Gene Symbol: TGM2
Description: transglutaminase 2
Alias: TG(C), TGC, protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase 2, C polypeptide, protein-glutamine-gamma-glutamyltransferase, TGase C, TGase H, TGase-2, tissue transglutaminase, transglutaminase C, transglutaminase H
Species: human
Products:     TGM2

Top Publications

  1. Fleckenstein B, Qiao S, Larsen M, Jung G, Roepstorff P, Sollid L. Molecular characterization of covalent complexes between tissue transglutaminase and gliadin peptides. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:17607-16 pubmed
    b>Tissue transglutaminase (TG2) modifies proteins and peptides by transamidation or deamidation of specific glutamine residues. TG2 also has a central role in the pathogenesis of celiac disease...
  2. Belkin A, Zemskov E, Hang J, Akimov S, Sikora S, Strongin A. Cell-surface-associated tissue transglutaminase is a target of MMP-2 proteolysis. Biochemistry. 2004;43:11760-9 pubmed
    ..MT1-MMP proteolysis regulates the functionality of cell-surface adhesion/signaling receptors including tissue transglutaminase (tTG)...
  3. Jeon J, Choi K, Cho S, Kim C, Shin D, Kwon J, et al. Transglutaminase 2 inhibits Rb binding of human papillomavirus E7 by incorporating polyamine. EMBO J. 2003;22:5273-82 pubmed
    Transglutaminase 2 (TGase 2) is one of a family of enzymes that catalyze protein modification through the incorporation of polyamines into substrates or the formation of protein crosslinks...
  4. Liu S, Cerione R, Clardy J. Structural basis for the guanine nucleotide-binding activity of tissue transglutaminase and its regulation of transamidation activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:2743-7 pubmed
    b>Tissue transglutaminase (TG) is a Ca2+-dependent acyltransferase with roles in cellular differentiation, apoptosis, and other biological functions...
  5. Marietta E, Camilleri M, Castro L, Krause P, Pittelkow M, Murray J. Transglutaminase autoantibodies in dermatitis herpetiformis and celiac sprue. J Invest Dermatol. 2008;128:332-5 pubmed
    ..Epidermal transglutaminase (TGe) and closely related tissue transglutaminase (tTG) are considered to be autoantigens in DH, because a majority of DH patients have IgA specific for ..
  6. Caccamo D, Condello S, Ferlazzo N, Currò M, Griffin M, Ientile R. Transglutaminase 2 interaction with small heat shock proteins mediate cell survival upon excitotoxic stress. Amino Acids. 2013;44:151-9 pubmed publisher
  7. Jang G, Jeon J, Cho S, Shin D, Kim C, Jeong E, et al. Transglutaminase 2 suppresses apoptosis by modulating caspase 3 and NF-kappaB activity in hypoxic tumor cells. Oncogene. 2010;29:356-67 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that the inhibition of TG2 may offer a novel strategy for anticancer therapy. ..
  8. Hwang J, Mangala L, Fok J, Lin Y, Merritt W, Spannuth W, et al. Clinical and biological significance of tissue transglutaminase in ovarian carcinoma. Cancer Res. 2008;68:5849-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these findings indicate that TG2 overexpression is an adverse prognostic factor in ovarian carcinoma and TG2 targeting may be an attractive therapeutic approach. ..
  9. Satpathy M, Shao M, Emerson R, Donner D, Matei D. Tissue transglutaminase regulates matrix metalloproteinase-2 in ovarian cancer by modulating cAMP-response element-binding protein activity. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:15390-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Tissue transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is overexpressed in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and promotes intraperitoneal metastasis. How TG2 facilitates the spread of EOC is unknown...

More Information

Publications126 found, 100 shown here

  1. Antonyak M, Miller A, Jansen J, Boehm J, Balkman C, Wakshlag J, et al. Augmentation of tissue transglutaminase expression and activation by epidermal growth factor inhibit doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in human breast cancer cells. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:41461-7 pubmed
    b>Tissue transglutaminase (TGase) exhibits both a GTP binding/hydrolytic capability and an enzymatic transamidation activity...
  2. Mangala L, Arun B, Sahin A, Mehta K. Tissue transglutaminase-induced alterations in extracellular matrix inhibit tumor invasion. Mol Cancer. 2005;4:33 pubmed
    ..b>Tissue transglutaminase (TG2, EC 2.3.2...
  3. Fleckenstein B, Molberg Ø, Qiao S, Schmid D, Von Der Mulbe F, Elgstøen K, et al. Gliadin T cell epitope selection by tissue transglutaminase in celiac disease. Role of enzyme specificity and pH influence on the transamidation versus deamidation process. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:34109-16 pubmed
    b>Tissue transglutaminase (TG2) can modify proteins by transamidation or deamidation of specific glutamine residues...
  4. Mangala L, Fok J, Zorrilla Calancha I, Verma A, Mehta K. Tissue transglutaminase expression promotes cell attachment, invasion and survival in breast cancer cells. Oncogene. 2007;26:2459-70 pubmed
    ..We previously found that metastatic breast cancer cells express high levels of tissue transglutaminase (TG2), but established no direct link between TG2 and metastasis...
  5. Mishra S, Murphy L. Tissue transglutaminase has intrinsic kinase activity: identification of transglutaminase 2 as an insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 kinase. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:23863-8 pubmed
    b>Tissue transglutaminase (TG2) is a ubiquitous enzyme that cross-links glutamine residues with lysine residues, resulting in protein polymerization, cross-linking of dissimilar proteins, and incorporation of diamines and polyamines into ..
  6. Yamaguchi H, Wang H. Tissue transglutaminase serves as an inhibitor of apoptosis by cross-linking caspase 3 in thapsigargin-treated cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:569-79 pubmed
    ..Here, we report that the Ca2+-dependent protein cross-linking enzyme tissue transglutaminase (tTGase) is involved in THG-induced p40 and p64 formation by catalyzing caspase 3 cross-linking reactions,..
  7. Filiano A, Bailey C, Tucholski J, Gundemir S, Johnson G. Transglutaminase 2 protects against ischemic insult, interacts with HIF1beta, and attenuates HIF1 signaling. FASEB J. 2008;22:2662-75 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that TG2 may play an important role in protecting against the delayed neuronal cell death in ischemia and stroke. ..
  8. Nunes I, Gleizes P, Metz C, Rifkin D. Latent transforming growth factor-beta binding protein domains involved in activation and transglutaminase-dependent cross-linking of latent transforming growth factor-beta. J Cell Biol. 1997;136:1151-63 pubmed
    ..This suggests that residues 294-441 are critical to the transglutaminase reactivity of LTBP-1S. ..
  9. McConoughey S, Basso M, Niatsetskaya Z, Sleiman S, Smirnova N, Langley B, et al. Inhibition of transglutaminase 2 mitigates transcriptional dysregulation in models of Huntington disease. EMBO Mol Med. 2010;2:349-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether these findings demonstrate that selective TG inhibition broadly corrects transcriptional dysregulation in HD and defines a novel HDAC-independent epigenetic strategy for treating neurodegeneration. ..
  10. Lin C, Tsai P, Kandaswami C, Chang G, Cheng C, Huang C, et al. Role of tissue transglutaminase 2 in the acquisition of a mesenchymal-like phenotype in highly invasive A431 tumor cells. Mol Cancer. 2011;10:87 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings support the possibility that TG2 is a promising target for cancer therapy. ..
  11. Peng X, Zhang Y, Zhang H, Graner S, Williams J, Levitt M, et al. Interaction of tissue transglutaminase with nuclear transport protein importin-alpha3. FEBS Lett. 1999;446:35-9 pubmed
    b>Tissue transglutaminase is a multifunctional enzyme which has been involved in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis...
  12. Lee J, Kim Y, Choi D, Bang M, Han T, Joh T, et al. Transglutaminase 2 induces nuclear factor-kappaB activation via a novel pathway in BV-2 microglia. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:53725-35 pubmed
    Transglutaminase 2 (TGase 2) expression is increased in inflammatory diseases. We demonstrated previously that inhibitors of TGase 2 reduce nitric oxide (NO) generation in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated microglial cell line...
  13. Telci D, Wang Z, Li X, Verderio E, Humphries M, Baccarini M, et al. Fibronectin-tissue transglutaminase matrix rescues RGD-impaired cell adhesion through syndecan-4 and beta1 integrin co-signaling. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:20937-47 pubmed publisher
    Heterotropic association of tissue transglutaminase (TG2) with extracellular matrix-associated fibronectin (FN) can restore the adhesion of fibroblasts when the integrin-mediated direct binding to FN is impaired using RGD-containing ..
  14. Akimov S, Krylov D, Fleischman L, Belkin A. Tissue transglutaminase is an integrin-binding adhesion coreceptor for fibronectin. J Cell Biol. 2000;148:825-38 pubmed
    The protein cross-linking enzyme tissue transglutaminase binds in vitro with high affinity to fibronectin via its 42-kD gelatin-binding domain...
  15. Park M, Lee H, Shin J, Noh M, Kim S, Lee C. Novel participation of transglutaminase-2 through c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation in sphingosylphosphorylcholine-induced keratin reorganization of PANC-1 cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1811:1021-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, SPC-induced Tgase-2 might be a new target for modulating keratin reorganization, metastasis of cancer cells and JNK activation. ..
  16. Han B, Cho J, Cho Y, Jeong K, Kim S, Lee B. Crystal structure of human transglutaminase 2 in complex with adenosine triphosphate. Int J Biol Macromol. 2010;47:190-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, we newly discovered an intramolecular disulfide bond between Cys230 and Cys370, which formation might regulate the enzymatic activity of TG2...
  17. Akar U, Ozpolat B, Mehta K, Fok J, Kondo Y, Lopez Berestein G. Tissue transglutaminase inhibits autophagy in pancreatic cancer cells. Mol Cancer Res. 2007;5:241-9 pubmed
    Elevated expression of tissue transglutaminase (TG2) in cancer cells has been implicated in the development of drug resistance and metastatic phenotypes. However, the role and the mechanisms that regulate TG2 expression remain elusive...
  18. Shin D, Jeon J, Kim C, Cho S, Lee H, Jang G, et al. TGFbeta mediates activation of transglutaminase 2 in response to oxidative stress that leads to protein aggregation. FASEB J. 2008;22:2498-507 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, TGFbeta-TGase2 pathway may have implications for both the pathogenesis of age-related degenerative diseases and the development of pharmaceutics...
  19. Mishra S, Murphy L. The p53 oncoprotein is a substrate for tissue transglutaminase kinase activity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;339:726-30 pubmed
    Increased expression and activity of the ubiquitous enzyme, tissue transglutaminase (TG2), is consistently seen in a variety of models of apoptosis. The p53 oncoprotein is also involved in apoptosis...
  20. Yi S, Groffen J, Heisterkamp N. Transglutaminase 2 regulates the GTPase-activating activity of Bcr. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:35645-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, TG2 regulates levels of cellular GTP-bound Rac and actin cytoskeletal reorganization through a new mechanism involving direct inhibition of Bcr GTPase-activating activity...
  21. Jones R, Wang Z, Dookie S, Griffin M. The role of TG2 in ECV304-related vasculogenic mimicry. Amino Acids. 2013;44:89-101 pubmed publisher
    ..TG2 appears essential for ECV304 tube formation, thus representing a potential novel therapeutic target in the inhibition of vasculogenic mimicry. ..
  22. Stamnaes J, Fleckenstein B, Sollid L. The propensity for deamidation and transamidation of peptides by transglutaminase 2 is dependent on substrate affinity and reaction conditions. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1784:1804-11 pubmed publisher
    ..This was observed also for gliadin peptides introducing a novel route for the generation of deamidated T cell epitopes in celiac disease. ..
  23. Di Sabatino A, Vanoli A, Giuffrida P, Luinetti O, Solcia E, Corazza G. The function of tissue transglutaminase in celiac disease. Autoimmun Rev. 2012;11:746-53 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Tissue transglutaminase (tTG) is a calcium dependent ubiquitous enzyme which catalyses posttranslational modification of proteins ..
  24. Pinkas D, Strop P, Brunger A, Khosla C. Transglutaminase 2 undergoes a large conformational change upon activation. PLoS Biol. 2007;5:e327 pubmed
  25. Dyer L, Schooler K, Ai L, Klop C, Qiu J, Robertson K, et al. The transglutaminase 2 gene is aberrantly hypermethylated in glioma. J Neurooncol. 2011;101:429-40 pubmed publisher
    ..We have recently uncovered that the TG2 gene (TGM2) is a target for epigenetic silencing in breast cancer, highlighting a molecular mechanism that drives reduced TG2 ..
  26. Cho S, Lee J, Bae H, Jeong E, Jang G, Kim C, et al. Transglutaminase 2 inhibits apoptosis induced by calcium- overload through down-regulation of Bax. Exp Mol Med. 2010;42:639-50 pubmed
    ..Our findings revealed a novel anti-apoptotic pathway involving TG2, and suggested the induction of TG2 as a novel strategy for promoting cell survival in diseases such as ischemia and neurodegeneration. ..
  27. Wang Z, Telci D, Griffin M. Importance of syndecan-4 and syndecan -2 in osteoblast cell adhesion and survival mediated by a tissue transglutaminase-fibronectin complex. Exp Cell Res. 2011;317:367-81 pubmed publisher
    b>Tissue transglutaminase (TG2) has been identified as an important extracellular crosslinking enzyme involved in matrix turnover and in bone differentiation...
  28. Kang S, Yi K, Kwon N, Park K, Kim U, Baek K, et al. Alpha1B-adrenoceptor signaling and cell motility: GTPase function of Gh/transglutaminase 2 inhibits cell migration through interaction with cytoplasmic tail of integrin alpha subunits. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:36593-600 pubmed
    ..These results provide evidence that G(h) function initiates the modulation of cell motility via association of GTP-bound G(h)/TG2 with the GFFKR motif located in integrin alpha subunits. ..
  29. Datta S, Antonyak M, Cerione R. GTP-binding-defective forms of tissue transglutaminase trigger cell death. Biochemistry. 2007;46:14819-29 pubmed
    b>Tissue transglutaminase (TGase-2), which binds GTP and catalyzes the cross-linking of proteins (transamidation), has been implicated both in the promotion of cell death and in the protection of cells against apoptotic insults...
  30. Yuan L, Behdad A, Siegel M, Khosla C, Higashikubo R, Rich K. Tissue transgluaminase 2 expression in meningiomas. J Neurooncol. 2008;90:125-32 pubmed publisher
    ..We recently reported that levels of both extracellular fibronectin and tissue transglutaminase 2 (TG2) were increased in glioblastomas...
  31. Li Z, Xu X, Bai L, Chen W, Lin Y. Epidermal growth factor receptor-mediated tissue transglutaminase overexpression couples acquired tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand resistance and migration through c-FLIP and MMP-9 proteins in lung cancer cells. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:21164-72 pubmed publisher
    ..By gene expression screening, tissue transglutaminase (TGM2) was identified as one of the genes with the highest expression increase in TRAIL-resistant cells...
  32. Mann A, Verma A, Sethi G, Manavathi B, Wang H, Fok J, et al. Overexpression of tissue transglutaminase leads to constitutive activation of nuclear factor-kappaB in cancer cells: delineation of a novel pathway. Cancer Res. 2006;66:8788-95 pubmed
    ..Based on our previous results showing that drug-resistant and metastatic cancer cells have high levels of tissue transglutaminase (TG2) expression and that this expression can confer chemoresistance to certain types of cancer cells, we ..
  33. Kumar S, Mehta K. Tissue transglutaminase, inflammation, and cancer: how intimate is the relationship?. Amino Acids. 2013;44:81-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We recently found that aberrant tissue transglutaminase (TG2) expression induces the mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stem cell characteristics in epithelial ..
  34. Singh U, Li Q, Cerione R. Identification of the eukaryotic initiation factor 5A as a retinoic acid-stimulated cellular binding partner for tissue transglutaminase II. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:1946-50 pubmed
    ..The interaction between TGase and eIF-5A and its sensitivity to the nucleotide-occupied state of the TGase provides a potentially interesting connection between RA signaling and protein synthesis and/or RNA trafficking activities. ..
  35. Shin D, Jeon J, Kim C, Cho S, Kwon J, Lee H, et al. Cell type-specific activation of intracellular transglutaminase 2 by oxidative stress or ultraviolet irradiation: implications of transglutaminase 2 in age-related cataractogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:15032-9 pubmed
    ..An aberrant activity of TGase 2 has implicated its possible roles in a variety of diseases including age-related cataracts...
  36. Frese Schaper M, Schardt J, Sakai T, Carboni G, Schmid R, Frese S. Inhibition of tissue transglutaminase sensitizes TRAIL-resistant lung cancer cells through upregulation of death receptor 5. FEBS Lett. 2010;584:2867-71 pubmed publisher
    b>Tissue transglutaminase (TG2) is implicated in cellular processes such as apoptosis and cell migration. Its acyl transferase activity cross-links certain proteins, among them transcription factors were described...
  37. Wang Z, Griffin M. TG2, a novel extracellular protein with multiple functions. Amino Acids. 2012;42:939-49 pubmed publisher
    ..These include metastatic cancer, tissue fibrosis and coeliac disease, thus increasing its attractiveness as both a therapeutic target and diagnostic marker. ..
  38. Singer C, Hudelist G, Walter I, Rueckliniger E, Czerwenka K, Kubista E, et al. Tissue array-based expression of transglutaminase-2 in human breast and ovarian cancer. Clin Exp Metastasis. 2006;23:33-9 pubmed
  39. Fisher M, Jones R, Huang L, Haylor J, El Nahas M, Griffin M, et al. Modulation of tissue transglutaminase in tubular epithelial cells alters extracellular matrix levels: a potential mechanism of tissue scarring. Matrix Biol. 2009;28:20-31 pubmed publisher
    The up-regulation and trafficking of tissue transglutaminase (TG2) by tubular epithelial cells (TEC) has been implicated in the development of kidney scarring...
  40. Jang J, Park J, Lee T, Kwon T. Transglutaminase 2 expression levels regulate sensitivity to cystamine plus TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. Cancer Lett. 2010;287:224-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the present findings suggest that cystamine may be an effective sensitizer of TRAIL-induced apoptosis in cancer cells expressing high levels of TG2...
  41. Colak G, Keillor J, Johnson G. Cytosolic guanine nucledotide binding deficient form of transglutaminase 2 (R580a) potentiates cell death in oxygen glucose deprivation. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16665 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, the conformational state of TG2 is likely an important determinant in cell survival and the prominent function of TG2 in ischemic cell death is as a scaffold to modulate cellular processes. ..
  42. Antonyak M, Li B, Regan A, Feng Q, Dusaban S, Cerione R. Tissue transglutaminase is an essential participant in the epidermal growth factor-stimulated signaling pathway leading to cancer cell migration and invasion. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:17914-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we have used HeLa carcinoma cells as a model system for investigating the role of tissue transglutaminase (TGase), a protein that has been linked to oncogenesis, in EGF-stimulated cancer cell migration and ..
  43. Telci D, Collighan R, Basaga H, Griffin M. Increased TG2 expression can result in induction of transforming growth factor beta1, causing increased synthesis and deposition of matrix proteins, which can be regulated by nitric oxide. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:29547-58 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings support a role for NO in the regulation of TG2 function in the extracellular environment. ..
  44. Tucholski J, Johnson G. Tissue transglutaminase directly regulates adenylyl cyclase resulting in enhanced cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) activation. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:26838-43 pubmed
    b>Tissue transglutaminase (tTG) is present in the human nervous system and is predominantly localized to neurons...
  45. Wang Z, Collighan R, Pytel K, Rathbone D, Li X, Griffin M. Characterization of heparin-binding site of tissue transglutaminase: its importance in cell surface targeting, matrix deposition, and cell signaling. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:13063-83 pubmed publisher
    b>Tissue transglutaminase (TG2) is a multifunctional Ca(2+)-activated protein cross-linking enzyme secreted into the extracellular matrix (ECM), where it is involved in wound healing and scarring, tissue fibrosis, celiac disease, and ..
  46. Nurminskaya M, Belkin A. Cellular functions of tissue transglutaminase. Int Rev Cell Mol Biol. 2012;294:1-97 pubmed publisher
    Transglutaminase 2 (TG2 or tissue transglutaminase) is a highly complex multifunctional protein that acts as transglutaminase, GTPase/ATPase, protein disulfide isomerase, and protein kinase...
  47. Gentile V, Saydak M, Chiocca E, Akande O, Birckbichler P, Lee K, et al. Isolation and characterization of cDNA clones to mouse macrophage and human endothelial cell tissue transglutaminases. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:478-83 pubmed
    ..The molecular weights calculated from the deduced amino acid sequences were 77,253 for human endothelial tissue transglutaminase and 76,699 for mouse macrophage tissue transglutaminase...
  48. Verma A, Guha S, Wang H, Fok J, Koul D, Abbruzzese J, et al. Tissue transglutaminase regulates focal adhesion kinase/AKT activation by modulating PTEN expression in pancreatic cancer cells. Clin Cancer Res. 2008;14:1997-2005 pubmed publisher
    ..We recently reported that a great majority of PDAC tumors and tumor cell lines express elevated levels of tissue transglutaminase (TG2)...
  49. Ahn J, Kim M, Hahn J, Park J, Park K, Cho B, et al. Tissue transglutaminase-induced down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;376:743-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Tissue transglutaminase (TGase 2) has been reported to have multiple functions in addition to its function as a biological adhesive. To identify its roles, we investigated the effects of TGase 2 on gelatinase activity...
  50. Mishra S, Saleh A, Espino P, Davie J, Murphy L. Phosphorylation of histones by tissue transglutaminase. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:5532-8 pubmed
    b>Tissue transglutaminase 2 (TG2) has recently been shown to have intrinsic serine/threonine kinase activity. Since histones are known to be cross-linked by TG2, we investigated whether histones are also substrates for TG2 kinase activity...
  51. Wang Z, Collighan R, Gross S, Danen E, Orend G, Telci D, et al. RGD-independent cell adhesion via a tissue transglutaminase-fibronectin matrix promotes fibronectin fibril deposition and requires syndecan-4/2 ?5?1 integrin co-signaling. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:40212-29 pubmed publisher
    ..deposition of soluble biotinylated FN, we show that the stress-induced TG-FN matrix, a matrix complex of tissue transglutaminase (TG2) with its high affinity binding partner FN, can increase both exogenous and cellular FN deposition ..
  52. Del Nonno F, Pisani G, Visca P, Signore F, Grillo L, Baiocchini A, et al. Role and predictive strength of transglutaminase type 2 expression in premalignant lesions of the cervix. Mod Pathol. 2011;24:855-65 pubmed publisher
    ..TG2 upregulation is probably part of host cell reaction against HPV-induced tissue modification. It may act as a cellular antioxidant defense factor, playing an important role in counteracting oxidative damage in neoplastic disease. ..
  53. Jeong J, Cho B, Shim H, Kim H, Lim S, Kim S, et al. Transglutaminase 2 expression predicts progression free survival in non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor. J Korean Med Sci. 2013;28:1005-14 pubmed publisher
    ..013). Similarly, in EGFR wild-type patients treated with EGFR-TKI, PFS was longer in patients with low TG2 expression (9.0 vs. 2.0 months; P=0.013). TG2 expression levels can predict PFS in patients with NSCLC treated with EGFR-TKI. ..
  54. Kabir Salmani M, Shiokawa S, Akimoto Y, Sakai K, Sakai K, Iwashita M. Tissue transglutaminase at embryo-maternal interface. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90:4694-702 pubmed
    b>Tissue transglutaminase (tTG) has a high affinity for fibronectin (FN) and is a coreceptor of both beta1 and beta3 integrin subunits...
  55. Kumar S, Mehta K. Tissue transglutaminase constitutively activates HIF-1? promoter and nuclear factor-?B via a non-canonical pathway. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e49321 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that chronic expression of the pro-inflammatory protein tissue transglutaminase (TG2) reprograms the transcription regulatory network in epithelial cells via constitutive activation of ..
  56. Begg G, Holman S, Stokes P, Matthews J, Graham R, Iismaa S. Mutation of a critical arginine in the GTP-binding site of transglutaminase 2 disinhibits intracellular cross-linking activity. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:12603-9 pubmed
  57. Fraij B, Gonzales R. A third human tissue transglutaminase homologue as a result of alternative gene transcripts. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1996;1306:63-74 pubmed
    A 2.4 kilobase (kb) cDNA encoding a new form of human tissue transglutaminase homologue (TGH2) was isolated from retinoic acid-induced human erythroleukemia cell (HEL) library...
  58. Dardik R, Inbal A. Complex formation between tissue transglutaminase II (tTG) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2): proposed mechanism for modulation of endothelial cell response to VEGF. Exp Cell Res. 2006;312:2973-82 pubmed
    ..b>Tissue transglutaminase (tTG), which is functionally and structurally related to FXIIIA, is expressed by numerous cell types, ..
  59. Lai T, Liu Y, Li W, Greenberg C. Identification of two GTP-independent alternatively spliced forms of tissue transglutaminase in human leukocytes, vascular smooth muscle, and endothelial cells. FASEB J. 2007;21:4131-43 pubmed
    b>Tissue transglutaminase (tTG) is a multifunctional enzyme with transglutaminase crosslinking (TGase), GTP binding, and hydrolysis activities that play a role in many different disorders...
  60. Russo L, Marsella C, Nardo G, Massignan T, Alessio M, Piermarini E, et al. Transglutaminase 2 transamidation activity during first-phase insulin secretion: natural substrates in INS-1E. Acta Diabetol. 2013;50:61-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Previously, we reported that tgm2 -/- mice have an impaired insulin secretion and that naturally occurring TG2 mutations associated with familial, ..
  61. Mehta K, Fok J, Mangala L. Tissue transglutaminase: from biological glue to cell survival cues. Front Biosci. 2006;11:173-85 pubmed
    b>Tissue transglutaminase (TG2, EC 2.3.2...
  62. Satpathy M, Cao L, Pincheira R, Emerson R, Bigsby R, Nakshatri H, et al. Enhanced peritoneal ovarian tumor dissemination by tissue transglutaminase. Cancer Res. 2007;67:7194-202 pubmed
    b>Tissue transglutaminase (TG2) is involved in Ca(2+)-dependent aggregation and polymerization of proteins...
  63. Kumar A, Xu J, Brady S, Gao H, Yu D, Reuben J, et al. Tissue transglutaminase promotes drug resistance and invasion by inducing mesenchymal transition in mammary epithelial cells. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13390 pubmed publisher
    Recent observations that aberrant expression of tissue transglutaminase (TG2) promotes growth, survival, and metastasis of multiple tumor types is of great significance and could yield novel therapeutic targets for improved patient ..
  64. Lai T, Greenberg C. TGM2 and implications for human disease: role of alternative splicing. Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2013;18:504-19 pubmed
    ..Human Tissue transglutaminase (TGM2) is a multifunctional enzyme with transglutaminase crosslinking (TGase), G protein signaling and ..
  65. Fu J, Yang Q, Sai K, Chen F, Pang J, Ng H, et al. TGM2 inhibition attenuates ID1 expression in CD44-high glioma-initiating cells. Neuro Oncol. 2013;15:1353-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Glioma-initiating cell lines were derived from fresh surgical glioblastoma samples. Expression of tissue transglutaminase 2 (TGM2) was attenuated through lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA knockdown...
  66. Aeschlimann D, Kaupp O, Paulsson M. Transglutaminase-catalyzed matrix cross-linking in differentiating cartilage: identification of osteonectin as a major glutaminyl substrate. J Cell Biol. 1995;129:881-92 pubmed
    The expression of tissue transglutaminase in skeletal tissues is strictly regulated and correlates with chondrocyte differentiation and cartilage calcification in endochondral bone formation and in maturation of tracheal cartilage (..
  67. Jeong E, Kim C, Cho S, Jang G, Shin D, Jeon J, et al. Degradation of transglutaminase 2 by calcium-mediated ubiquitination responding to high oxidative stress. FEBS Lett. 2009;583:648-54 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the role of TG2 in apoptosis depends on the level of calcium influx triggered by oxidative stress. ..
  68. Tee A, Marshall G, Liu P, Xu N, Haber M, Norris M, et al. Opposing effects of two tissue transglutaminase protein isoforms in neuroblastoma cell differentiation. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:3561-7 pubmed publisher
    ..a novel transcriptional repressor complex with histone deacetylase and inhibiting gene transcription of tissue transglutaminase (TG2)...
  69. Faye C, Inforzato A, Bignon M, Hartmann D, Muller L, Ballut L, et al. Transglutaminase-2: a new endostatin partner in the extracellular matrix of endothelial cells. Biochem J. 2010;427:467-75 pubmed publisher
    ..This interaction, occurring in a cellular context, might participate in the concerted regulation of angiogenesis and tumorigenesis by the two proteins. ..
  70. Oh K, Ko E, Kim H, Park A, Moon H, Noh D, et al. Transglutaminase 2 facilitates the distant hematogenous metastasis of breast cancer by modulating interleukin-6 in cancer cells. Breast Cancer Res. 2011;13:R96 pubmed publisher
    ..We provide evidence that TG2 is an important link in IL-6-mediated tumor aggressiveness, and that TG2 could be an important mediator of distant metastasis, both in a xenograft animal model and in patients with advanced breast cancer. ..
  71. Cao L, Petrusca D, Satpathy M, Nakshatri H, Petrache I, Matei D. Tissue transglutaminase protects epithelial ovarian cancer cells from cisplatin-induced apoptosis by promoting cell survival signaling. Carcinogenesis. 2008;29:1893-900 pubmed publisher
    b>Tissue transglutaminase (TG2), an enzyme involved in protein cross-linking and overexpressed in ovarian tumors, has antiapoptotic effects in cancer cells and may play a role in response to chemotherapy...
  72. Myrsky E, Caja S, Simon Vecsei Z, Korponay Szabo I, Nadalutti C, Collighan R, et al. Celiac disease IgA modulates vascular permeability in vitro through the activity of transglutaminase 2 and RhoA. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2009;66:3375-85 pubmed publisher
  73. Ando Y, Imamura S, Owada M, Kannagi R. Calcium-induced intracellular cross-linking of lipocortin I by tissue transglutaminase in A431 cells. Augmentation by membrane phospholipids. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:1101-8 pubmed
    ..This intracellular cross-linking of lipocortin I is suggested to be mediated by the action of tissue transglutaminase, a Ca2(+)-dependent protein cross-linking enzyme...
  74. Caffarel M, Chattopadhyay A, Araujo A, Bauer J, Scarpini C, Coleman N. Tissue transglutaminase mediates the pro-malignant effects of oncostatin M receptor over-expression in cervical squamous cell carcinoma. J Pathol. 2013;231:168-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that tissue transglutaminase (TGM2) is an important mediator of the ligand-dependent phenotypic effects of OSMR over-expression in SCC ..
  75. Chen S, Lin C, Lee L, Chang G, Lee P, Hung C, et al. Up-regulation of fibronectin and tissue transglutaminase promotes cell invasion involving increased association with integrin and MMP expression in A431 cells. Anticancer Res. 2010;30:4177-86 pubmed
    ..Additionally, tissue transglutaminase (TG2) is implicated as playing an important role in tumor progression, and acts as a co-receptor for ..
  76. Porzio O, Massa O, Cunsolo V, Colombo C, Malaponti M, Bertuzzi F, et al. Missense mutations in the TGM2 gene encoding transglutaminase 2 are found in patients with early-onset type 2 diabetes. Mutation in brief no. 982. Online. Hum Mutat. 2007;28:1150 pubmed
    Transglutaminase 2 (TG2 or TGM2) is a multi-functional enzyme which catalyzes transamidation reactions or acts as a G-protein in intracellular signalling...
  77. Miyoshi N, Ishii H, Mimori K, Tanaka F, Hitora T, Tei M, et al. TGM2 is a novel marker for prognosis and therapeutic target in colorectal cancer. Ann Surg Oncol. 2010;17:967-72 pubmed publisher
    Transglutaminase 2 (TGM2) plays a role in cell growth and survival through the antiapoptosis signaling pathway...
  78. Choi C, Jang S, Park S, Choi Y, Jeong J, Kim D, et al. Transglutaminase 2 as an independent prognostic marker for survival of patients with non-adenocarcinoma subtype of non-small cell lung cancer. Mol Cancer. 2011;10:119 pubmed publisher
    Expression of transglutaminase 2 (TGase 2) is related to invasion and resistance to chemotherapeutic agents in several cancer cells...
  79. Murthy S, Iismaa S, Begg G, Freymann D, Graham R, Lorand L. Conserved tryptophan in the core domain of transglutaminase is essential for catalytic activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:2738-42 pubmed
    ..This contrasts with the evolutionarily related papain family of cysteine proteases, which uses Gln-19 (papain) for stabilizing the transition state. ..
  80. Kim D, Park K, Jeong K, Lee B, Lee C, Kim S. Glucosamine is an effective chemo-sensitizer via transglutaminase 2 inhibition. Cancer Lett. 2009;273:243-9 pubmed publisher
    Aberrant increases of transglutaminase 2 (TGase 2) in tumors contribute to drug resistance...
  81. Gupta R, Srinivasan R, Nijhawan R, Suri V. Tissue transglutaminase 2 as a biomarker of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and its relationship to p16INK4A and nuclear factor kappaB expression. Virchows Arch. 2010;456:45-51 pubmed publisher
    b>Tissue transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is a recently identified molecule with multifunctional physiological roles...
  82. Stamnaes J, Pinkas D, Fleckenstein B, Khosla C, Sollid L. Redox regulation of transglutaminase 2 activity. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:25402-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that oxidation is likely to influence the amount of active TG2 present in the extracellular environment. ..
  83. Diraimondo T, Klöck C, Khosla C. Interferon-? activates transglutaminase 2 via a phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-dependent pathway: implications for celiac sprue therapy. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2012;341:104-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings therefore establish PI3K as an attractive target for celiac sprue therapy, a possibility that is underscored by the encouraging safety profiles of several PI3K inhibitors undergoing human clinical trials. ..
  84. Hébert S, Daviau A, Grondin G, Latreille M, Aubin R, Blouin R. The mixed lineage kinase DLK is oligomerized by tissue transglutaminase during apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:32482-90 pubmed
    ..Experiments aimed at elucidating the mechanism(s) underlying DLK oligomerization revealed that the tissue transglutaminase (tTG) inhibitor monodansylcadaverine antagonized the effects of calphostin C almost completely, thereby ..
  85. Zainelli G, Dudek N, Ross C, Kim S, Muma N. Mutant huntingtin protein: a substrate for transglutaminase 1, 2, and 3. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2005;64:58-65 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that transglutaminase 1, 2, and 3 could be involved in cross-linking of huntingtin into intranuclear inclusions in HD and that inhibiting transglutaminase should be explored as a potential treatment strategy for HD. ..
  86. Ruan Q, Quintanilla R, Johnson G. Type 2 transglutaminase differentially modulates striatal cell death in the presence of wild type or mutant huntingtin. J Neurochem. 2007;102:25-36 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that mutant htt alters the activation of TG2 in response to certain stimuli and therefore differentially modulates how TG2 contributes to cell death processes. ..
  87. Ai L, Kim W, Demircan B, Dyer L, Bray K, Skehan R, et al. The transglutaminase 2 gene (TGM2), a potential molecular marker for chemotherapeutic drug sensitivity, is epigenetically silenced in breast cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2008;29:510-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Tissue transglutaminase (TG2) is a ubiquitously expressed enzyme capable of catalyzing protein cross-links...
  88. Matic I, Sacchi A, Rinaldi A, Melino G, Khosla C, Falasca L, et al. Characterization of transglutaminase type II role in dendritic cell differentiation and function. J Leukoc Biol. 2010;88:181-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that TG2 plays an important role in regulating the response of DCs to LPS and could be a candidate target for treating endotoxin-induced sepsis. ..
  89. Oliverio S, Amendola A, Di Sano F, Farrace M, Fesus L, Nemes Z, et al. Tissue transglutaminase-dependent posttranslational modification of the retinoblastoma gene product in promonocytic cells undergoing apoptosis. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:6040-8 pubmed
    ..We show here that in the early phases of apoptosis, pRB is posttranslationally modified by a tissue transglutaminase (tTG)-catalyzed reaction...
  90. Johnson K, Terkeltaub R. External GTP-bound transglutaminase 2 is a molecular switch for chondrocyte hypertrophic differentiation and calcification. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:15004-12 pubmed
  91. Facchiano F, Facchiano A, Facchiano A. The role of transglutaminase-2 and its substrates in human diseases. Front Biosci. 2006;11:1758-73 pubmed
    ..Developing new bioinformatic tools and strategies to investigate the role of TG2 in molecular mechanisms underlying human diseases will add new light to this fascinating field of research. ..
  92. Jin X, Stamnaes J, Klöck C, Diraimondo T, Sollid L, Khosla C. Activation of extracellular transglutaminase 2 by thioredoxin. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:37866-73 pubmed publisher