Gene Symbol: THOC2
Description: THO complex 2
Alias: CXorf3, MRX12, MRX35, THO2, dJ506G2.1, hTREX120, THO complex subunit 2, mental retardation, X-linked 12, mental retardation, X-linked 35
Species: human
Products:     THOC2

Top Publications

  1. Guo S, Hakimi M, Baillat D, Chen X, Farber M, Klein Szanto A, et al. Linking transcriptional elongation and messenger RNA export to metastatic breast cancers. Cancer Res. 2005;65:3011-6 pubmed
    ..These results not only identify hTREX84 as a prognosticator of breast cancer but also delineate human TREX complex as a target for therapeutic drugs against breast cancer. ..
  2. Masuda S, Das R, Cheng H, Hurt E, Dorman N, Reed R. Recruitment of the human TREX complex to mRNA during splicing. Genes Dev. 2005;19:1512-7 pubmed
  3. Strasser K, Masuda S, Mason P, Pfannstiel J, Oppizzi M, Rodriguez Navarro S, et al. TREX is a conserved complex coupling transcription with messenger RNA export. Nature. 2002;417:304-8 pubmed
    ..We also show that Sub2 and Yra1 interact genetically with all four components of the THO complex (Tho2, Hpr1, Mft1 and Thp2)...
  4. Cheng H, Dufu K, Lee C, Hsu J, Dias A, Reed R. Human mRNA export machinery recruited to the 5' end of mRNA. Cell. 2006;127:1389-400 pubmed
    ..As a consequence, the mRNA would be exported in a 5' to 3' direction through the nuclear pore, as observed in early electron micrographs of giant Balbiani ring mRNPs. ..
  5. He X, Xie C, Ma Y, Wang L, He X, Shi W, et al. Size-dependent toxicity of ThO2 nanoparticles to green algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Aquat Toxicol. 2019;209:113-120 pubmed publisher
    ..To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on aquatic toxicity of ThO2 NPs. ..
  6. Zhang G, Tu S, Yu T, Zhang X, Parhad S, Weng Z, et al. Co-dependent Assembly of Drosophila piRNA Precursor Complexes and piRNA Cluster Heterochromatin. Cell Rep. 2018;24:3413-3422.e4 pubmed publisher
    ..UAP56 and THO are ubiquitous RNA-processing factors, and null alleles of uap56 and the THO subunit gene tho2 are lethal...
  7. Tecmer P, González Espinoza C. Electron correlation effects of the ThO and ThS molecules in the spinor basis. A relativistic coupled cluster study of ground and excited states properties. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2018;20:23424-23432 pubmed publisher
    ..b) another where the excited states come from the doubly attached electronic states to the doubly charged systems (ThO2+ and ThS2+), that is, from sector (0,2) of the Fock space...
  8. Wang G, Batista E, Yang P. Ligand induced shape transformation of thorium dioxide nanocrystals. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2018;20:17563-17573 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein we present a comprehensive study on the low index surfaces of thorium dioxide (ThO2) and their interactions with relevant surfactant ligands using density functional calculations...
  9. Wang L, Yuan X, Yao F, Zhang T, Ren Z, Zhou B, et al. THO Complex--Dependent Posttranscriptional Control Contributes to Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Fate Decision. Circ Res. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..i>Methods and Results: Immunohistochemical staining against THOC2 and THOC5, two components of the THO complex, revealed a dramatic reduction in their expression in human arteries ..

More Information


  1. Ghosh P, Kuganathan N, Arya A, Grimes R. Phase stability, electronic structures and elastic properties of (U,Np)O2 and (Th,Np)O2 mixed oxides. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..magnetic states and special-quasirandom structures (SQS) for the random distribution of Np atoms in UO2 and ThO2 is employed to calculate ?Hmix of U1-xNpxO2 and Th1-xNpxO2 mixed oxides (MOX)...
  2. Liu B, Aidhy D, Zhang Y, Weber W. Theoretical investigation of thermodynamic stability and mobility of the oxygen vacancy in ThO2-UO2 solid solutions. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2014;16:25461-7 pubmed publisher
    The thermodynamic stability and the migration energy barriers of oxygen vacancies in ThO2-UO2 solid solutions are investigated by density functional theory calculations. In pure ThO2, the formation energy of the oxygen vacancy is 7...
  3. Tecmer P, Boguslawski K, Ayers P. Singlet ground state actinide chemistry with geminals. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2015;17:14427-36 pubmed publisher
    ..constants (bond lengths and vibrational frequencies) and potential energy curves of actinide oxides (UO2(2+) and ThO2) as well as the energetic stability of ThC2 isomers reveals that vOO-AP1roG describes the electronic structure of ..
  4. Yu T, Wang C, Lin J. Depleting components of the THO complex causes increased telomere length by reducing the expression of the telomere-associated protein Rif1p. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33498 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we found that the deletion of tho2 or hpr1 caused telomere lengthening by ∼50-100 bps, whereas that of mft1 or thp2 did not affect telomere ..
  5. Martínez Lumbreras S, Taverniti V, Zorrilla S, Séraphin B, Pérez Cañadillas J. Gbp2 interacts with THO/TREX through a novel type of RRM domain. Nucleic Acids Res. 2016;44:437-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, Gbp2 interacts genetically with Tho2 as the double deletion shows a synthetic phenotype and preventing Gbp2 interaction with the THO/TREX complex partly ..
  6. Aidhy D. Oxygen diffusion in ThO2-CeO2 and ThO2-UO2 solid solutions from atomistic calculations. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2016;18:15019-24 pubmed publisher
    We elucidate oxygen diffusivity in ThO2-CeO2 and ThO2-UO2 solid solutions across their whole concentration ranges in the phase diagram using static pair-potential calculations and molecular dynamics simulations...
  7. Butorin S, Kvashnina K, Vegelius J, Meyer D, Shuh D. High-resolution X-ray absorption spectroscopy as a probe of crystal-field and covalency effects in actinide compounds. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:8093-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Using ThO2 as an example, data measured at the Th 3d edge were interpreted within the framework of the Anderson impurity model...
  8. Pavlov T, Wangle T, Wenman M, Tyrpekl V, Vlahović L, Robba D, et al. High temperature measurements and condensed matter analysis of the thermo-physical properties of ThO2. Sci Rep. 2018;8:5038 pubmed publisher
    ..Prior to melting a gradual increase to a maximum value is predicted in both properties. These maxima mark the onset of saturation of oxygen interstitial sites. ..
  9. Francisco Mangilet A, Karlsson P, Kim M, Eo H, Oh S, Kim J, et al. THO2, a core member of the THO/TREX complex, is required for microRNA production in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2015;82:1018-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we describe five mutant alleles of Arabidopsis thaliana THO2, which encodes a core subunit of the plant THO/TREX complex...
  10. Zhu Y, Zheng M, Song D, Ye L, Wang X. Global comparison of chromosome X genes of pulmonary telocytes with mesenchymal stem cells, fibroblasts, alveolar type II cells, airway epithelial cells, and lymphocytes. J Transl Med. 2015;13:318 pubmed publisher
    ..Abcb7, Atf1, Ddx26b, Drp2, Fam122b, Gyk, Irak1, Lamp2, Mecp2, Ndufb11, Ogt, Pdha1, Pola1, Rab9, Rbmx2, Rhox9, Thoc2, Vbp1, Dkc1, Nkrf, Piga, Tmlhe and Tsr2), as compared with other cells...
  11. Morosini V, Chave T, Virot M, Moisy P, Nikitenko S. Sonochemical water splitting in the presence of powdered metal oxides. Ultrason Sonochem. 2016;29:512-6 pubmed publisher
    ..water in the presence of micro- and nano-sized metal oxide particles exhibiting catalytic properties (ThO2, ZrO2, and TiO2)...
  12. Zhang Y, French S, Beyer A, Schneider D. The Transcription Factor THO Promotes Transcription Initiation and Elongation by RNA Polymerase I. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:3010-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Pol I transcription in hpr1 or tho2 null mutants is dramatically reduced to less than 20% of the WT level...
  13. Pereira F, Vazquez M, Deban L, Aller A. Inorganic arsenic speciation by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry using thoria nanoparticles-carbon paste electrodes. Talanta. 2016;152:211-8 pubmed publisher
    Two novel thoria (ThO2) nanoparticles-carbon paste electrodes were used to evaluate an anodic stripping voltammetric method for the direct determination of arsenite and total inorganic arsenic (arsenite plus arsenate) in water samples...
  14. Ghosh P, Arya A, Dey G, Kuganathan N, Grimes R. A computational study on the superionic behaviour of ThO2. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2016;18:31494-31504 pubmed
    ..Tracking of anion positions in the superionic state as a function of time in MD simulations suggests a hopping model in which the oxygen ions migrate from one tetrahedral site to another via octahedral interstitial sites. ..
  15. Chi B, Wang Q, Wu G, Tan M, Wang L, Shi M, et al. Aly and THO are required for assembly of the human TREX complex and association of TREX components with the spliced mRNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:1294-306 pubmed publisher
    ..Aly, THO and UAP56 are all required for assembly of TREX, in which Aly directly interacts with THO subunits Thoc2 and Thoc5. Both Aly and THO function in linking UAP56 to the cap-binding protein CBP80...
  16. Gu X, Decorte R, Marynen P, Fryns J, Cassiman J, Raeymaekers P. Localisation of a new gene for non-specific mental retardation to Xq22-q26 (MRX35). J Med Genet. 1996;33:52-5 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge there is currently no other non-specific MR gene mapped to this region. Therefore, the gene causing MR in this family can be considered to be a new, independent MRX locus (MRX35).
  17. Li Y, Wang X, Zhang X, Goodrich D. Human hHpr1/p84/Thoc1 regulates transcriptional elongation and physically links RNA polymerase II and RNA processing factors. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:4023-33 pubmed
    ..We conclude that hHpr1/p84/Thoc1 regulates transcriptional elongation and may participate in a protein complex functionally analogous to yeast TREX, physically linking elongating RNA polymerase II with RNA processing factors. ..
  18. Mulley J, Kerr B, Stevenson R, Lubs H. Nomenclature guidelines for X-linked mental retardation. Am J Med Genet. 1992;43:383-91 pubmed
    ..Prior approval of availability for proposed gene symbols must be obtained from the Nomenclature Committee of the Human Gene Mapping Workshops. ..
  19. Kumar R, Corbett M, van Bon B, Woenig J, Weir L, Douglas E, et al. THOC2 Mutations Implicate mRNA-Export Pathway in X-Linked Intellectual Disability. Am J Hum Genet. 2015;97:302-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that variants in THOC2, which encodes a subunit of the highly conserved TREX mRNA-export complex, cause syndromic intellectual disability ..
  20. Folco E, Lee C, Dufu K, Yamazaki T, Reed R. The proteins PDIP3 and ZC11A associate with the human TREX complex in an ATP-dependent manner and function in mRNA export. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43804 pubmed publisher
    ..We now show that this is also the case for PDIP3 and ZC11A. Thus, together with previous work, our data indicate that the TREX complex participates in multiple ATP-dependent interactions. ..
  21. Boyne J, Colgan K, Whitehouse A. Recruitment of the complete hTREX complex is required for Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus intronless mRNA nuclear export and virus replication. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e1000194 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data provide the first direct evidence that the complete hTREX complex is essential for the export of KSHV intronless mRNAs and infectious virus production. ..
  22. Coffey A, Brooksbank R, Brandau O, Oohashi T, Howell G, Bye J, et al. Host response to EBV infection in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease results from mutations in an SH2-domain encoding gene. Nat Genet. 1998;20:129-35 pubmed
    ..SH2D1A is expressed in many tissues involved in the immune system. The identification of SH2D1A will allow the determination of its mechanism of action as a possible regulator of the EBV-induced immune response. ..