Gene Symbol: TGM3
Description: transglutaminase 3
Alias: TGE, UHS2, protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase E, E polypeptide, protein-glutamine-gamma-glutamyltransferase, TG(E), TGase E, TGase-3, transglutaminase E
Species: human
Products:     TGM3

Top Publications

  1. Negishi A, Masuda M, Ono M, Honda K, Shitashige M, Satow R, et al. Quantitative proteomics using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer Sci. 2009;100:1605-11 pubmed publisher
    ..001, paired t-test). The expression of transglutaminase 3 (TGM3) was significantly down-regulated in cancer and correlated with loss of histological differentiation...
  2. Aeschlimann D, Koeller M, Allen Hoffmann B, Mosher D. Isolation of a cDNA encoding a novel member of the transglutaminase gene family from human keratinocytes. Detection and identification of transglutaminase gene products based on reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction with degenerate primers. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:3452-60 pubmed
    ..TGX expression increased severalfold when keratinocyte cultures were induced to differentiate by suspension or growth to postconfluency, suggesting that TGX contributes to the formation of the cornified envelope. ..
  3. Lieden A, Winge M, Sääf A, Kockum I, Ekelund E, Rodriguez E, et al. Genetic variation in the epidermal transglutaminase genes is not associated with atopic dermatitis. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e49694 pubmed publisher
    ..The epidermal transglutaminases (TGM1, TGM3 and TGM5) encodes essential cross-linking enzymes in the epidermis...
  4. Luo A, Kong J, Hu G, Liew C, Xiong M, Wang X, et al. Discovery of Ca2+-relevant and differentiation-associated genes downregulated in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma using cDNA microarray. Oncogene. 2004;23:1291-9 pubmed
    ..annexin I, small proline-rich proteins (SPRRs), calcium-binding S100 proteins (S100A8, S100A9), transglutaminase (TGM3), cytokeratins (KRT4, KRT13), gut-enriched Krupple-like factor (GKLF) and cystatin A...
  5. Yamane A, Fukui M, Sugimura Y, Itoh M, Alea M, Thomas V, et al. Identification of a preferred substrate peptide for transglutaminase 3 and detection of in situ activity in skin and hair follicles. FEBS J. 2010;277:3564-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Two main transglutaminases isoforms, epidermal-type (TGase 3) and keratinocyte-type (TGase 1), are cooperatively involved in this process of differentiating keratinocytes...
  6. Kim I, Gorman J, Park S, Chung S, Steinert P. The deduced sequence of the novel protransglutaminase E (TGase3) of human and mouse. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:12682-90 pubmed
  7. Thibaut S, Cavusoglu N, de Becker E, Zerbib F, Bednarczyk A, Schaeffer C, et al. Transglutaminase-3 enzyme: a putative actor in human hair shaft scaffolding?. J Invest Dermatol. 2009;129:449-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Our particular interest in hair fiber keratinization led us to focus on the TGase 3, exclusively expressed in the hair shaft...
  8. Sárdy M, Karpati S, Merkl B, Paulsson M, Smyth N. Epidermal transglutaminase (TGase 3) is the autoantigen of dermatitis herpetiformis. J Exp Med. 2002;195:747-57 pubmed
  9. Gonzalez H, Gujrati M, Frederick M, Henderson Y, Arumugam J, Spring P, et al. Identification of 9 genes differentially expressed in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2003;129:754-9 pubmed
    ..Current treatment modalities in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck have failed to improve survival. Advances in the discovery of novel biomarkers and targets for therapy are necessary...

More Information


  1. Hitomi K, Presland R, Nakayama T, Fleckman P, Dale B, Maki M. Analysis of epidermal-type transglutaminase (transglutaminase 3) in human stratified epithelia and cultured keratinocytes using monoclonal antibodies. J Dermatol Sci. 2003;32:95-103 pubmed
    Epidermal-type transglutaminase (TGase 3) is involved in the cross-linking of structural proteins in the epidermis, which results in the formation of the cornified envelope...
  2. Liu W, Yu Z, Cao W, Ding F, Liu Z. Functional studies of a novel oncogene TGM3 in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. World J Gastroenterol. 2006;12:3929-32 pubmed
    To investigate the role of transglutaminase 3 (TGM3) gene in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), and analyze its relationship with clinicopathological parameters...
  3. Uemura N, Nakanishi Y, Kato H, Saito S, Nagino M, Hirohashi S, et al. Transglutaminase 3 as a prognostic biomarker in esophageal cancer revealed by proteomics. Int J Cancer. 2009;124:2106-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Transglutaminase 3 (TGM3) was inversely correlated with shorter patient survival...
  4. Liu J, Zhou Y, Wan J, Liu Z. [Expression of TGM3 protein and its significance in laryngeal carcinoma]. Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2012;26:101-3 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the expression of TGM3 in laryngeal carcinoma and analyze the relation of TGM3 and clinical factors...
  5. Mansikka E, Hervonen K, Kaukinen K, Ilus T, Oksanen P, Lindfors K, et al. Gluten challenge induces skin and small bowel relapse in long-term gluten-free diet-treated dermatitis herpetiformis. J Invest Dermatol. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, 95% of the DH patients were unable to tolerate gluten even after long-term adherence to a GFD. Therefore, life-long GFD treatment remains justified in all DH patients. ..
  6. Chilingarian A, Mkrtchyan H, Karapetyan G, Chilingaryan S, Sargsyan B, Arestakesyan A. Catalog of 2017 Thunderstorm Ground Enhancement (TGE) events observed on Aragats. Sci Rep. 2019;9:6253 pubmed publisher
    ..We present TGE catalog for 2 broad classes according to presence or absence of the high-energy particles...
  7. Bundela S, Sharma A, Bisen P. Potential therapeutic targets for oral cancer: ADM, TP53, EGFR, LYN, CTLA4, SKIL, CTGF, CD70. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e102610 pubmed publisher
    ..MMP-1/3/10/13), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligands (IL8, CXCL-10/-11), PTHLH, SERPINE1, NELL2, S100A7A, MAL, CRNN, TGM3, CLCA4, keratins (KRT-3/4/13/76/78), SERPINB11 and serine peptidase inhibitors (SPINK-5/7)...
  8. Le B, Nguyen J, Logarajah S, Wang B, MARCUS J, Williams H, et al. Characterization of Anopheles gambiae transglutaminase 3 (AgTG3) and its native substrate Plugin. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:4844-53 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support the development of AgTG3 inhibitors as specific and effective chemosterilants for A. gambiae. ..
  9. Elseweidy M, Younis N, Elswefy S, Abdallah F, El Dahmy S, Elnagar G, et al. Atheroprotective potentials of curcuminoids against ginger extract in hypercholesterolaemic rabbits. Nat Prod Res. 2015;29:961-5 pubmed publisher
    The anti-atherogenic potentials of total ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract (TGE) or curcuminoids extracted from turmeric (Curcuma longa), members of family Zingiberaceae, were compared in hypercholesterolaemia...
  10. Piñeyro P, Lozada M, Alarcón L, Sanguinetti R, Cappuccio J, Pérez E, et al. First retrospective studies with etiological confirmation of porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus infection in Argentina. BMC Vet Res. 2018;14:292 pubmed publisher
    ..and final confirmation of a metabolically-active virus was performed by in situ hybridization to detect a TGE mRNA encoding spike protein. All sections evaluated in this case were negative for PEDV and rotavirus A...
  11. Puente Massaguer E, Lecina M, Godia F. Nanoscale characterization coupled to multi-parametric optimization of Hi5 cell transient gene expression. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2018;102:10495-10510 pubmed publisher
    Polyethylenimine (PEI)-based transient gene expression (TGE) is nowadays a well-established methodology for rapid protein production in mammalian cells, but it has been used to a much lower extent in insect cell lines...
  12. de Menezes Furtado C, de Faria F, Azevedo R, Py Daniel K, Dos Santos Camara A, da Silva J, et al. Tectona grandis leaf extract, free and associated with nanoemulsions, as a possible photosensitizer of mouse melanoma B16 cell. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2017;167:242-248 pubmed publisher
    ..present work aims to evaluate the photodynamic potential of hydro-alcoholic extract from Tectona grandis LF leaves (TGE) and the same extract prepared as the oil-water nanoemulsion (TGE-NE) against melanoma B16 F10 cells...
  13. Brown A, Sweeney B, Mainwaring D, James D. NF-κB, CRE and YY1 elements are key functional regulators of CMV promoter-driven transient gene expression in CHO cells. Biotechnol J. 2015;10:1019-28 pubmed publisher
    Transient gene expression (TGE) in CHO cells is utilized to produce material for use in early stage drug development. These systems typically utilize the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter to drive recombinant gene transcription...
  14. Krasny Pacini A, Chevignard M, Lancien S, Escolano S, Laurent Vannier A, De Agostini M, et al. Executive function after severe childhood traumatic brain injury - Age-at-injury vulnerability periods: The TGE prospective longitudinal study. Ann Phys Rehabil Med. 2017;60:74-82 pubmed publisher
    ..EFs are impaired after severe TBI in childhood. The relationship between age at injury and outcome is not linear. Relying on only performance-based EF tests can underestimate EF impairment. ..
  15. Lee J, Park J, Park S, Kim S, Kim J, Min J, et al. Co-amplification of EBNA-1 and PyLT through dhfr-mediated gene amplification for improving foreign protein production in transient gene expression in CHO cells. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2018;102:4729-4739 pubmed publisher
    ..foreign protein productivity (qp) of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell-based transient gene expression (TGE) systems, TGE-based recombinant protein production technology predominantly employs CHO cells for pre-clinical ..
  16. González Domínguez I, Grimaldi N, Cervera L, Ventosa N, Godia F. Impact of physicochemical properties of DNA/PEI complexes on transient transfection of mammalian cells. N Biotechnol. 2019;49:88-97 pubmed publisher
    Polyethyleneimine (PEI) has been used extensively for transient gene expression (TGE) in mammalian cell cultures. However, the relationship between DNA/PEI complex preparation and their biological activity has not been fully established...
  17. Steger K, Brady J, Wang W, Duskin M, Donato K, PESHWA M. CHO-S antibody titers >1 gram/liter using flow electroporation-mediated transient gene expression followed by rapid migration to high-yield stable cell lines. J Biomol Screen. 2015;20:545-51 pubmed publisher
    In recent years, researchers have turned to transient gene expression (TGE) as an alternative to CHO stable cell line generation for early-stage antibody development...
  18. You M, Yang Y, Zhong C, Chen F, Wang X, Jia T, et al. Efficient mAb production in CHO cells with optimized signal peptide, codon, and UTR. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2018;102:5953-5964 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, the bioactivity of products made from optimized transient gene expression (TGE) was almost identical to the standard sample...
  19. Schmidt P, Abdo M, Butcher R, Yap M, Scotney P, Ramunno M, et al. A robust robotic high-throughput antibody purification platform. J Chromatogr A. 2016;1455:9-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent advances in transient gene expression (TGE) using the high-titre Expi293F™ system have enabled recombinant mAb titres of greater than 500mg/L...
  20. Yu X, Uhde M, Green P, Alaedini A. Autoantibodies in the Extraintestinal Manifestations of Celiac Disease. Nutrients. 2018;10: pubmed publisher
    ..Clinical relevance, pathogenic potential, mechanism of development, and diagnostic and prognostic value of the various identified autoantibody reactivities continue to be subjects of investigation and will be reviewed here. ..
  21. Shen X, Pitol A, Bachmann V, Hacker D, Baldi L, Wurm F. A simple plasmid-based transient gene expression method using High Five cells. J Biotechnol. 2015;216:67-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we describe a simple polyethylenimine (PEI)-based transient gene expression (TGE) process for the rapid production of recombinant proteins from suspension-adapted H5 cells...
  22. Geva R, Dital A, Ramon D, Yarmolovsky J, Gidron M, Kuint J. Brainstem as a developmental gateway to social attention. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2017;58:1351-1359 pubmed publisher
    ..during the Attention Network Test (ANT, four cue types, and two targets) and a Triadic Gaze Engagement task (TGE, three social cue levels)...
  23. Stuible M, Burlacu A, Perret S, Brochu D, Paul Roc B, Baardsnes J, et al. Optimization of a high-cell-density polyethylenimine transfection method for rapid protein production in CHO-EBNA1 cells. J Biotechnol. 2018;281:39-47 pubmed publisher
    For pre-clinical evaluation of biotherapeutic candidates, protein production by transient gene expression (TGE) in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells offers important advantages, including the capability of rapidly and cost-effectively ..
  24. Muthukumar S, Rajkumar R, Rajesh D, Saibaba G, Liao C, Archunan G, et al. Exploration of salivary proteins in buffalo: an approach to find marker proteins for estrus. FASEB J. 2014;28:4700-9 pubmed publisher
    ..estrus phase, which include β-enolase, Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4, clusterin, lactoperoxidase, serotransferrin, TGM3, UBA6, and transducin...
  25. Fliedl L, Kast F, Grillari J, Wieser M, Grillari Voglauer R. Optimization of a quantitative PCR based method for plasmid copy number determination in human cell lines. N Biotechnol. 2015;32:716-9 pubmed publisher
    Transient gene expression (TGE) is an essential tool for the production of recombinant proteins, especially in early drug discovery and development phases of biopharmaceuticals...
  26. Wu X, Wang R, Jiao J, Li S, Yu J, Yin Z, et al. Transglutaminase 3 contributes to malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia to cancer. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2018;104:34-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study was to investigate the biological role of transglutaminase 3 (TGM3) in malignant transformation of OL and its clinical value for predicting oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) risk ..
  27. Brennan B, Huynh M, Rabah M, Shaw H, Bisaillon J, Radden L, et al. The mouse wellhaarig (we) mutations result from defects in epidermal-type transglutaminase 3 (Tgm3). Mol Genet Metab. 2015;116:187-91 pubmed publisher
    ..of we(4J) between sites that flank only one gene known to be expressed in skin: epidermal-type transglutaminase 3 (Tgm3). To test Tgm3 as a candidate for the basis of the wellhaarig phenotype we took two approaches...
  28. Sadeghi A, Bahramsoltani R, Rahimi R, Farzaei M, Farzaei F, Haghighi Z, et al. Biochemical and Histopathological Evidence on Beneficial Effects of Standardized Extract from Tragopogon graminifolius as a Dietary Supplement in Fatty Liver: Role of Oxidative Stress. J Diet Suppl. 2018;15:197-206 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aimed to assess the beneficial effects of a standardized preparation from T. graminifolius extract (TGE) in animal model of FLD induced by high-fat diet (HFD)...
  29. Matsuura N, Ohashi A, Tourlousse D, Sekiguchi Y. Draft Genome Sequence of Thermodesulfovibrio aggregans TGE-P1T, an Obligately Anaerobic, Thermophilic, Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium in the Phylum Nitrospirae. Genome Announc. 2016;4: pubmed publisher
    We report a high-quality draft genome sequence of the type strain (TGE-P1(T)) of Thermodesulfovibrio aggregans, an obligately anaerobic, thermophilic, sulfate-reducing bacterium in the phylum Nitrospirae. The genome comprises 2...
  30. Turgis M, Vu K, Millette M, Dupont C, Lacroix M. Influence of Environmental Factors on Bacteriocin Production by Human Isolates of Lactococcus lactis MM19 and Pediococcus acidilactici MM33. Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins. 2016;8:53-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In these conditions, pediocin production by MM33 was increased by three times as compared to the control medium (tryptone-glucose-yeast extract-TGE broth).
  31. Liang W, He L, Ning P, Lin J, Li H, Lin Z, et al. (+)-Catechin inhibition of transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus in swine testicular cells is involved its antioxidation. Res Vet Sci. 2015;103:28-33 pubmed publisher
    Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) causes transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE), especially in newborn piglets, which severely threatens the worldwide pig industry...
  32. Szpak M, Mezzavilla M, Ayub Q, Chen Y, Xue Y, Tyler Smith C. FineMAV: prioritizing candidate genetic variants driving local adaptations in human populations. Genome Biol. 2018;19:5 pubmed publisher
    ..FineMAV to the 1000 Genomes Project Phase 3 SNP dataset, we report many novel selected variants, including ones in TGM3 and PRSS53 associated with hair phenotypes that we validate using available independent data...
  33. Sloan Heggen C, Babanejad M, Beheshtian M, Simpson A, Booth K, Ardalani F, et al. Characterising the spectrum of autosomal recessive hereditary hearing loss in Iran. J Med Genet. 2015;52:823-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Using a custom targeted genomic enrichment (TGE) panel, we simultaneously interrogated all known genetic causes of NSHL in a cohort of 302 GJB2-negative Iranian ..
  34. Li C, Xiong Y. Disruption of secondary structure by oxidative stress alters the cross-linking pattern of myosin by microbial transglutaminase. Meat Sci. 2015;108:97-105 pubmed publisher
    ..5mM H2O2 and extensively to the S2 site with 20mM H2O2. Unraveling of the helical structure and formation of disulfide bonds due to oxidation were implicated in the altered myosin cross-linking pattern during subsequent TGase reactions. ..
  35. Mou C, Zhu L, Xing X, Lin J, Yang Q. Immune responses induced by recombinant Bacillus subtilis expressing the spike protein of transmissible gastroenteritis virus in pigs. Antiviral Res. 2016;131:74-84 pubmed publisher
    Transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) causes severe diarrhea in suckling piglets, results in enormous economic loss in swine-producing areas of the world...
  36. Salmi T, Kurppa K, Hervonen K, Laurila K, Collin P, Huhtala H, et al. Serum transglutaminase 3 antibodies correlate with age at celiac disease diagnosis. Dig Liver Dis. 2016;48:632-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Serum TG3 antibody positivity in celiac disease increases as the diagnostic age rises. TG3 antibodies did not show similar gluten-dependency as TG2 antibodies. ..
  37. Günther J, Petzl W, Zerbe H, Schuberth H, Seyfert H. TLR ligands, but not modulators of histone modifiers, can induce the complex immune response pattern of endotoxin tolerance in mammary epithelial cells. Innate Immun. 2017;23:155-164 pubmed publisher
    ..enhanced baseline and induced expression of bactericidal (?-defensin; SLPI) and membrane protecting factors ( SAA3, TGM3), while reducing the expression of cytokine- and chemokine-encoding genes ( TNF, IL1?) after a subsequent pathogen ..
  38. Poulain A, Perret S, Malenfant F, Mullick A, Massie B, Durocher Y. Rapid protein production from stable CHO cell pools using plasmid vector and the cumate gene-switch. J Biotechnol. 2017;255:16-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell pools represents a useful alternative to large-scale transient gene expression (TGE)...
  39. Thangaraju K, Kiraly R, Demény M, András Mótyán J, Fuxreiter M, Fesus L. Genomic variants reveal differential evolutionary constraints on human transglutaminases and point towards unrecognized significance of transglutaminase 2. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0172189 pubmed publisher
    ..Ca2+-dependent transamidation of proteins with specified roles in blood clotting (F13a) and in cornification (TGM1, TGM3)...
  40. Chilingarian A, Chilingaryan S, Karapetyan T, Kozliner L, Khanikyants Y, Hovsepyan G, et al. On the initiation of lightning in thunderclouds. Sci Rep. 2017;7:1371 pubmed publisher
    ..The well-known effect of the TGE dynamics is the abrupt termination of the particle flux by the lightning flash...
  41. Azaiez H, Decker A, Booth K, Simpson A, Shearer A, Huygen P, et al. HOMER2, a stereociliary scaffolding protein, is essential for normal hearing in humans and mice. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1005137 pubmed publisher
    ..have been implicated to date, and with the advent of targeted genomic enrichment and massively parallel sequencing (TGE+MPS) the rate of novel deafness-gene identification has accelerated...
  42. Ding K, Han L, Zong H, Chen J, Zhang B, Zhu J. Production process reproducibility and product quality consistency of transient gene expression in HEK293 cells with anti-PD1 antibody as the model protein. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2017;101:1889-1898 pubmed publisher
    ..consistency of process and product quality is one of the most crucial issues in using transient gene expression (TGE) technology for biopharmaceutical development...
  43. Mignaqui A, Ruiz V, Perret S, St Laurent G, Singh Chahal P, Transfiguracion J, et al. Transient gene expression in serum-free suspension-growing mammalian cells for the production of foot-and-mouth disease virus empty capsids. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e72800 pubmed publisher
    ..In this report, we explored transient gene expression (TGE) in serum-free suspension-growing mammalian cells for the production of FMDV recombinant empty capsids as a subunit ..
  44. Lucero P, Ferrari M, Orden A, Cañas I, Nassetta M, Kurina Sanz M. Treatment of endosulfan contaminated water with in vitro plant cell cultures. J Hazard Mater. 2016;305:149-155 pubmed publisher
    ..available as mixtures of two diastereomers, α- and β-endosulfan, known as technical grade endosulfan (TGE)...
  45. Chen S, Chen W, Zhang X, Lin S, Chen Z. Overexpression of KiSS-1 reduces colorectal cancer cell invasion by downregulating MMP-9 via blocking PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signal pathway. Int J Oncol. 2016;48:1391-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Overexpression of KiSS-1 suppressed the invasiveness of CRC cells, and the gene exerted its function by reducing the expression of MMP-9 via blocking of tge PI3K/Akt/NF-κB pathway.
  46. Vitor M, Sart S, Barizien A, Torre L, Baroud C. Tracking the Evolution of Transiently Transfected Individual Cells in a Microfluidic Platform. Sci Rep. 2018;8:1225 pubmed publisher
    Transient gene expression (TGE) technology enables the rapid production of large amount of recombinant proteins, without the need of fastidious screening of the producing cells required for stable transfection (ST)...
  47. Zhang Y, Zhang X, Liao X, Huang X, Cao S, Wen X, et al. Construction of a bivalent DNA vaccine co-expressing S genes of transmissible gastroenteritis virus and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus delivered by attenuated Salmonella typhimurium. Virus Genes. 2016;52:354-64 pubmed publisher
    ..05). These results demonstrated that SL7207 (pVAXD-PS1-TS) possess the immunological functions of the two S proteins of TGEV and PEDV, indicating that SL7207 (pVAXD-PS1-TS) is a candidate oral vaccine for TGE and PED.
  48. Moteki H, Azaiez H, Sloan Heggen C, Booth K, Nishio S, Wakui K, et al. Detection and Confirmation of Deafness-Causing Copy Number Variations in the STRC Gene by Massively Parallel Sequencing and Comparative Genomic Hybridization. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2016;125:918-923 pubmed
    ..Targeted genomic enrichment with massively parallel sequencing (TGE+MPS) has emerged as the preferred method by which to provide comprehensive genetic testing for hearing loss...
  49. Taylor T, Schmidt L, Meyer L, Zone J. Transglutaminase 3 present in the IgA aggregates in dermatitis herpetiformis skin is enzymatically active and binds soluble fibrinogen. J Invest Dermatol. 2015;135:623-625 pubmed publisher
  50. Brown D, Kitchin D, Qadadri B, Neptune N, Batteiger T, Ermel A. The human papillomavirus type 11 E1--E4 protein is a transglutaminase 3 substrate and induces abnormalities of the cornified cell envelope. Virology. 2006;345:290-8 pubmed
    ..We conclude from these in vitro experiments that the E1--E4 protein is cross-linked by transglutaminase 3, and that E1--E4 expression in differentiated keratinocytes induces morphologic abnormalities of the cornified cell envelope. ..
  51. Zone J, Schmidt L, Taylor T, Hull C, Sotiriou M, Jaskowski T, et al. Dermatitis herpetiformis sera or goat anti-transglutaminase-3 transferred to human skin-grafted mice mimics dermatitis herpetiformis immunopathology. J Immunol. 2011;186:4474-80 pubmed publisher
    ..These deposits seem to form over weeks in a process similar to an Ouchterlony immunodiffusion precipitate. This process of deposition explains the negative indirect immunofluorescence results with DH serum. ..
  52. Wang X, Hu W, Zhu L, Yang Q. Bacillus subtilis and surfactin inhibit the transmissible gastroenteritis virus from entering the intestinal epithelial cells. Biosci Rep. 2017;37: pubmed publisher
    Intestinal epithelial cells are the targets for transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus (TGEV) infection. It is urgent to develop a novel candidate against TGEV entry...
  53. Stacey S, Sulem P, Gudbjartsson D, Jonasdottir A, Thorleifsson G, Gudjonsson S, et al. Germline sequence variants in TGM3 and RGS22 confer risk of basal cell carcinoma. Hum Mol Genet. 2014;23:3045-53 pubmed publisher
    ..We found new BCC susceptibility loci at TGM3 (rs214782[G], P = 5.5 × 10(-17), OR = 1.29) and RGS22 (rs7006527[C], P = 8.7 × 10(-13), OR = 0.77)...
  54. Mi Z, Si T, Kapadia K, Li Q, Muma N. Receptor-stimulated transamidation induces activation of Rac1 and Cdc42 and the regulation of dendritic spines. Neuropharmacology. 2017;117:93-105 pubmed publisher
  55. Russo T, Currò M, Barbera A, Caccamo D, Antonuccio P, Arena S, et al. Expression of Transglutaminase in Foreskin of Children with Balanitis Xerotica Obliterans. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17: pubmed publisher
    ..Increased expression of TG2 can be the result of chronic inflammation. TG2 overexpression can play a pivotal role in triggering and maintaining the inflammatory response in BXO patients. ..
  56. Kim S, Grant P, Lee J, Pant H, Steinert P. Differential expression of multiple transglutaminases in human brain. Increased expression and cross-linking by transglutaminases 1 and 2 in Alzheimer's disease. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:30715-21 pubmed
    ..reaction and immunological methods with specific antibodies that in fact three members, the TGase 1, TGase 2, and TGase 3 enzymes, and are differentially expressed in various regions of normal human brain tissues...
  57. Ahvazi B, Boeshans K, Idler W, Baxa U, Steinert P, Rastinejad F. Structural basis for the coordinated regulation of transglutaminase 3 by guanine nucleotides and calcium/magnesium. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:7180-92 pubmed
    Transglutaminase 3 (TGase 3) is a member of a family of Ca2+-dependent enzymes that catalyze covalent cross-linking reactions between proteins or peptides...
  58. Raghunath M, Tontsidou L, Oji V, Aufenvenne K, Schürmeyer Horst F, Jayakumar A, et al. SPINK5 and Netherton syndrome: novel mutations, demonstration of missing LEKTI, and differential expression of transglutaminases. J Invest Dermatol. 2004;123:474-83 pubmed
  59. Amendola A, Lombardi G, Oliverio S, Colizzi V, Piacentini M. HIV-1 gp120-dependent induction of apoptosis in antigen-specific human T cell clones is characterized by 'tissue' transglutaminase expression and prevented by cyclosporin A. FEBS Lett. 1994;339:258-64 pubmed
    ..Noteworthy, CsA treatment prevented the gp120-dependent induction of apoptosis by blocking the activation of the Ca(2+)-dependent effector elements such as tTG. ..
  60. Fujimoto A, Nishida N, Kimura R, Miyagawa T, Yuliwulandari R, Batubara L, et al. FGFR2 is associated with hair thickness in Asian populations. J Hum Genet. 2009;54:461-5 pubmed publisher
    ..0270). These results suggest that the FGFR2 polymorphism affects the variation in hair thickness in Asia through alteration in the expression level of FGFR2. ..
  61. Cheng T, van Vlijmen Willems I, Hitomi K, Pasch M, van Erp P, Schalkwijk J, et al. Colocalization of cystatin M/E and its target proteases suggests a role in terminal differentiation of human hair follicle and nail. J Invest Dermatol. 2009;129:1232-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that cathepsin L and transglutaminase 3 could be involved in the pathway that leads to terminal differentiation, not only in the epidermis but also in the human hair follicle and nail unit. ..
  62. Pollock K, Budenske J, McKenna D, Dosa P, Hubel A. Algorithm-driven optimization of cryopreservation protocols for transfusion model cell types including Jurkat cells and mesenchymal stem cells. J Tissue Eng Regen Med. 2017;11:2806-2815 pubmed publisher
    ..01% ectoine (TGE) at 10°C/min...
  63. Hitomi K, Ikeda N, Maki M. Immunological detection of proteolytically activated epidermal-type transglutaminase (TGase 3) using cleavage-site-specific antibody. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2003;67:2492-4 pubmed
    Transglutaminase 3 (TGase 3), involved in the cross-linking of structural proteins in the epidermis, is activated by limited proteolysis of zymogen into two fragments during keratinocyte differentiation...
  64. Hietikko M, Hervonen K, Ilus T, Salmi T, Huhtala H, Laurila K, et al. Ex vivo Culture of Duodenal Biopsies from Patients with Dermatitis Herpetiformis Indicates that Transglutaminase 3 Antibody Production Occurs in the Gut. Acta Derm Venereol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that TG3 antibodies can be investigated in the organ culture system and that their secretion occurs in the small intestine, especially in active DH...
  65. Del Duca S, Bonner P, Aloisi I, Serafini Fracassini D, Cai G. Determination of Transglutaminase Activity in Plants. Methods Mol Biol. 2018;1694:173-200 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we describe radioactive and colorimetric methods adapted to study plant TGase, as well as protocols to analyze the involvement of TGase and polyamines in the functionality of cytoskeletal proteins. ..
  66. Fuenmayor J, Cervera L, Gutiérrez Granados S, Godia F. Transient gene expression optimization and expression vector comparison to improve HIV-1 VLP production in HEK293 cell lines. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2018;102:165-174 pubmed publisher
    Transient gene expression (TGE) has been used at small and medium scale for the production of biologicals in sufficient quantities to perform pre-clinical and characterization studies...
  67. Zainelli G, Dudek N, Ross C, Kim S, Muma N. Mutant huntingtin protein: a substrate for transglutaminase 1, 2, and 3. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2005;64:58-65 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that transglutaminase 1, 2, and 3 could be involved in cross-linking of huntingtin into intranuclear inclusions in HD and that inhibiting transglutaminase should be explored as a potential treatment strategy for HD. ..
  68. Donaldson M, Zone J, Schmidt L, Taylor T, Neuhausen S, Hull C, et al. Epidermal transglutaminase deposits in perilesional and uninvolved skin in patients with dermatitis herpetiformis. J Invest Dermatol. 2007;127:1268-71 pubmed
  69. Ü Basmanav F, Cau L, Tafazzoli A, Méchin M, Wolf S, Romano M, et al. Mutations in Three Genes Encoding Proteins Involved in Hair Shaft Formation Cause Uncombable Hair Syndrome. Am J Hum Genet. 2016;99:1292-1304 pubmed publisher
    ..the identification of UHS-causative mutations located in the three genes PADI3 (peptidylarginine deiminase 3), TGM3 (transglutaminase 3), and TCHH (trichohyalin) in a total of 11 children...
  70. Ahvazi B, Boeshans K, Idler W, Baxa U, Steinert P. Roles of calcium ions in the activation and activity of the transglutaminase 3 enzyme. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:23834-41 pubmed
    ..Together, these data have important implications for reaction mechanism of the enzyme: the opening of a channel perhaps controls access to and manipulation of substrates at the active site. ..
  71. Rice R, Green H. Relation of protein synthesis and transglutaminase activity to formation of the cross-linked envelope during terminal differentiation of the cultured human epidermal keratinocyte. J Cell Biol. 1978;76:705-11 pubmed
    ..Though the activity of the cross-linking transglutaminase depends on the presence of cellular Ca++, we have not been able to activate the cross-linking process by high external Ca++ concentration or ionophores. ..
  72. Wu X, Cao W, Wang X, Zhang J, Lv Z, Qin X, et al. TGM3, a candidate tumor suppressor gene, contributes to human head and neck cancer. Mol Cancer. 2013;12:151 pubmed publisher
    In our previous study using oligonucleotide microarrays, we revealed that transglutaminase 3 (TGM3) was remarkably down-regulated in head and neck cancer (HNC)...
  73. Henry J, Hsu C, Haftek M, Nachat R, de Koning H, Gardinal Galera I, et al. Hornerin is a component of the epidermal cornified cell envelopes. FASEB J. 2011;25:1567-76 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that HRNR is a component of cornified cell envelopes of human epidermis. Its reduced expression in AD may contribute to the epidermal barrier defect observed in the disease. ..
  74. Kim C, Seo E, Sung Y, Kim H, Seo Y, Park J, et al. Characterization of Ets-binding sequence of human transglutaminase 3 gene promoter. Exp Dermatol. 2004;13:529-34 pubmed
    ..Sp1-transcription factors have been implicated in the epithelial specific expression of transglutaminase 3 gene (TGM3) in vitro...
  75. Wang M, Kim I, Steinert P, McBride O. Assignment of the human transglutaminase 2 (TGM2) and transglutaminase 3 (TGM3) genes to chromosome 20q11.2. Genomics. 1994;23:721-2 pubmed
  76. Steck T. Cross-linking the major proteins of the isolated erythrocyte membrane. J Mol Biol. 1972;66:295-305 pubmed
  77. Mewissen M, Jan M, Kuten D, Krajcer Z. Laser-Assisted Transgraft Embolization: A Technique for the Treatment of Type II Endoleaks. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2017;28:1600-1603 pubmed publisher
    A transgraft embolization (TGE) technique was performed in a patient to treat a type II endoleak...
  78. Currò M, Matarese G, Isola G, Caccamo D, Ventura V, Cornelius C, et al. Differential expression of transglutaminase genes in patients with chronic periodontitis. Oral Dis. 2014;20:616-23 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations suggest that transglutaminase gene expression may be modified in response to chronic injury in the damaged gingival and emphasizes the key role of these enzymes in gingival remodelling/healing and adaptive processes. ..
  79. Ahvazi B, Boeshans K, Rastinejad F. The emerging structural understanding of transglutaminase 3. J Struct Biol. 2004;147:200-7 pubmed
    ..Calcium-activated TGase 3 can bind, hydrolyze, and is inhibited by GTP, despite lacking structural homology with other GTP binding proteins...
  80. Stamnaes J, Dorum S, Fleckenstein B, Aeschlimann D, Sollid L. Gluten T cell epitope targeting by TG3 and TG6; implications for dermatitis herpetiformis and gluten ataxia. Amino Acids. 2010;39:1183-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings lend credence to the notion that TG3 and TG6 are involved in the gluten-induced autoimmune responses of DH and GA...
  81. Mehul B, Bernard D, Simonetti L, Bernard M, Schmidt R. Identification and cloning of a new calmodulin-like protein from human epidermis. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:12841-7 pubmed
    ..Sequencing of a rCLSP affinity purified protein revealed 100% identity with transglutaminase 3, a key enzyme in terminal differentiation, indicating an important role of CLSP in this process. ..
  82. Ahvazi B, Boeshans K, Steinert P. Crystal structure of transglutaminase 3 in complex with GMP: structural basis for nucleotide specificity. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:26716-25 pubmed
    Epidermal-type Transglutaminase 3 (TGase 3) is a Ca(2+)-dependent enzyme involved in the cross-linking of structural proteins required in the assembly of the cell envelope...
  83. Lee J, Jang S, Yang J, Markova N, Steinert P. The proximal promoter of the human transglutaminase 3 gene. Stratified squamous epithelial-specific expression in cultured cells is mediated by binding of Sp1 and ets transcription factors to a proximal promoter element. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:4561-8 pubmed
    ..To explore the mechanisms regulating the expression of the transglutaminase 3 gene (TGM3), 3...
  84. Kim I, Lee S, Lee J, Yang J, Chung S, Steinert P. Structure and organization of the human transglutaminase 3 gene: evolutionary relationship to the transglutaminase family. J Invest Dermatol. 1994;103:137-42 pubmed
    ..In this paper we show that it is encoded by a gene (TGM3) of 42.8 kbp containing 13 exons...
  85. Martin T, Gomez K, Watkins G, Douglas Jones A, Mansel R, Jiang W. Expression of breast cancer specific gene-1 (BCSG-1/gamma-synuclein) is associated with tumour grade but not with clinical outcome of patients with breast cancer. Oncol Rep. 2006;16:207-12 pubmed
    ..307, P < 0.05), and weakly with transglutaminase-7 (r = 0.183). BCSG-1 is increased in breast tumour cells, is negatively associated with tumour grade and significantly correlates with levels of transglutaminase-3. ..
  86. Mariniello L, Esposito C, Di Pierro P, Cozzolino A, Pucci P, Porta R. Human-immunodeficiency-virus transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 is an amino acceptor and donor substrate for transglutaminase in vitro. Eur J Biochem. 1993;215:99-104 pubmed
    ..These results suggest a possible role for transglutaminase in virus entry into host cells, via receptor-mediated endocytosis, and/or in HIV-induced CD4+ T-cell depletion via apoptosis. ..
  87. Zocchi L, Terrinoni A, Candi E, Ahvazi B, Bagetta G, Corasaniti M, et al. Identification of transglutaminase 3 splicing isoforms. J Invest Dermatol. 2007;127:1791-4 pubmed
  88. Li W, Zhang Z, Zhao W, Han N. Transglutaminase 3 protein modulates human esophageal cancer cell growth by targeting the NF-?B signaling pathway. Oncol Rep. 2016;36:1723-30 pubmed publisher
    It has recently been found that the expression of the transglutaminase 3 (TGM3) is significantly reduced in esophageal cancer (EC)...
  89. Ress K, Teesalu K, Annus T, Putnik U, Lepik K, Luts K, et al. Low prevalence of IgA anti-transglutaminase 1, 2, and 3 autoantibodies in children with atopic dermatitis. BMC Res Notes. 2014;7:310 pubmed publisher
    ..The level of circulating antibodies related to skin lesions could be studied by determining the levels of IgA-anti-TG1 and IgA-anti-TG3 in skin biopsies of AD patients. ..