thioredoxin

Summary

Gene Symbol: thioredoxin
Description: thioredoxin
Alias: TRDX, TRX, TRX1, thioredoxin, ADF, ATL-derived factor, SASP, TXN delta 3, surface-associated sulphydryl protein, testicular tissue protein Li 199, thioredoxin delta 3
Species: human
Products:     thioredoxin

Top Publications

  1. Tagaya Y, Maeda Y, Mitsui A, Kondo N, Matsui H, Hamuro J, et al. ATL-derived factor (ADF), an IL-2 receptor/Tac inducer homologous to thioredoxin; possible involvement of dithiol-reduction in the IL-2 receptor induction. EMBO J. 1989;8:757-64 pubmed
    ..Homology analysis revealed an unexpected relationship between ADF and dithiol-reducing enzyme, thioredoxin, involved in many important biological reactions such as the conversion of ribonucleotides into ..
  2. Wollman E, d Auriol L, Rimsky L, Shaw A, Jacquot J, Wingfield P, et al. Cloning and expression of a cDNA for human thioredoxin. J Biol Chem. 1988;263:15506-12 pubmed
    b>Thioredoxin is the best representative enzyme of a group of proteins, widely distributed and possessing dithiol-disulfide oxidoreductase activity...
  3. Son A, Kato N, Horibe T, Matsuo Y, Mochizuki M, Mitsui A, et al. Direct association of thioredoxin-1 (TRX) with macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF): regulatory role of TRX on MIF internalization and signaling. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2009;11:2595-605 pubmed publisher
    b>Thioredoxin-1 (TRX) is a small (14 kDa) multifunctional protein with the redox-active site Cys-Gly-Pro-Cys. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a 12 kDa cytokine belonging to the TRX family...
  4. Schroeder P, Popp R, Wiegand B, Altschmied J, Haendeler J. Nuclear redox-signaling is essential for apoptosis inhibition in endothelial cells--important role for nuclear thioredoxin-1. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2007;27:2325-31 pubmed
    The redox regulator thioredoxin-1 (Trx) is a potent antioxidative enzyme and exerts important cellular functions. Physiological concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and of nitric oxide (NO) act as second messengers...
  5. Watson W, Pohl J, Montfort W, Stuchlik O, Reed M, Powis G, et al. Redox potential of human thioredoxin 1 and identification of a second dithiol/disulfide motif. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:33408-15 pubmed
    b>Thioredoxin (Trx1) is a redox-active protein containing two active site cysteines (Cys-32 and Cys-35) that cycle between the dithiol and disulfide forms as Trx1 reduces target proteins...
  6. Kondo N, Ishii Y, Kwon Y, Tanito M, Horita H, Nishinaka Y, et al. Redox-sensing release of human thioredoxin from T lymphocytes with negative feedback loops. J Immunol. 2004;172:442-8 pubmed
    b>Thioredoxin (TRX) is released from various types of mammalian cells despite no typical secretory signal sequence...
  7. Schulze P, Yoshioka J, Takahashi T, He Z, King G, Lee R. Hyperglycemia promotes oxidative stress through inhibition of thioredoxin function by thioredoxin-interacting protein. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:30369-74 pubmed
    ..A ubiquitous antioxidative mechanism for regulating cellular redox balance is thioredoxin, a highly conserved thiol reductase that interacts with an endogenous inhibitor, thioredoxin-interacting ..
  8. Kakisaka Y, Nakashima T, Sumida Y, Yoh T, Nakamura H, Yodoi J, et al. Elevation of serum thioredoxin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. Horm Metab Res. 2002;34:160-4 pubmed
    To evaluate the clinical significance of thioredoxin in diabetic patients, serum thioredoxin levels measured with a recently established sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit were compared with clinical laboratory data and ..
  9. Arner E, Holmgren A. Physiological functions of thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase. Eur J Biochem. 2000;267:6102-9 pubmed
    b>Thioredoxin, thioredoxin reductase and NADPH, the thioredoxin system, is ubiquitous from Archea to man...

More Information

Publications73

  1. Tonissen K, Wells J. Isolation and characterization of human thioredoxin-encoding genes. Gene. 1991;102:221-8 pubmed
    b>Thioredoxin (Trx) has recently been demonstrated to be an essential component of the early pregnancy factor activity of pregnancy serum...
  2. Chen X, Liu S, Tang W, Chen Z. Nuclear thioredoxin-1 is required to suppress cisplatin-mediated apoptosis of MCF-7 cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;361:362-6 pubmed
    Different cell line with increased thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) showed a decreased or increased sensitivity to cell killing by cisplatin...
  3. Ueno M, Masutani H, Arai R, Yamauchi A, Hirota K, Sakai T, et al. Thioredoxin-dependent redox regulation of p53-mediated p21 activation. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:35809-15 pubmed
    b>Thioredoxin (TRX) is a dithiol-reducing enzyme that is induced by various oxidative stresses. TRX regulates the activity of DNA-binding proteins, including Jun/Fos and nuclear factor-kappaB...
  4. Matsuoka S, Tsuchiya H, Sakabe T, Watanabe Y, Hoshikawa Y, Kurimasa A, et al. Involvement of thioredoxin-binding protein 2 in the antitumor activity of CD437. Cancer Sci. 2008;99:2485-90 pubmed publisher
    ..that apoptosis induction of ovarian adenocarcinoma SKOV3 cells by CD437 involves the upregulation of thioredoxin-binding protein 2 (TBP2) by a mechanism that is dependent on the intracellular calcium concentration...
  5. Patwari P, Chutkow W, Cummings K, Verstraeten V, Lammerding J, Schreiter E, et al. Thioredoxin-independent regulation of metabolism by the alpha-arrestin proteins. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:24996-5003 pubmed publisher
    b>Thioredoxin-interacting protein (Txnip), originally characterized as an inhibitor of thioredoxin, is now known to be a critical regulator of glucose metabolism in vivo...
  6. Weichsel A, Gasdaska J, Powis G, Montfort W. Crystal structures of reduced, oxidized, and mutated human thioredoxins: evidence for a regulatory homodimer. Structure. 1996;4:735-51 pubmed
    Human thioredoxin reduces the disulfide bonds of numerous proteins in vitro, and can activate transcription factors such as NFkB in vivo...
  7. Qin J, Clore G, Kennedy W, Huth J, Gronenborn A. Solution structure of human thioredoxin in a mixed disulfide intermediate complex with its target peptide from the transcription factor NF kappa B. Structure. 1995;3:289-97 pubmed
    Human thioredoxin is a 12 kDa cellular redox protein that plays a key role in maintaining the redox environment of the cell...
  8. Forman Kay J, Clore G, Driscoll P, Wingfield P, Richards F, Gronenborn A. A proton nuclear magnetic resonance assignment and secondary structure determination of recombinant human thioredoxin. Biochemistry. 1989;28:7088-97 pubmed
    ..1H NMR spectroscopy has been applied to a structural analysis of the reduced form of a recombinant human thioredoxin, a ubiquitous dithiol oxidoreductase recently isolated from an immunocompetent lymphoblastoid cell line...
  9. Yamada T, Iwasaki Y, Nagata K, Fushiki S, Nakamura H, Marunaka Y, et al. Thioredoxin-1 protects against hyperoxia-induced apoptosis in cells of the alveolar walls. Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2007;20:650-9 pubmed
    The mechanisms of hyperoxia-induced lung injury remain poorly defined. Thioredoxin-1 (TRX-1) is a small ubiquitous protein that acts as an important radical scavenger...
  10. Azimi I, Matthias L, Center R, Wong J, Hogg P. Disulfide bond that constrains the HIV-1 gp120 V3 domain is cleaved by thioredoxin. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:40072-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The disulfide bonds in both proteins are cleaved at the cell surface by the small redox protein, thioredoxin. The target gp120 disulfide and its mechanism of cleavage were determined using a thioredoxin kinetic trapping ..
  11. Ou W, Silver J. Role of protein disulfide isomerase and other thiol-reactive proteins in HIV-1 envelope protein-mediated fusion. Virology. 2006;350:406-17 pubmed
    ..We evaluated one such candidate, thioredoxin, a PDI family member reported to reduce a labile disulfide bond in CD4...
  12. Pekkari K, Goodarzi M, Scheynius A, Holmgren A, Avila Carino J. Truncated thioredoxin (Trx80) induces differentiation of human CD14+ monocytes into a novel cell type (TAMs) via activation of the MAP kinases p38, ERK, and JNK. Blood. 2005;105:1598-605 pubmed
    b>Thioredoxin truncated at its carboxy terminal (Trx80) acts as a cytokine that stimulates monocytes and eosinophils...
  13. Du Y, Zhang H, Lu J, Holmgren A. Glutathione and glutaredoxin act as a backup of human thioredoxin reductase 1 to reduce thioredoxin 1 preventing cell death by aurothioglucose. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:38210-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1) in cytosol is the only known reductant of oxidized thioredoxin 1 (Trx1) in vivo so far...
  14. Butler L, Zhou X, Xu W, Scher H, Rifkind R, Marks P, et al. The histone deacetylase inhibitor SAHA arrests cancer cell growth, up-regulates thioredoxin-binding protein-2, and down-regulates thioredoxin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:11700-5 pubmed
    ..In this study we show that SAHA induces the expression of vitamin D-up-regulated protein 1/thioredoxin-binding protein-2 (TBP-2) in transformed cells...
  15. Saitoh M, Nishitoh H, Fujii M, Takeda K, Tobiume K, Sawada Y, et al. Mammalian thioredoxin is a direct inhibitor of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase (ASK) 1. EMBO J. 1998;17:2596-606 pubmed
    ..Through genetic screening for ASK1-binding proteins, thioredoxin (Trx), a reduction/oxidation (redox)-regulatory protein thought to have anti-apoptotic effects, was identified ..
  16. Pekkari K, Gurunath R, Arner E, Holmgren A. Truncated thioredoxin is a mitogenic cytokine for resting human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and is present in human plasma. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:37474-80 pubmed
    Human thioredoxin (Trx) catalyzes intracellular disulfide reductions but has also co-cytokine activity with interleukins after leaderless secretion...
  17. Nakamura H, Tamura S, Watanabe I, Iwasaki T, Yodoi J. Enhanced resistancy of thioredoxin-transgenic mice against influenza virus-induced pneumonia. Immunol Lett. 2002;82:165-70 pubmed
    b>Thioredoxin (TRX) is a small redox-active protein with anti-oxidant effect and redox-regulating functions...
  18. Hirota K, Matsui M, Iwata S, Nishiyama A, Mori K, Yodoi J. AP-1 transcriptional activity is regulated by a direct association between thioredoxin and Ref-1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:3633-8 pubmed
    b>Thioredoxin (TRX) is a pleiotropic cellular factor that has thiol-mediated redox activity and is important in regulation of cellular processes, including proliferation, apoptosis, and gene expression...
  19. Spielberger J, Moody A, Watson W. Oxidation and nuclear localization of thioredoxin-1 in sparse cell cultures. J Cell Biochem. 2008;104:1879-89 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of the present study was to determine whether culture conditions affect the redox state of thioredoxin-1 (Trx1), the protein responsible for reducing most oxidized proteins in the cytoplasm and nucleus...
  20. Makino Y, Yoshikawa N, Okamoto K, Hirota K, Yodoi J, Makino I, et al. Direct association with thioredoxin allows redox regulation of glucocorticoid receptor function. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:3182-8 pubmed
    ..We have recently demonstrated that thioredoxin (TRX), a cellular reducing catalyst, plays an important role in restoration of GR function in vivo under ..
  21. Patwari P, Higgins L, Chutkow W, Yoshioka J, Lee R. The interaction of thioredoxin with Txnip. Evidence for formation of a mixed disulfide by disulfide exchange. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:21884-91 pubmed
    The thioredoxin system plays an important role in maintaining a reducing environment in the cell...
  22. Yang T, Lai C, Shiu S, Chuang P, Tzou B, Lin Y, et al. Japanese encephalitis virus down-regulates thioredoxin and induces ROS-mediated ASK1-ERK/p38 MAPK activation in human promonocyte cells. Microbes Infect. 2010;12:643-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Down-regulation of thioredoxin, confirmed by using Western blotting, was involved in the apoptosis process of the oxidative stress response ..
  23. Cebrian A, Pharoah P, Ahmed S, Smith P, Luccarini C, Luben R, et al. Tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms in antioxidant defense enzymes and susceptibility to breast cancer. Cancer Res. 2006;66:1225-33 pubmed
    ..Even if confirmed, these four alleles would account for just 0.32% of the excess familial risk of breast cancer. ..
  24. Mougiakakos D, Johansson C, Jitschin R, Böttcher M, Kiessling R. Increased thioredoxin-1 production in human naturally occurring regulatory T cells confers enhanced tolerance to oxidative stress. Blood. 2011;117:857-61 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we demonstrate that human Tregs express and secrete higher levels of thioredoxin-1, a major antioxidative molecule...
  25. Chutkow W, Lee R. Thioredoxin regulates adipogenesis through thioredoxin-interacting protein (Txnip) protein stability. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:29139-45 pubmed publisher
    Txnip (thioredoxin-interacting protein) is a critical mediator of metabolism and adipogenesis in vivo. The mechanisms of action of Txnip are believed to operate at least in part by inhibiting the redox signaling functions of thioredoxin...
  26. Liu Y, Min W. Thioredoxin promotes ASK1 ubiquitination and degradation to inhibit ASK1-mediated apoptosis in a redox activity-independent manner. Circ Res. 2002;90:1259-66 pubmed
    It has been shown that thioredoxin (Trx) in a reduced form binds to and inhibits apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1)...
  27. Jin X, Stamnaes J, Klöck C, Diraimondo T, Sollid L, Khosla C. Activation of extracellular transglutaminase 2 by thioredoxin. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:37866-73 pubmed publisher
    ..With a k(cat)/K(m) of 1.6 μm(-1) min(-1), human thioredoxin (Trx) was a highly specific activator of oxidized human TG2...
  28. Casagrande S, Bonetto V, Fratelli M, Gianazza E, Eberini I, Massignan T, et al. Glutathionylation of human thioredoxin: a possible crosstalk between the glutathione and thioredoxin systems. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:9745-9 pubmed
    ..undergoing glutathionylation was identified by molecular weight, isoelectric point, and immunoblotting as thioredoxin (Trx)...
  29. Qin J, Clore G, Kennedy W, Kuszewski J, Gronenborn A. The solution structure of human thioredoxin complexed with its target from Ref-1 reveals peptide chain reversal. Structure. 1996;4:613-20 pubmed
    Human thioredoxin (hTRX) is a 12 kDa cellular redox protein that has been shown to play an important role in the activation of a number of transcriptional and translational regulators via a thiol-redox mechanism...
  30. Polekhina G, Ascher D, Kok S, Beckham S, Wilce M, Waltham M. Structure of the N-terminal domain of human thioredoxin-interacting protein. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2013;69:333-44 pubmed publisher
    b>Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) is one of the six known ?-arrestins and has recently received considerable attention owing to its involvement in redox signalling and metabolism...
  31. Andersen J, Sanders D, Gasdaska J, Weichsel A, Powis G, Montfort W. Human thioredoxin homodimers: regulation by pH, role of aspartate 60, and crystal structure of the aspartate 60 --> asparagine mutant. Biochemistry. 1997;36:13979-88 pubmed
    ..12 kDa redox proteins that mediate numerous cytosolic processes in all cells. Human thioredoxin can be exported out of the cell where it has additional functions including the ability to stimulate cell ..
  32. Psarra A, Hermann S, Panayotou G, Spyrou G. Interaction of mitochondrial thioredoxin with glucocorticoid receptor and NF-kappaB modulates glucocorticoid receptor and NF-kappaB signalling in HEK-293 cells. Biochem J. 2009;422:521-31 pubmed publisher
    Trx2 (mitochondrial thioredoxin) is an antioxidant and anti-apoptotic factor essential for cell viability...
  33. Kim Y, Yamaguchi Y, Kondo N, Masutani H, Yodoi J. Thioredoxin-dependent redox regulation of the antioxidant responsive element (ARE) in electrophile response. Oncogene. 2003;22:1860-5 pubmed
    b>Thioredoxin is a redox-regulating protein, the expression of which is induced by various forms of oxidative stress. Thioredoxin controls the interactions of various transcription factors through redox regulation...
  34. Kang M, Jang J, Choi J, Kim S, Oh J, Cho B, et al. Induction of IFN-gamma gene expression by thioredoxin: positive feed-back regulation of Th1 response by thioredoxin and IFN-gamma. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2008;21:215-24 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Thioredoxin, an intracellular redox sensor protein, has been suggested in the induction of Th1 response through the ..
  35. Nishiyama A, Matsui M, Iwata S, Hirota K, Masutani H, Nakamura H, et al. Identification of thioredoxin-binding protein-2/vitamin D(3) up-regulated protein 1 as a negative regulator of thioredoxin function and expression. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:21645-50 pubmed
    ..Recent works have shown the importance of reduction/oxidation (redox) regulation in various biological phenomena. Thioredoxin (TRX) is one of the major components of the thiol reducing system and plays multiple roles in cellular ..
  36. Junn E, Han S, Im J, Yang Y, Cho E, Um H, et al. Vitamin D3 up-regulated protein 1 mediates oxidative stress via suppressing the thioredoxin function. J Immunol. 2000;164:6287-95 pubmed
    As a result of identifying the regulatory proteins of thioredoxin (TRX), a murine homologue for human vitamin D3 up-regulated protein 1 (VDUP1) was identified from a yeast two-hybrid screen...
  37. Akterin S, Cowburn R, Miranda Vizuete A, Jimenez A, Bogdanovic N, Winblad B, et al. Involvement of glutaredoxin-1 and thioredoxin-1 in beta-amyloid toxicity and Alzheimer's disease. Cell Death Differ. 2006;13:1454-65 pubmed
    ..Glutaredoxin-1 (GRX1) and thioredoxin-1 (TRX1) are antioxidants that can inhibit apoptosis signal-regulating kinase (ASK1)...
  38. Billiet L, Furman C, Larigauderie G, Copin C, Brand K, Fruchart J, et al. Extracellular human thioredoxin-1 inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin-1beta expression in human monocyte-derived macrophages. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:40310-8 pubmed
    ..stress plays an important role in atherosclerotic vascular disease, and several recent studies were focused on thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) and its potential protective role against oxidative stress...
  39. Nishinaka Y, Masutani H, Oka S, Matsuo Y, Yamaguchi Y, Nishio K, et al. Importin alpha1 (Rch1) mediates nuclear translocation of thioredoxin-binding protein-2/vitamin D(3)-up-regulated protein 1. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:37559-65 pubmed
    b>Thioredoxin-binding protein-2 (TBP-2)/vitamin D(3) up-regulated protein 1 is an endogenous molecule interacting with thioredoxin (TRX), negatively regulating TRX function, and being implicated in the suppression of tumor development and ..
  40. Song J, Rhee J, Suntharalingam M, Walsh S, Spitz D, Lee Y. Role of glutaredoxin in metabolic oxidative stress. Glutaredoxin as a sensor of oxidative stress mediated by H2O2. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:46566-75 pubmed
    ..These results support the hypothesis that the GRX-ASK1 interaction is redox sensitive and regulated in a glutathione-dependent fashion by H(2)O(2). ..
  41. Raffel J, Bhattacharyya A, Gallegos A, Cui H, Einspahr J, Alberts D, et al. Increased expression of thioredoxin-1 in human colorectal cancer is associated with decreased patient survival. J Lab Clin Med. 2003;142:46-51 pubmed
    b>Thioredoxin-1 is a redox protein that, when overexpressed, causes increased cancer-cell growth and inhibited apoptosis...
  42. Cardi M, Zaffagnini M, De Lillo A, Castiglia D, Chibani K, Gualberto J, et al. Plastidic P2 glucose-6P dehydrogenase from poplar is modulated by thioredoxin m-type: Distinct roles of cysteine residues in redox regulation and NADPH inhibition. Plant Sci. 2016;252:257-266 pubmed publisher
    ..in a position similar to those of chloroplastic P1-G6PDHs, but the modulation is exerted primarily by TRX m-type, in contrast to P1-G6PDH, which is regulated by TRX f...
  43. Dong Y, Lian X, Xu Y, Hu H, Chang C, Zhang H, et al. Hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell senescence is associated with altered expression profiles of cellular memory-involved gene. Biosci Rep. 2018;38: pubmed publisher
    ..Mph1/polyhomeotic-like protein 1 (Rae-28)) and Trithorax group (TrxG) family (mixed lineage leukemia (Mll), thioredoxin (Trx)) were determined by quantitative real-time PCR...
  44. Yi M, Melkonian A, Ousey J, Khosla C. Endoplasmic reticulum-resident protein 57 (ERp57) oxidatively inactivates human transglutaminase 2. J Biol Chem. 2018;293:2640-2649 pubmed publisher
    ..Although recent studies have established that extracellular TG2 is switched "on" by the redox cofactor protein thioredoxin-1 (TRX), it is unclear how TG2 is switched "off...
  45. Tanaka H, Oishi G, Nakano Y, Mizuta H, Nagano Y, Hiramatsu N, et al. Production of recombinant salmon insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 subtypes. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2018;257:184-191 pubmed publisher
    ..We expressed recombinant salmon (rs) IGFBP-1a and -1b with a fusion protein (thioredoxin, Trx) and a His-tag using the pET-32a(+) vector expression system in Escherichia coli. Trx.His...
  46. Zhang S, Li Z, Nian X, Wu F, Shen Z, Zhang B, et al. Sequence analysis, expression profiles and function of thioredoxin 2 and thioredoxin reductase 1 in resistance to nucleopolyhedrovirus in Helicoverpa armigera. Sci Rep. 2015;5:15531 pubmed publisher
    The thioredoxin system, including NADPH, thioredoxin (Trx), and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), plays significant roles in maintaining intracellular redox homeostasis and protecting organisms against oxidative damage...
  47. Zschauer T, Matsushima S, Altschmied J, Shao D, Sadoshima J, Haendeler J. Interacting with thioredoxin-1--disease or no disease?. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2013;18:1053-62 pubmed publisher
    ..One major antioxidative cellular molecule is thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1). Its indispensability is demonstrated by the embryonic lethality of Trx-1 deficient mice...
  48. Yang X, Yang Y, Wu J, Zhu J. Stable expression of a novel fusion peptide of thioredoxin-1 and ABAD-inhibiting peptide protects PC12 cells from intracellular amyloid-beta. J Mol Neurosci. 2007;33:180-8 pubmed
    ..system that allowed the stable expression of the small ABAD-inhibiting peptide by fusion with cytosolic thioredoxin-1 (TRX)...
  49. Mahmoudian E, Khalilnezhad A, Gharagozli K, Amani D. Thioredoxin-1, redox factor-1 and thioredoxin-interacting protein, mRNAs are differentially expressed in Multiple Sclerosis patients exposed and non-exposed to interferon and immunosuppressive treatments. Gene. 2017;634:29-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, 15 healthy controls were enrolled. The mRNA expression of TRX1, TXNRD1, TRX2, TXNRD2, TXNIP, and APEX1 genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was assessed by ..
  50. Engelman R, Ziv T, Arner E, Benhar M. Inhibitory nitrosylation of mammalian thioredoxin reductase 1: Molecular characterization and evidence for its functional role in cellular nitroso-redox imbalance. Free Radic Biol Med. 2016;97:375-385 pubmed publisher
    Mammalian thioredoxin 1 (Trx1) and the selenoprotein Trx reductase 1 (TrxR1) are key cellular enzymes that function coordinately in thiol-based redox regulation and signaling...
  51. Zitta K, Meybohm P, Gruenewald M, Cremer J, Zacharowski K, Scholz J, et al. Profiling of cell stress protein expression in cardiac tissue of cardiosurgical patients undergoing remote ischemic preconditioning: implications for thioredoxin in cardioprotection. J Transl Med. 2015;13:34 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent animal studies suggested that the small redox protein thioredoxin may be a potential candidate for preconditioning-induced organprotection...
  52. Kamoun Y, Mabrouk I, Delahodde A, Boukid F, Yacoubi Hadj Amor I, Mokdad Gargouri R, et al. Overexpression of yeast thioredoxin TRX2 reduces p53-mediated cell death in yeast. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2015;99:8619-28 pubmed publisher
    ..P53 overproduction led to transcriptional downregulation of some yeast genes, such as the TRX1/2 thioredoxin system, which plays a key role in cell protection against various oxidative stresses induced by reactive oxygen ..
  53. King B, Nowakowska J, Karsten C, Köhl J, Renstrom E, Blom A. Truncated and full-length thioredoxin-1 have opposing activating and inhibitory properties for human complement with relevance to endothelial surfaces. J Immunol. 2012;188:4103-12 pubmed publisher
    b>Thioredoxin (Trx)-1 is a small, ubiquitously expressed redox-active protein with known important cytosolic functions...
  54. Kurimoto C, Kawano S, Tsuji G, Hatachi S, Jikimoto T, Sugiyama D, et al. Thioredoxin may exert a protective effect against tissue damage caused by oxidative stress in salivary glands of patients with Sjögren's syndrome. J Rheumatol. 2007;34:2035-43 pubmed
    To demonstrate the existence of oxidative stress and the role of the antioxidant thioredoxin (TRX) in Sjögren's syndrome (SS)...
  55. Nadeau P, Charette S, Toledano M, Landry J. Disulfide Bond-mediated multimerization of Ask1 and its reduction by thioredoxin-1 regulate H(2)O(2)-induced c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase activation and apoptosis. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:3903-13 pubmed
    ..During this reduction, the thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase thioredoxin-1 (Trx1) became covalently associated with Ask1...
  56. Rancourt R, Tai S, King M, Heltshe S, Penvari C, Accurso F, et al. Thioredoxin liquefies and decreases the viscoelasticity of cystic fibrosis sputum. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2004;286:L931-8 pubmed
    ..b>Thioredoxin (Trx) is a protein disulfide reductase that catalyzes numerous thiol-dependent cellular reductive processes...
  57. Chen Y, Liu Y, Zhang G, Wang A, Dong Z, Qi Y, et al. Human papillomavirus L1 protein expressed in Escherichia coli self-assembles into virus-like particles that are highly immunogenic. Virus Res. 2016;220:97-103 pubmed publisher
    ..proteins were expressed in pET-28a-L1 and pHSIE-L1, and the proteins expressed by pET-32a-L1 plasmid with TRX-tag were in the form of inclusion body...
  58. Hashem R, Hassanin K, Rashed L, Mahmoud M, Hassan M. Effect of silibinin and vitamin E on the ASK1-p38 MAPK pathway in D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide induced hepatotoxicity. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2016;241:1250-7 pubmed publisher
    ..E in curative and prophylactic manner of treatment on the negative modulators of ASK1, thioredoxin1 (Trx1), thioredoxin reductase1 (TrxR1), and the protein phosphatase (PP5), whereas they have previously proven to have ..
  59. Xu X, Screaton G. HIV-1 Nef: negative effector of Fas?. Nat Immunol. 2001;2:384-5 pubmed
  60. Schmitz A, de Souza L, Dos Santos B, Maher P, Lopes F, Londero G, et al. Methylglyoxal-Induced Protection Response and Toxicity: Role of Glutathione Reductase and Thioredoxin Systems. Neurotox Res. 2017;32:340-350 pubmed publisher
    b>Thioredoxin (Trx) and glyoxalase (Glo) systems have been suggested to be molecular targets of methylglyoxal (MGO)...
  61. Romero J, Hanschmann E, Gellert M, Eitner S, Holubiec M, Blanco Calvo E, et al. Thioredoxin 1 and glutaredoxin 2 contribute to maintain the phenotype and integrity of neurons following perinatal asphyxia. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015;1850:1274-85 pubmed publisher
    b>Thioredoxin (Trx) family proteins are crucial mediators of cell functions via regulation of the thiol redox state of various key proteins and the levels of the intracellular second messenger hydrogen peroxide...
  62. Da Q, Wang P, Wang M, Sun T, Jin H, Liu B, et al. Thioredoxin and NADPH-Dependent Thioredoxin Reductase C Regulation of Tetrapyrrole Biosynthesis. Plant Physiol. 2017;175:652-666 pubmed publisher
    In chloroplasts, thioredoxin (TRX) isoforms and NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase C (NTRC) act as redox regulatory factors involved in multiple plastid biogenesis and metabolic processes...
  63. Cortés R, Martinez Hervas S, Ivorra C, de Marco G, Gonzalez Albert V, Rojo Martínez G, et al. Enhanced reduction in oxidative stress and altered glutathione and thioredoxin system response to unsaturated fatty acid load in familial hypercholesterolemia. Clin Biochem. 2014;47:291-7 pubmed publisher
    ..an unsaturated oral fat load test (OFLT) by analyzing the mRNA levels of genes involved in the glutathione and thioredoxin antioxidant systems. We analyzed 14 FH patients and 20 normolipidemic and normoglycemic controls...
  64. Hashemy S, Holmgren A. Regulation of the catalytic activity and structure of human thioredoxin 1 via oxidation and S-nitrosylation of cysteine residues. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:21890-8 pubmed publisher
    The mammalian cytosolic/nuclear thioredoxin system, comprising thioredoxin (Trx), selenoenzyme thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), and NADPH, is the major protein-disulfide reductase of the cell and has numerous functions...