persani L, Beck Peccoz P. Genetic analyses and evaluation of peripheral parameters of thyroid hormone action for the differential diagnosis of RTH. A novel heterozygous missense mutation (M334T) discovered. J Endocrinol Invest. 2002;25:RC4-6 pubmed
    ..Most RTH patients harbor mutations in the ligand binding domain (LBD) of thyroid hormone receptor beta (TRbeta) gene, without a clear correlation between genotype and phenotype...
  36. Mbogning J, Pagé V, Burston J, Schwenger E, Fisher R, Schwer B, et al. Functional interaction of Rpb1 and Spt5 C-terminal domains in co-transcriptional histone modification. Nucleic Acids Res. 2015;43:9766-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Ablation of the Spt5 CTD phospho-site Thr1 reduced H3K4me levels but had minimal effects on H3K36me...
  37. Buenaventura D, Ghinia Tegla M, Emerson M. Fate-restricted retinal progenitor cells adopt a molecular profile and spatial position distinct from multipotent progenitor cells. Dev Biol. 2018;443:35-49 pubmed publisher
    ..of fate- restricted progenitor cells biased to produce cone photoreceptors and horizontal cells, marked by the THRB cis-regulatory element ThrbCRM1...
  38. Hahm J, Schroeder A, Privalsky M. The two major isoforms of thyroid hormone receptor, TR?1 and TR?1, preferentially partner with distinct panels of auxiliary proteins. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2014;383:80-95 pubmed publisher
  39. Takano T, Miyauchi A, Yoshida H, Nakata Y, Kuma K, Amino N. Expression of TRbeta1 mRNAs with functionally impaired mutations is rare in thyroid papillary carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88:3447-9 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that the expression of functionally impaired mutants in papillary carcinomas is rare, and they raise a question about the possible role of mutated TRbeta1 in the tumorigenesis of papillary carcinoma. ..
  40. Arnaud Lopez L, Usala G, Ceresini G, Mitchell B, Pilia M, Piras M, et al. Phosphodiesterase 8B gene variants are associated with serum TSH levels and thyroid function. Am J Hum Genet. 2008;82:1270-80 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, we found evidence for association of TSH levels with SNPs in the THRB (rs1505287, p = 7.3 x 10(-5)), GNAQ (rs10512065, p = 2.0 x 10(-4)), TG (rs2252696, p = 2...
  41. Cheng Y, Ekker M, Chan H. Relative developmental toxicities of pentachloroanisole and pentachlorophenol in a zebrafish model (Danio rerio). Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2015;112:7-14 pubmed publisher
    ..I (SYN), iodothyronine deiodinase type III (Dio3), thyroid hormone receptor alpha a (THRαa) and thyroid hormone receptor beta (THRβ), and decreased expression of iodothyronine deiodinase type II (Dio2)...
  42. Zloh M, Perez Diaz N, Tang L, Patel P, Mackenzie L. Evidence that diclofenac and celecoxib are thyroid hormone receptor beta antagonists. Life Sci. 2016;146:66-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Using in silico and in vitro methods we have shown that both celecoxib and diclofenac but not naproxen exhibit off-target TRβ antagonist behaviour, which may be linked to their detrimental side effects. ..
  43. Zhu X, Enomoto K, Zhao L, Zhu Y, Willingham M, Meltzer P, et al. Bromodomain and Extraterminal Protein Inhibitor JQ1 Suppresses Thyroid Tumor Growth in a Mouse Model. Clin Cancer Res. 2017;23:430-440 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate whether JQ1 is effective against thyroid cancer, we examined antitumor efficacy of JQ1 using the ThrbPV/PVKrasG12D mouse, a model of anaplastic thyroid cancer...
  44. Albertson D, Sherrington P, Rabbitts P. Localization of polymorphic DNA probes frequently deleted in lung carcinoma. Hum Genet. 1989;83:127-32 pubmed
    ..2, D3S6 to 3p14.3-p14.5, D3S48 to distal 3p21-p22, ERBA beta to 3p24.3 and ERBA2 to 3p24.3...
  45. Ko L, Cardona G, Chin W. Thyroid hormone receptor-binding protein, an LXXLL motif-containing protein, functions as a general coactivator. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:6212-7 pubmed
  46. Huber B, Sandler B, West B, Cunha Lima S, Nguyen H, Apriletti J, et al. Two resistance to thyroid hormone mutants with impaired hormone binding. Mol Endocrinol. 2003;17:643-52 pubmed
    ..The observation that the Arg 316 His mutation affects these functions implies a role for helix 1 in linking hormone binding to the DNA-binding domain-LBD configuration...
  47. Guigon C, Cheng S. Novel non-genomic signaling of thyroid hormone receptors in thyroid carcinogenesis. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2009;308:63-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Four T3-binding isoforms, TRalpha1, TRbeta1, TRbeta2, and TRbeta3, are encoded by two genes, THRA and THRB. Mutations and altered expression of TRs have been reported in human cancers...
  48. Gugliotta L, Iurlo A, Gugliotta G, Tieghi A, Specchia G, Gaidano G, et al. Unbiased pro-thrombotic features at diagnosis in 977 thrombocythemic patients with Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms. Leuk Res. 2016;46:18-25 pubmed publisher
    ..In order to avoid this potential confounding effect, we investigated the relationship between prior thrombosis (PrTh: thrombosis occurred before diagnosis and before treatment) and the characteristics at diagnosis in 977 ..
  49. Choi S, Shin J, Kim J, Shin T, Seo Y, Kim H, et al. Direct cell fate conversion of human somatic stem cells into cone and rod photoreceptor-like cells by inhibition of microRNA-203. Oncotarget. 2016;7:42139-42149 pubmed publisher predicted to target multiple retina development-relevant genes, particularly DKK1, CRX, ROR?, NEUROD1, NRL and THRB. The inhibition of miR-203 induced a retina differentiation of AESCs and UCB-MSCs...
  50. Aguayo Mazzucato C, Lee T, Matzko M, DiIenno A, Rezanejad H, Ramadoss P, et al. T3 Induces Both Markers of Maturation and Aging in Pancreatic β-Cells. Diabetes. 2018;67:1322-1331 pubmed publisher
    ..Using chromatin immunoprecipitation and a transient transfection yielding biotinylated THRB1 or THRA isoforms to achieve specificity, we determined that THRA isoform bound to p16Ink4a , ..
  51. Masuda N, Yasumo H, Furusawa T, Tsukamoto T, Sadano H, Osumi T. Nuclear receptor binding factor-1 (NRBF-1), a protein interacting with a wide spectrum of nuclear hormone receptors. Gene. 1998;221:225-33 pubmed
    ..NRBF-1 has a significant homology to the yeast protein MRF1, a putative transcription factor regulating the expression of mitochondrial respiratory proteins. NRBF-1 might be another type of nuclear receptor co-operator. ..
  52. Hittelman A, Burakov D, Iñiguez Lluhí J, Freedman L, Garabedian M. Differential regulation of glucocorticoid receptor transcriptional activation via AF-1-associated proteins. EMBO J. 1999;18:5380-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that DRIP150 and DRIP205 functionally link GR AF-1 and AF-2, and represent important mediators of GR transcriptional enhancement. ..
  53. Ortiga Carvalho T, Hashimoto K, Pazos Moura C, Geenen D, Cohen R, Lang R, et al. Thyroid hormone resistance in the heart: role of the thyroid hormone receptor beta isoform. Endocrinology. 2004;145:1625-33 pubmed
    ..In contrast, HR in KS-mut animals did not change after either treatment. Except for cardiac hypertrophy, the presence of a germline TR-beta mutation had surprisingly little effect on cardiac function. ..
  54. Maraninchi M, Bourcigaux N, Dace A, El Yazidi C, Malezet Desmoulins C, Krempf M, et al. A novel mutation (E333D) in the thyroid hormone beta receptor causing resistance to thyroid hormone syndrome. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2006;114:569-76 pubmed
    ..These results strongly suggest that the E333D TRbeta mutation is responsible for the RTH phenotype in the proposita's family. ..
  55. Sato H, Tsai Morris C, Dufau M. Relevance of gonadotropin-regulated testicular RNA helicase (GRTH/DDX25) in the structural integrity of the chromatoid body during spermatogenesis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1803:534-43 pubmed publisher
    Gonadotropin-regulated testicular RNA helicase (GRTH/DDX25), a multifunctional protein and a component of ribonucleoprotein complexes, is essential for the completion of spermatogenesis...
  56. Cugini C, Leidy J, Chertow B, Berard J, Bradley W, Menke J, et al. An arginine to histidine mutation in codon 315 of the c-erbA beta thyroid hormone receptor in a kindred with generalized resistance to thyroid hormones results in a receptor with significant 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine binding activity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1992;74:1164-70 pubmed
    ..Kindred CL is an example of mild generalized resistance to thyroid hormones correlated with a mutation in the beta-receptor that resulted in only a modest deficiency in T3-binding activity. ..
  57. Griffith A, Szymko Y, Kaneshige M, Quiñónez R, Kaneshige K, Heintz K, et al. Knock-in mouse model for resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH): an RTH mutation in the thyroid hormone receptor beta gene disrupts cochlear morphogenesis. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2002;3:279-88 pubmed
    ..We have analyzed auditory system function and structure in a mouse strain with a targeted Thrb mutation, Thrb(PV), which leads to the loss of binding of thyroid hormone (T3) to the Trb protein...
  58. Dong Q, Gong C, Gu Y, Su C. A new mutation in the thyroid hormone receptor gene of a Chinese family with resistance to thyroid hormone. Chin Med J (Engl). 2011;124:1835-9 pubmed
    ..A novel mutation was found in the TR?, A317D, of this family. This research verified the phenomena that there is a clinical heterogeneity within the same mutation of different RTH patients. ..
  59. Zamir I, Dawson J, Lavinsky R, Glass C, Rosenfeld M, Lazar M. Cloning and characterization of a corepressor and potential component of the nuclear hormone receptor repression complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:14400-5 pubmed
    ..We conclude that SUN-CoR is a corepressor and may function as an additional component of the complex involved in transcriptional repression by unliganded and orphan nuclear hormone receptors. ..
  60. Kvistad P, Løvås K, Boman H, Myking O. Retarded bone growth in thyroid hormone resistance. A clinical study of a large family with a novel thyroid hormone receptor mutation. Eur J Endocrinol. 2004;150:425-30 pubmed
    ..The disorder is usually caused by mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor beta (TR beta). We describe a large family with this disorder...
  61. Liao C, Yeh C, Huang Y, Wu S, Chi H, Tsai M, et al. Dickkopf 4 positively regulated by the thyroid hormone receptor suppresses cell invasion in human hepatoma cells. Hepatology. 2012;55:910-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that the TR/DKK4/Wnt/?-catenin cascade influences the proliferation and migration of hepatoma cells during the metastasis process and support a tumor suppressor role of the TR. ..
  62. Park J, Zhao L, Willingham M, Cheng S. Oncogenic mutations of thyroid hormone receptor β. Oncotarget. 2015;6:8115-31 pubmed
    ..Thus, we propose that the mutated C-terminal region of TRβ1 could function as an "onco-domain" and TRβ1 is a potential therapeutic target. ..
  63. Shiizaki K, Asai S, Ebata S, Kawanishi M, Yagi T. Establishment of yeast reporter assay systems to detect ligands of thyroid hormone receptors alpha and beta. Toxicol In Vitro. 2010;24:638-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these assay yeasts will be powerful tools for assessing TR ligand activity of industrial chemicals and environmental pollutants. ..
  64. Han R, Ye L, Jiang X, Zhou X, Billon C, Guan W, et al. Characteristics of patients with late manifestation of resistance thyroid hormone syndrome: a single-center experience. Endocrine. 2015;50:689-97 pubmed publisher
    ..H271D mutation in TRβ associated with RTH. Endocrinologists should be alert that RTH is frequently found in euthyroid patients with mild symptoms and often leads to misleading diagnosis as well as inappropriate treatment. ..
  65. López Navarro E, Ortega F, Francisco Busquets E, Sabater Masdeu M, Álvarez Castaño E, Ricart W, et al. Thyroid Hormone Receptors Are Differentially Expressed in Granulosa and Cervical Cells of Infertile Women. Thyroid. 2016;26:466-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Infertile women also showed more TRα2 (p = 0.033) mRNA in CCs than fertile women whose oocytes resulted in pregnancy. The expression of different markers of intracellular thyroid function is linked to fertility status. ..
  66. Ma H, Yang F, Butler M, Belcher J, Redmond T, Placzek A, et al. Inhibition of thyroid hormone receptor locally in the retina is a therapeutic strategy for retinal degeneration. FASEB J. 2017;31:3425-3438 pubmed publisher
    ..Using TR antagonists and Thrb2 deletion, we examined the effects of TR inhibition...
  67. Wu S, Cohen R, Simsek E, Senses D, Yar N, Grasberger H, et al. A novel thyroid hormone receptor-beta mutation that fails to bind nuclear receptor corepressor in a patient as an apparent cause of severe, predominantly pituitary resistance to thyroid hormone. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91:1887-95 pubmed
    ..Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is a dominantly inherited syndrome of variable tissue hyporesponsiveness to thyroid hormone (TH)...
  68. Jouravel N, Sablin E, Togashi M, Baxter J, Webb P, Fletterick R. Molecular basis for dimer formation of TRbeta variant D355R. Proteins. 2009;75:111-7 pubmed publisher
  69. Lado Abeal J, Romero A, Castro Piedras I, Rodriguez Perez A, Alvarez Escudero J. Thyroid hormone receptors are down-regulated in skeletal muscle of patients with non-thyroidal illness syndrome secondary to non-septic shock. Eur J Endocrinol. 2010;163:765-73 pubmed publisher
    ..We also investigated whether the patient's serum can induce in vitro the effects observed in vivo...
  70. Li Y, Cong H, Liu B, Song J, Sun X, Zhang J, et al. Metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum for methionine production by removing feedback inhibition and increasing NADPH level. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2016;109:1185-97 pubmed publisher
    ..glutamicum ENM-16 was further engineered to block or decrease competitive branch pathways by deleting the thrB gene and changing the start codon of the dapA gene, followed by point mutations of lysC (C932T) and pyc (G1A, ..
  71. Hameed S, Patterson M, Dhillo W, Rahman S, Ma Y, Holton C, et al. Thyroid Hormone Receptor Beta in the Ventromedial Hypothalamus Is Essential for the Physiological Regulation of Food Intake and Body Weight. Cell Rep. 2017;19:2202-2209 pubmed publisher
    ..The observed increase in body weight is of a similar magnitude to murine models of the most extreme forms of monogenic obesity. These data identify TR? in the VMH as a major physiological regulator of food intake and energy homeostasis. ..
  72. Govindan M, Meng X, Denis C, Webb P, Baxter J, Walfish P. Identification of CCR4 and other essential thyroid hormone receptor co-activators by modified yeast synthetic genetic array analysis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:19854-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that a modified yeast synthetic genetic array strategy is a feasible method for unbiased identification of conserved genes essential for TR and other nuclear receptor hormone functions in mammals. ..
  73. Hanna C, Bretherick K, Liu C, Stephenson M, Robinson W. Genetic variation within the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis in women with recurrent miscarriage. Hum Reprod. 2010;25:2664-71 pubmed publisher
  74. Zhang Y, Hu L, Xie W, Sun P, Zuo A, Zhang J. [The cloning, expression and the binding ability with TR?1 of retinoid X receptor-? gene]. Yi Chuan. 2011;33:246-50 pubmed
    ..This was confirmed by EMSA. In conclusion, the recombinant human retinoid X receptor-? was prepared successfully, which makes a basic for further study of its function. ..
  75. Hernández Puga G, Mendoza A, León Del Río A, Orozco A. Jab1 is a T2-dependent coactivator or a T3-dependent corepressor of TRB1-mediated gene regulation. J Endocrinol. 2017;232:451-459 pubmed publisher
    ..the present study, we looked for specific coregulators recruited by the long isoform of the teleostean thyroid hormone receptor beta 1 (L-Trb1) when bound to the bioactive TH, 3,5-T2 (T2)...
  76. Verga Falzacappa C, Petrucci E, Patriarca V, Michienzi S, Stigliano A, Brunetti E, et al. Thyroid hormone receptor TRbeta1 mediates Akt activation by T3 in pancreatic beta cells. J Mol Endocrinol. 2007;38:221-33 pubmed
  77. Yuan C, Nguyen P, Baxter J, Webb P. Distinct ligand-dependent and independent modes of thyroid hormone receptor (TR)/PGC-1? interaction. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2013;133:58-65 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that TR AF-1/PGC-1? contacts are needed for transition between activities of PGC-1? N-and C-terminal ADs in gene expression. Our findings provide insights into possible roles for TR and NR AF-1 in gene expression. ..
  78. Isik E, Beck Peccoz P, Campi I, Ozon A, Alikasifoglu A, Gonc N, et al. Thyroid hormone resistance: a novel mutation in thyroid hormone receptor beta (THRB) gene - case report. Turk J Pediatr. 2013;55:322-7 pubmed
    ..It is usually caused by mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor beta (THRB) gene...
  79. Hong H, Darimont B, Ma H, Yang L, Yamamoto K, Stallcup M. An additional region of coactivator GRIP1 required for interaction with the hormone-binding domains of a subset of nuclear receptors. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:3496-502 pubmed
    ..SRC-1 lacks an NIDaux activity equivalent to that in GRIP1. ..
  80. Pongjantarasatian S, Wacharasindhu S, Tongkobpetch S, Suphapeetiporn K, Shotelersuk V. Pathogenic mechanism of mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor ? gene. J Endocrinol Invest. 2012;35:557-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide a strong support that interfering with the T3-mediated transcriptional activation of the wild-type TR? independent of the ability to activate transcription is a major pathogenic mechanism causing RTH. ..
  81. Schroeder A, Jimenez R, Young B, Privalsky M. The ability of thyroid hormone receptors to sense t4 as an agonist depends on receptor isoform and on cellular cofactors. Mol Endocrinol. 2014;28:745-57 pubmed publisher
  82. Weiss R, Weinberg M, Refetoff S. Identical mutations in unrelated families with generalized resistance to thyroid hormone occur in cytosine-guanine-rich areas of the thyroid hormone receptor beta gene. Analysis of 15 families. J Clin Invest. 1993;91:2408-15 pubmed
    ..28 different point mutations in the human thyroid hormone receptor beta (TR beta) gene have been associated with GRTH...
  83. He B, Wilson E. Electrostatic modulation in steroid receptor recruitment of LXXLL and FXXLF motifs. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:2135-50 pubmed
    ..The data suggest a model whereby coactivator recruitment to the receptor AF2 surface is initiated by complementary charge interactions that reflect a reversal of the acidic activation domain-coactivator interaction model. ..
  84. Nascimento A, Dias S, Nunes F, Aparicio R, Ambrosio A, Bleicher L, et al. Structural rearrangements in the thyroid hormone receptor hinge domain and their putative role in the receptor function. J Mol Biol. 2006;360:586-98 pubmed
  85. Carosa E, Di Sante S, Rossi S, Castri A, D Adamo F, Gravina G, et al. Ontogenetic profile of the expression of thyroid hormone receptors in rat and human corpora cavernosa of the penis. J Sex Med. 2010;7:1381-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of TRs in the penis provides the biological basis for the direct action of thyroid hormones on this organ. Given this evidence, physicians would be advised to investigate sexual function in men with thyroid disorders. ..
  86. Verga Falzacappa C, Patriarca V, Bucci B, Mangialardo C, Michienzi S, Moriggi G, et al. The TRbeta1 is essential in mediating T3 action on Akt pathway in human pancreatic insulinoma cells. J Cell Biochem. 2009;106:835-48 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrated that the beta1 receptor mediates the T3 upregulation of protein synthesis and cell size, together with the cell proliferation and survival, playing a crucial role in the T3 regulation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. ..
  87. Kordi Tamandani D, Hemati S, Davani S, Arbabi F. Association between promoter methylation and expression of thyroid hormone receptor beta (THRβ) gene in patients with gastric cancer in an Iranian population. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015;30:485-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the status of promoter methylation and expression of the thyroid hormone receptor beta (THRβ) gene in gastric cancer patients in an Iranian population...
  88. Liang Y, Xiong W, Steinkellner S, Feng J. Deficiency of the melanin biosynthesis genes SCD1 and THR1 affects sclerotial development and vegetative growth, but not pathogenicity in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Mol Plant Pathol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..In this study two genes, SCD1 encoding a scytalone dehydratase and THR1 encoding a trihydroxynaphthalene reductase, were disrupted by target gene replacement and their roles in mycelial ..
  89. Kim J, Choi E, Lee J, Lee K, Kim Y, Kim S, et al. Resistance to thyroid hormone with missense mutation (V349M) in the thyroid hormone receptor beta gene. Korean J Intern Med. 2008;23:45-8 pubmed
    ..It is generally caused by mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor beta (TR beta) gene...
  90. Sørensen H, van der Deure W, Hansen P, Peeters R, Breteler M, Kyvik K, et al. Identification and consequences of polymorphisms in the thyroid hormone receptor alpha and beta genes. Thyroid. 2008;18:1087-94 pubmed publisher
    ..However, little is known about SNPs in the THRA (17q11.2) and THRB (3p24.2) genes...
  91. Puzianowska Kuznicka M, Krystyniak A, Madej A, Cheng S, Nauman J. Functionally impaired TR mutants are present in thyroid papillary cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002;87:1120-8 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest a possible role for mutated thyroid hormone receptors in the tumorigenesis of human papillary thyroid carcinoma. ..
  92. Loinder K, Soderstrom M. Functional analyses of an LXXLL motif in nuclear receptor corepressor (N-CoR). J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2004;91:191-6 pubmed
    ..receptor corepressor (N-CoR) and the related protein SMRT were identified as a silencing mediator for thyroid hormone receptor beta and as a silencing mediator for retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptors, respectively...