TGFB2

Summary

Gene Symbol: TGFB2
Description: transforming growth factor beta 2
Alias: G-TSF, LDS4, TGF-beta2, transforming growth factor beta-2, BSC-1 cell growth inhibitor, cetermin, glioblastoma-derived T-cell suppressor factor, polyergin, prepro-transforming growth factor beta-2
Species: human
Products:     TGFB2

Top Publications

  1. Thompson H, Mih J, Krasieva T, Tromberg B, George S. Epithelial-derived TGF-beta2 modulates basal and wound-healing subepithelial matrix homeostasis. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2006;291:L1277-85 pubmed
    ..We conclude that epithelial-derived TGF-beta2 is secreted in response to injury, significantly alters the bulk optical properties of the extracellular matrix, and its tight regulation may be required for normal collagen homeostasis. ..
  2. Yu L, Border W, Huang Y, Noble N. TGF-beta isoforms in renal fibrogenesis. Kidney Int. 2003;64:844-56 pubmed
    ..TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta3 effects may be partially mediated by TGF-beta1. These data suggest that blockade of all isoforms together may yield the best therapeutic effect in reducing renal fibrosis. ..
  3. Maleszewska M, Moonen J, Huijkman N, van De Sluis B, Krenning G, Harmsen M. IL-1? and TGF?2 synergistically induce endothelial to mesenchymal transition in an NF?B-dependent manner. Immunobiology. 2013;218:443-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore our findings provide new insights into the mechanisms of pathological EndMT. ..
  4. Kjellman C, Olofsson S, Hansson O, von Schantz T, Lindvall M, Nilsson I, et al. Expression of TGF-beta isoforms, TGF-beta receptors, and SMAD molecules at different stages of human glioma. Int J Cancer. 2000;89:251-8 pubmed
    ..No marked increase in the expression of soluble CD95 splicing variants was found in the gliomas compared with normal tissue. However, total CD95 mRNA was elevated among GBM tissues. ..
  5. Arslan F, Bosserhoff A, Nickl Jockschat T, Doerfelt A, Bogdahn U, Hau P. The role of versican isoforms V0/V1 in glioma migration mediated by transforming growth factor-beta2. Br J Cancer. 2007;96:1560-8 pubmed
    ..Taken together, we report here that TGF-beta2 triggers the malignant phenotype of high-grade gliomas by induction of migration, and that this effect is, at least in part, mediated by versican V0/V1. ..
  6. Strzalka B, Dorecka M, Stanik Walentek A, Kowalczyk M, Kapral M, Romaniuk W, et al. Quantitative analysis of transforming growth factor beta isoforms mRNA in the human corneal epithelium. Folia Biol (Praha). 2008;54:46-52 pubmed
    ..We found different expression of the TGF-beta1, -2 and -3 isoforms in the human corneal epithelium. Such differential expression of TGF-betas suggests that each of them may play a specific role in corneal tissue. ..
  7. Trivedi R, Nutaitis M, Vroman D, Crosson C. Influence of race and age on aqueous humor levels of transforming growth factor-beta 2 in glaucomatous and nonglaucomatous eyes. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2011;27:477-80 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the increased risk for developing glaucoma as one ages may in part be related to the rise of this cytokine. ..
  8. Lindsay M, Schepers D, Bolar N, Doyle J, Gallo E, Fert Bober J, et al. Loss-of-function mutations in TGFB2 cause a syndromic presentation of thoracic aortic aneurysm. Nat Genet. 2012;44:922-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, haploinsufficient Tgfb2(+/-) mice have aortic root aneurysm and biochemical evidence of increased canonical and noncanonical TGF-? ..
  9. Leutermann R, Sheikhzadeh S, Brockstädt L, Rybczynski M, van Rahden V, Kutsche K, et al. A 1-bp duplication in TGFB2 in three family members with a syndromic form of thoracic aortic aneurysm. Eur J Hum Genet. 2014;22:944-8 pubmed publisher
    ..that overlap the MFS-LDS spectrum has been described to be caused by heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in TGFB2, encoding the TGF-?2 ligand of TGF-? serine/threonine kinase receptors (TGFBRs)...

More Information

Publications269 found, 100 shown here

  1. Zhang H, Akman H, Smith E, Zhao J, Murphy Ullrich J, Batuman O. Cellular response to hypoxia involves signaling via Smad proteins. Blood. 2003;101:2253-60 pubmed
    ..Autocrine regulation of TGF-beta2 production in hypoxia may involve cross-talk between Smad3 and HIF-1alpha signaling pathways, and could be an important mechanism by which endothelial cells respond to hypoxic stress. ..
  2. Zode G, Clark A, Wordinger R. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 inhibits TGF-beta2 stimulation of extracellular matrix proteins in optic nerve head cells: role of gremlin in ECM modulation. Glia. 2009;57:755-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Modulation of the ECM via gremlin provides a novel therapeutic target for glaucoma. ..
  3. Lin H, Wan L, Tsai Y, Liu S, Chen W, Tsai S, et al. Sclera-related gene polymorphisms in high myopia. Mol Vis. 2009;15:1655-63 pubmed
    ..Our aim was to examine the association between myopia and the polymorphisms within TGF-beta2, bFGF, and FMOD...
  4. Boileau C, Guo D, Hanna N, Regalado E, Detaint D, Gong L, et al. TGFB2 mutations cause familial thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections associated with mild systemic features of Marfan syndrome. Nat Genet. 2012;44:916-21 pubmed publisher
    ..thoracic aortic disease followed by whole-exome sequencing of affected relatives identified causative mutations in TGFB2. These mutations-a frameshift mutation in exon 6 and a nonsense mutation in exon 4-segregated with disease with a ..
  5. Bee K, Wilkes D, Devereux R, Basson C, Hatcher C. TGF?RIIb mutations trigger aortic aneurysm pathogenesis by altering transforming growth factor ?2 signal transduction. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2012;5:621-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that TGF?RIIb expression is a regulatory mechanism for TGF?2 signal transduction. Dysregulation of the TGF?2 signaling pathway, as a consequence of TGF?RIIb mutations, results in aortic aneurysm pathogenesis. ..
  6. Sozmen M, Devrim A, Kabak Y, Devrim T, Sudagidan M. The Effects of Periostin in a Rat Model of Isoproterenol: Mediated Cardiotoxicity. Cardiovasc Toxicol. 2018;18:142-160 pubmed publisher
    ..myocardial damage while preserving tissue matrix, (4) periostin stimulated angiogenesis by upregulating THBS1, TGFB2, and HGF genes, (5) periostin regulated cell growth and proliferation while maintaining cell shape and cellular ..
  7. Peng Q, Deng Y, Yang X, Leng X, Yang Y, Liu H. Genetic variants of ADAM17 are implicated in the pathological process of Kawasaki disease and secondary coronary artery lesions via the TGF-β/SMAD3 signaling pathway. Eur J Pediatr. 2016;175:705-13 pubmed publisher
    ..combining single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ADAM17 and other TGF-β signaling pathway genes including TGFB2 and SMAD3, on KD phenotypes relative to single SNPs suggest that ADAM17 is also involved in secondary CAL ..
  8. Szemes M, Dallosso A, Melegh Z, Curry T, Li Y, Rivers C, et al. Control of epigenetic states by WT1 via regulation of de novo DNA methyltransferase 3A. Hum Mol Genet. 2013;22:74-83 pubmed publisher
    ..of WT1 in Wilms' tumour cells can lead to reactivation of gene expression from methylated promoters, such as TGFB2, a key modulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transitions...
  9. Swartz M, Sheehan Rooney K, Dixon M, Eberhart J. Examination of a palatogenic gene program in zebrafish. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:2204-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Functional investigation of a subset of these genes, fgf10a, tgfb2, pax9, and smad5 revealed their necessity in zebrafish palatogenesis...
  10. Maruschke M, Koczan D, Ziems B, Hakenberg O. Copy Number Alterations with Prognostic Potential in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma. Urol Int. 2018;101:417-424 pubmed publisher
    ..were the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway, BRAF, MET, EGLN1; growth factors, for example, HGF, PGF and TGFB2. A multimodal approach with a well-defined workflow for detecting genomic aberrations by using array technologies ..
  11. Shippy D, Bearson B, Cai G, Brunelle B, Kich J, Bearson S. Modulation of porcine microRNAs associated with apoptosis and NF-?B signaling pathways in response to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Gene. 2018;676:290-297 pubmed publisher
    ..g., IL10, CBX4, TGFB2) whose mRNAs are predicted targets of miRNAs identified in our study...
  12. Zhang B, Chamba Y, Shang P, Wang Z, Ma J, Wang L, et al. Comparative transcriptomic and proteomic analyses provide insights into the key genes involved in high-altitude adaptation in the Tibetan pig. Sci Rep. 2017;7:3654 pubmed publisher
    ..and EGLN3), VEGF signaling pathway (ERK2, A2M, FGF1, CTGF, and DPP4), and hypoxia-related processes (CRYAB, EGLN3, TGFB2, DPP4, and ACE) were identified as important candidate genes for high-altitude adaptation in the Tibetan pig...
  13. Bhanvadia R, VanOpstall C, Brechka H, Barashi N, Gillard M, McAuley E, et al. MEIS1 and MEIS2 Expression and Prostate Cancer Progression: A Role For HOXB13 Binding Partners in Metastatic Disease. Clin Cancer Res. 2018;24:3668-3680 pubmed publisher
    ..i>Clin Cancer Res; 24(15); 3668-80. ©2018 AACR. ..
  14. Agarwal P, Daher A, Agarwal R. Aqueous humor TGF-β2 levels in patients with open-angle glaucoma: A meta-analysis. Mol Vis. 2015;21:612-20 pubmed
    ..The analysis of pooled data showed that aqueous humor TGF-β2 levels are elevated in patients with OAG and POAG. ..
  15. Cerqueira P, Santos M, Aleixo A. Phylogeography, inter-specific limits and diversification of Turdus ignobilis (Aves: Turdidae). Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2016;97:177-186 pubmed publisher
    ..We estimated gene and species trees based on both mitochondrial (ND2 and COI) and nuclear (TGFB2 and G3PDH) genes, which recovered, with high statistical support, the polyphyly of Turdus ignobilis, as currently ..
  16. Lin E, Kuo P, Liu Y, Yang A, Tsai S. Transforming growth factor-? signaling pathway-associated genes SMAD2 and TGFBR2 are implicated in metabolic syndrome in a Taiwanese population. Sci Rep. 2017;7:13589 pubmed publisher
    ..pathway-associated genes of SMAD family member 2 (SMAD2), SMAD3, SMAD4, transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1), TGFB2, TGFB3, transforming growth factor beta receptor 1 (TGFBR1), and TGFBR2 are associated with MetS and its ..
  17. Lourenço S, Uyekita S, Lima D, Soares F. Developing human minor salivary glands: morphological parallel relation between the expression of TGF-beta isoforms and cytoskeletal markers of glandular maturation. Virchows Arch. 2008;452:427-34 pubmed
    ..The data suggest that TGF-beta have a role to play in salivary gland development and differentiation...
  18. Cals F, Hellingman C, Koevoet W, Baatenburg de Jong R, van Osch G. Effects of transforming growth factor-? subtypes on in vitro cartilage production and mineralization of human bone marrow stromal-derived mesenchymal stem cells. J Tissue Eng Regen Med. 2012;6:68-76 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, this study suggests that TGF? subtypes do affect terminal differentiation of in vitro cultured hBMSCs differently. ..
  19. Kim S, Lee J, Jeon M, Nam S, Lee J. Elevated TGF-β1 and -β2 expression accelerates the epithelial to mesenchymal transition in triple-negative breast cancer cells. Cytokine. 2015;75:151-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibiting the TGF-β signaling pathway is considered a promising therapeutic strategy for treating TNBC. ..
  20. Liep J, Kilic E, Meyer H, Busch J, Jung K, Rabien A. Cooperative Effect of miR-141-3p and miR-145-5p in the Regulation of Targets in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0157801 pubmed publisher
    ..Both miRNAs were recognized as post-transcriptional regulators of the targets EAPP, HS6ST2, LOX, TGFB2 and VRK2...
  21. Madisen L, Webb N, Rose T, Marquardt H, Ikeda T, Twardzik D, et al. Transforming growth factor-beta 2: cDNA cloning and sequence analysis. DNA. 1988;7:1-8 pubmed
    ..This suggests that there is a post-transcriptional level of regulation for the production of these proteins. ..
  22. Dallas S, Zhao S, Cramer S, Chen Z, Peehl D, Bonewald L. Preferential production of latent transforming growth factor beta-2 by primary prostatic epithelial cells and its activation by prostate-specific antigen. J Cell Physiol. 2005;202:361-70 pubmed
    ..PSA-mediated activation of latent TGFbeta2 may be an important mechanism for autocrine TGFbeta regulation in the prostate and may potentially contribute to the formation of osteoblastic lesions in bone metastatic prostate cancer. ..
  23. Yao K, Ye P, Tan J, Tang X, Shen Tu X. Involvement of PI3K/Akt pathway in TGF-beta2-mediated epithelial mesenchymal transition in human lens epithelial cells. Ophthalmic Res. 2008;40:69-76 pubmed publisher
    ..TGF-beta(2) is a potent growth factor for LEC EMT. TGF-beta(2)-induced EMT in LECs is mediated by the downregulation of connexin 43, which is regulated through the PI3K/Akt pathway. ..
  24. Zhang S, Chung W, Xu K. Lunatic Fringe is a potent tumor suppressor in Kras-initiated pancreatic cancer. Oncogene. 2016;35:2485-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Deletion of Lfng resulted in downregulation of Tgfb1, Tgfb2 and Tgfbr2 expression in the wild-type pancreas at all ages examined, and in the Kras(LSL-G12D/+);Pdx1-Cre ..
  25. Kim M, Sung K, Shin J, Young Yoon J, Jang J. Statins reduce TGF-beta2-modulation of the extracellular matrix in cultured astrocytes of the human optic nerve head. Exp Eye Res. 2017;164:55-63 pubmed publisher
  26. Webb N, Madisen L, Rose T, Purchio A. Structural and sequence analysis of TGF-beta 2 cDNA clones predicts two different precursor proteins produced by alternative mRNA splicing. DNA. 1988;7:493-7 pubmed
    ..We propose that the 414-amino-acid precursor be referred to as TGF-beta 2a and the 442-amino-acid precursor be referred to as TGF-beta 2b. ..
  27. Barreto de Souza V, Xavier Medeiros T, Machado Motta M, Bou Habib D, Saraiva E. HIV-1 infection and HIV-1 Tat protein permit the survival and replication of a non-pathogenic trypanosomatid in macrophages through TGF-beta1 production. Microbes Infect. 2008;10:642-9 pubmed publisher
  28. Nguyen T, Yong H, Chollangi T, Brennecke S, Fisher S, Wallace E, et al. Altered downstream target gene expression of the placental Vitamin D receptor in human idiopathic fetal growth restriction. Cell Cycle. 2017;:1-29 pubmed publisher
    ..The six candidate genes identified were CDKN2A, CDKN2D, HDAC4, HDAC6, TGFB2 and TGFB3. TGFB3 was prioritised for further validation, as its expression is largely unknown in FGR...
  29. Clark D, Coker R. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 1998;30:293-8 pubmed
    ..The role of TGF-beta in homeostatic and pathogenic processes suggests numerous applications in the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases characterised by inflammation and fibrosis. ..
  30. Murvai M, Borbely A, Konya J, Gergely L, Veress G. Effect of human papillomavirus type 16 E6 and E7 oncogenes on the activity of the transforming growth factor-beta2 (TGF-beta2) promoter. Arch Virol. 2004;149:2379-92 pubmed
    ..Over-expression of the transcription factor E2F-1 had an effect on the TGF-beta2 promoter similar to that of E7, which may indicate that HPV 16 E7 represses the TGF-beta2 promoter by releasing E2F from pRb. ..
  31. Yao K, Tan J, Ye P, Wang K, Xu W, Shentu X, et al. Integrin beta1-mediated signaling is involved in transforming growth factor-beta2-promoted migration in human lens epithelial cells. Mol Vis. 2007;13:1769-76 pubmed
    ..TGF-beta2 promoted HLEC adhesion and migration in vitro. Integrin beta1 and integrin-mediated signaling are necessary for TGF-beta2-promoted adhesion and migration in human lens epithelial cells. ..
  32. Guo R, Meng Q, Guo H, Xiao L, Yang X, Cui Y, et al. TGF-β2 induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition in cultured human lens epithelial cells through activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Mol Med Rep. 2016;13:1105-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the results of the present study indicated that TGF-β2 induces EMT by activating the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in cultured HLECs. ..
  33. Sakornsakolpat P, MCCORMACK M, Bakke P, Gulsvik A, Make B, Crapo J, et al. Genome-Wide Association Analysis of Single Breath Diffusing Capacity of Carbon Monoxide (DLCO). Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    ..0004). We identified three genome-wide significant associations with DLCO: variants near TGFB2, CHRNA3, and PDE11A loci (P<5x10-8)...
  34. Dieterich L, Mellberg S, Langenkamp E, Zhang L, Zieba A, Salomäki H, et al. Transcriptional profiling of human glioblastoma vessels indicates a key role of VEGF-A and TGF?2 in vascular abnormalization. J Pathol. 2012;228:378-90 pubmed publisher
    ..This indicates a key role of TGF? signalling in regulating vascular phenotype and suggests that, in addition to VEGF-A, TGF?2 may represent a new target for vascular normalization therapy. ..
  35. Hirayama H, Koyama K, Sawai K, Fujii T, Naito A, Fukuda S, et al. Localization of TGF-β and TGF-β receptor in bovine term placentome and expression differences between spontaneous and induced parturition. Placenta. 2015;36:1239-45 pubmed publisher
    ..TGFB1 is characteristically localized in the maternal septum in caruncle in contrast to TGFB2 and TGFB3, which are mainly found in cotyledonary villi and maternal epithelial cells...
  36. Kimura T, Duggirala A, Smith M, White S, Sala Newby G, Newby A, et al. The Hippo pathway mediates inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by cAMP. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2016;90:1-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Forskolin significantly inhibited the mRNA expression of the pro-mitogenic genes, CCN1, CTGF, c-MYC and TGFB2 and this was reversed by expression of constitutively-active YAP or TAZ phospho-mutants...
  37. Tomann P, Paus R, Millar S, Scheidereit C, Schmidt Ullrich R. Lhx2 is a direct NF-κB target gene that promotes primary hair follicle placode down-growth. Development. 2016;143:1512-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Lhx2 and Tgfb2 knockout embryos exhibit very similar abnormalities in HF development, including failure of the E-cadherin ..
  38. Jia Y, Chang H, Schipma M, Liu J, Shete V, Liu N, et al. Cardiomyocyte-Specific Ablation of Med1 Subunit of the Mediator Complex Causes Lethal Dilated Cardiomyopathy in Mice. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0160755 pubmed publisher
    ..Data also showed up-regulation of about 180 genes including Tgfb2, Ace, Atf3, Ctgf, Angpt14, Col9a2, Wisp2, Nppa, Nppb, and Actn1 that are linked to cardiac muscle contraction, ..
  39. Singla D, Kumar D, Sun B. Transforming growth factor-beta2 enhances differentiation of cardiac myocytes from embryonic stem cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;332:135-41 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, TGF-beta2 but not TGF-beta1, or -beta3 promotes cardiac myocyte differentiation from ES cells. ..
  40. Zhu J, Chen C, Yang B, Guo Y, Ai H, Ren J, et al. A systems genetics study of swine illustrates mechanisms underlying human phenotypic traits. BMC Genomics. 2015;16:88 pubmed publisher
    ..In mice, knockout of Tgfb3 and Tgfb2 together decreases rib number...
  41. Niu G, Li B, Sun L, An C. MicroRNA-153 inhibits osteosarcoma cells proliferation and invasion by targeting TGF-β2. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0119225 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results further revealed that transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGF-β2) was negatively regulated by miR-153...
  42. Hildebrand A, Romaris M, Rasmussen L, Heinegard D, Twardzik D, Border W, et al. Interaction of the small interstitial proteoglycans biglycan, decorin and fibromodulin with transforming growth factor beta. Biochem J. 1994;302 ( Pt 2):527-34 pubmed
    ..They may regulate TGF-beta activities by sequestering TGF-beta into extracellular matrix. ..
  43. Ikeda Y, Imai Y, Kumagai H, Nosaka T, Morikawa Y, Hisaoka T, et al. Vasorin, a transforming growth factor beta-binding protein expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells, modulates the arterial response to injury in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:10732-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, vasorin is a potential therapeutic target for vascular fibroproliferative disorders. ..
  44. Foitzik K, Spexard T, Nakamura M, Halsner U, Paus R. Towards dissecting the pathogenesis of retinoid-induced hair loss: all-trans retinoic acid induces premature hair follicle regression (catagen) by upregulation of transforming growth factor-beta2 in the dermal papilla. J Invest Dermatol. 2005;124:1119-26 pubmed
    ..Therefore, topical TGF-beta2/TGF-beta receptor II antagonists deserve to be explored for the prevention and management of retinoid-induced hair loss. ..
  45. Ito T, Sawada R, Fujiwara Y, Seyama Y, Tsuchiya T. FGF-2 suppresses cellular senescence of human mesenchymal stem cells by down-regulation of TGF-beta2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;359:108-14 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that FGF-2 suppresses the hMSCs cellular senescence dependent on the length of culture through down-regulation of TGF-beta2 expression. ..
  46. Schubert J, Landis B, Shikany A, Hinton R, Ware S. Clinically relevant variants identified in thoracic aortic aneurysm patients by research exome sequencing. Am J Med Genet A. 2016;170A:1288-94 pubmed publisher
    ..In total, we found 10 rare variants in six patients. Likely pathogenic variants included a TGFB2 variant in one patient and a SMAD3 variant in another...
  47. Lee Y, Park S, Lee S, Lee H. Characterization of genetic aberrations in a single case of metastatic thymic adenocarcinoma. BMC Cancer. 2017;17:330 pubmed publisher
    ..a high incidence of genetic aberrations, which included somatic mutations in RNASEL, PEG10, TNFSF15, TP53, TGFB2, and FAT1...
  48. Pellatt A, Mullany L, Herrick J, Sakoda L, Wolff R, Samowitz W, et al. The TGFβ-signaling pathway and colorectal cancer: associations between dysregulated genes and miRNAs. J Transl Med. 2018;16:191 pubmed publisher
    ..BMP4, BMP7, INHBA (Inhibin beta A), TGFBR1, TGFB2, TGIF1, TGIF2, and TFDP1 were upregulated. In general, genes with the greatest dysregulation, such as BMP5 (FC 0...
  49. Perlman R, Schiemann W, Brooks M, Lodish H, Weinberg R. TGF-beta-induced apoptosis is mediated by the adapter protein Daxx that facilitates JNK activation. Nat Cell Biol. 2001;3:708-14 pubmed
    ..Our findings associate Daxx directly with the TGF-beta apoptotic-signalling pathway, and make a biochemical connection between the receptors for TGF-beta and the apoptotic machinery. ..
  50. Jude E, Blakytny R, Bulmer J, Boulton A, Ferguson M. Transforming growth factor-beta 1, 2, 3 and receptor type I and II in diabetic foot ulcers. Diabet Med. 2002;19:440-7 pubmed
    ..The lack of TGF-beta1 up-regulation in both diabetic foot ulcers and venous ulcers may explain the impaired healing in these chronic wounds, and could represent a general pattern for chronicity. ..
  51. Alansari A, Hajeer A, Teh L, Bayat A, Mysercough A, Gul A, et al. Transforming growth factor-12 polymorphism and systemic lupus erythematosus. J Rheumatol. 2002;29:1189-91 pubmed
    ..The 4 bp insertion polymorphism within the TGF-beta2 gene does not appear to be associated with SLE. However, this does not rule out the possible involvement of TGF-beta2 in the disease pathogenesis. ..
  52. Zhdanov A, Kurbanova D, Sosulina L, Davydova M, Ezhova L, Sukhikh G. Location and intensity of IL-8 and TGF-beta2 mRNA production in the fimbrial compartment of fallopian tubes and IL-10 in the endometrium in patients with pyoinflammatory adnexal diseases. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2003;135:272-5 pubmed
  53. Shen Z, Seppänen H, Kauttu T, Vainionpää S, Ye Y, Wang S, et al. Vasohibin-1 expression is regulated by transforming growth factor-?/bone morphogenic protein signaling pathway between tumor-associated macrophages and pancreatic cancer cells. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2013;33:428-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, Vasohibin-1 expression is regulated by the TGF-?/BMP signaling between TAMs and pancreatic cancer cells. These results might shed a new light on the antiangiogenesis therapy in the pancreatic cancer. ..
  54. Gupta M, Korol A, West Mays J. Nuclear translocation of myocardin-related transcription factor-A during transforming growth factor beta-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition of lens epithelial cells. Mol Vis. 2013;19:1017-28 pubmed
    ..Our data further suggest that MMP-2 and -9 are involved in the translocation of MRTF-A in LECs during TGF?-induced EMT. ..
  55. Sakata K, Hara M, Terada T, Watanabe N, Takaya D, Yaguchi S, et al. HCV NS3 protease enhances liver fibrosis via binding to and activating TGF-? type I receptor. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3243 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that HCV NS3 protease mimics TGF-?2 and functions, at least in part, via directly binding to and activating T?RI, thereby enhancing liver fibrosis. ..
  56. Nishimura T, Tamaoki M, Komatsuzaki R, Oue N, Taniguchi H, Komatsu M, et al. SIX1 maintains tumor basal cells via transforming growth factor-? pathway and associates with poor prognosis in esophageal cancer. Cancer Sci. 2017;108:216-225 pubmed publisher
    ..SIX1 cDNA transfection induced overexpression of transforming growth factors (TGFB1 and TGFB2) and its receptor (TGFBR2)...
  57. Xi L, Yip S, Shan S, Summers Rada J, Kee C. Region-specific differential corneal and scleral mRNA expressions of MMP2, TIMP2, and TGFB2 in highly myopic-astigmatic chicks. Sci Rep. 2017;7:11423 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we presented the changes in mRNA expression levels of three genes (MMP2, TIMP2, and TGFB2), all known to participate in extracellular matrix organization, at five regions of the cornea and sclera in ..
  58. Sambo M, Trovoada M, Benchimol C, Quinhentos V, Goncalves L, Velosa R, et al. Transforming growth factor beta 2 and heme oxygenase 1 genes are risk factors for the cerebral malaria syndrome in Angolan children. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11141 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, susceptibility to experimental CM in the mouse has been linked to host genes including Transforming Growth Factor Beta 2 (TGFB2) and Heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1)...
  59. Raja Khan N, Kunselman A, Demers L, Ewens K, Spielman R, Legro R. A variant in the fibrillin-3 gene is associated with TGF-? and inhibin B levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril. 2010;94:2916-9 pubmed publisher
  60. Harrop C, Gore R, Evans C, Thornton D, Herrick S. TGF-?? decreases baseline and IL-13-stimulated mucin production by primary human bronchial epithelial cells. Exp Lung Res. 2013;39:39-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, TGF-?(2) controls baseline and IL-13-driven Muc5ac promoter function in murine Clara cells via an endogenous Smad4 recognition motif. ..
  61. Takahashi N, Takahashi K, Kobayashi M, Yada Y, Koike Y, Kono Y. Constitutively high-level expression of TGFβ isoforms in cord blood and its relationship to perinatal findings. Cytokine. 2015;73:101-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The role of TGFβ3 in cord blood and the postnatal chronological changes of the TGFβ isoforms should be investigated in the future. ..
  62. Li J, Wang J, Gong Q, Fang R, Guo Y. MicroRNA-328 inhibits proliferation of human melanoma cells by targeting TGFβ2. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015;16:1575-9 pubmed
    ..Our findings provide new insights into the mechanisms of human melanoma development, indicating that miR-328 has therapeutic potential for this disease. ..
  63. Kuechler A, Altmüller J, Nürnberg P, Kotthoff S, Kubisch C, Borck G. Exome sequencing identifies a novel heterozygous TGFB3 mutation in a disorder overlapping with Marfan and Loeys-Dietz syndrome. Mol Cell Probes. 2015;29:330-4 pubmed publisher
    ..g. FBN1, TGFBR1, TGFBR2, SMAD3, TGFB2), there are still many individuals with "marfanoid" phenotypes in whom no causative mutations are identified...
  64. Saed G, Collins K, Diamond M. Transforming growth factors beta1, beta2 and beta3 and their receptors are differentially expressed in human peritoneal fibroblasts in response to hypoxia. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2002;48:387-93 pubmed
  65. Dudek K, Koziak K, Placha G, Kornasiewicz O, Zieniewicz K, Zurakowski J, et al. Early expression of hepatocyte growth factor, interleukin-6, and transforming growth factor-beta1 and -beta2 in symptomatic infection in patients who have undergone liver transplantation. Transplant Proc. 2009;41:240-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression levels of HGF, IL-6, TGF-beta1, and TGF-beta2 in circulating lymphocytes were not sufficiently specific to diagnose transitory postsurgical complications such as symptomatic infection. ..
  66. Brkić J, Dunk C, O Brien J, Fu G, Nadeem L, Wang Y, et al. MicroRNA-218-5p Promotes Endovascular Trophoblast Differentiation and Spiral Artery Remodeling. Mol Ther. 2018;26:2189-2205 pubmed publisher
    ..Silencing of TGFB2 mimicked, whereas treatment with TGF-β2 partially reversed, the effects of miR-218-5p...
  67. Marquardt H, Lioubin M, Ikeda T. Complete amino acid sequence of human transforming growth factor type beta 2. J Biol Chem. 1987;262:12127-31 pubmed
  68. Howat W, Holgate S, Lackie P. TGF-beta isoform release and activation during in vitro bronchial epithelial wound repair. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2002;282:L115-23 pubmed
    ..A faster repair may be advantageous in preventing access of environmental agents to the internal milieu of the lung although the production of active TGF-beta molecules may augment subepithelial fibrosis...
  69. Cao X, Li X, Hu J, Bao Y. Hydrogen peroxide-induced cellular apoptosis is mediated by TGF-beta2 signaling pathway in cultured human lens epithelial cells. Int Ophthalmol. 2010;30:229-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Interruption of the TGF-beta2 signal pathway could partially protect HLECs from apoptosis induced by incubation with hydrogen peroxide. ..
  70. Tam C, Power J, Markovic T, Yee C, Morsch M, McLennan S, et al. The effects of high-fat feeding on physical function and skeletal muscle extracellular matrix. Nutr Diabetes. 2015;5:e187 pubmed publisher
    ..Genes related to ECM structure (COL1, COL3, COL6A2, SPARC), growth factors (TGFB1, TGFB2, CTGF, VEGF) and muscle function (DMD (Dp147), CPN3, DAG1) were measured in gastrocnemius muscle using real-time ..
  71. Zheng S, Long J, Liu Z, Tao W, Wang D. Identification and Evolution of TGF-? Signaling Pathway Members in Twenty-Four Animal Species and Expression in Tilapia. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19: pubmed publisher
    ..Duplications of TGFB2, TGFBR2, ACVR1, SMAD4 and SMAD6, which were resulted from 2R, were first isolated...
  72. Lennon E, Borst L, Edwards L, Moeser A. Mast Cells Exert Anti-Inflammatory Effects in an IL10-/- Model of Spontaneous Colitis. Mediators Inflamm. 2018;2018:7817360 pubmed publisher
    ..g., Tgfb2, Bmp2, Bmp4, Bmp6, and Bmp7) in the colonic mucosa of DKO mice...
  73. Chen Y, Dabovic B, Annes J, Rifkin D. Latent TGF-beta binding protein-3 (LTBP-3) requires binding to TGF-beta for secretion. FEBS Lett. 2002;517:277-80 pubmed
    ..The secretion of LTBP-3 requires complexing of LTBP-3 with Cys33 of the TGF-beta propeptide. ..
  74. Hatsushika K, Hirota T, Harada M, Sakashita M, Kanzaki M, Takano S, et al. Transforming growth factor-beta(2) polymorphisms are associated with childhood atopic asthma. Clin Exp Allergy. 2007;37:1165-74 pubmed
    ..The polymorphisms in TGF-beta(2) may become important information for asthma susceptibility in children. ..
  75. Strzalka Mrozik B, Stanik Walentek A, Kapral M, Kowalczyk M, Adamska J, Gola J, et al. Differential expression of transforming growth factor-beta isoforms in bullous keratopathy corneas. Mol Vis. 2010;16:161-6 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate transcriptional activities of genes encoding transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta isoforms in bullous keratopathy corneas...
  76. Townsend T, Robinson J, Deig C, Hill C, Misfeldt A, Blobe G, et al. BMP-2 and TGFβ2 shared pathways regulate endocardial cell transformation. Cells Tissues Organs. 2011;194:1-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data demonstrate that TGFβR3-dependent endocardial cell EMT stimulated by either TGFβ2 or BMP-2 requires Smad4 and the activation of the Par6/Smurf1 pathway. ..
  77. Ko J, Bae J, Choi J, Miura K, Lee H, Kim O, et al. Skeletal overgrowth syndrome caused by overexpression of C-type natriuretic peptide in a girl with balanced chromosomal translocation, t(1;2)(q41;q37.1). Am J Med Genet A. 2015;167A:1033-8 pubmed publisher
    ..is one of marfanoid overgrowth syndromes, of which subtype IV is caused by haploinsufficiency of transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGFB2)...
  78. Chen C, Zhao K, Masci P, Lakhani S, Antonsson A, Simpson P, et al. TGFβ isoforms and receptors mRNA expression in breast tumours: prognostic value and clinical implications. BMC Cancer. 2015;15:1010 pubmed publisher
    ..The mRNA levels of TGFB1, TGFB2, TGFB3, TGFBR1 and TGFBR2 were analysed in primary breast tumours and adjacent normal breast tissues, and the ..
  79. Chen Y, Zhang R, Xie J, Li Y, Shi S, Qian H, et al. Genetic variance of transforming growth factor ?2 gene in conotruncal heart defects. Biomarkers. 2017;22:287-290 pubmed publisher
    ..The frequency of G allele in CTDs patients was significantly higher than that in control subjects (52.7% versus 40.3%, p?<?0.001, OR =1.649). TGF-?2 gene polymorphisms may serve as a novel genetic marker for the risk of CTDs. ..
  80. Li X, Liang Y, Qiao Z, Yang J, Han P, Zhao B, et al. Transcriptional Analysis of Endothelial Cell Alternation Induced by Atrial Natriuretic Polypeptide in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells. Int Heart J. 2018;59:197-202 pubmed publisher
    ..No overlapping DEGs were obtained among the 3 groups. The DEGs of ANP_6hours, including TGFB2 (transforming growth factor, beta 2), LTF (lactotransferrin/lactoferrin), and ETV7 (Ets variant 7) were mainly ..
  81. Maldonado L, Brait M, Izumchenko E, Begum S, Chatterjee A, Sen T, et al. Integrated transcriptomic and epigenomic analysis of ovarian cancer reveals epigenetically silenced GULP1. Cancer Lett. 2018;433:242-251 pubmed publisher
  82. Foitzik K, Paus R, Doetschman T, Dotto G. The TGF-beta2 isoform is both a required and sufficient inducer of murine hair follicle morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 1999;212:278-89 pubmed
    ..Thus, the TGF-beta2 isoform plays a specific role, not shared by the other TGF-beta isoforms, as an inducer of hair follicle morphogenesis and is both required and sufficient to promote this process. ..
  83. Yao K, Tan J, Gu W, Ye P, Wang K. Reactive oxygen species mediates the apoptosis induced by transforming growth factor beta(2) in human lens epithelial cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;354:278-83 pubmed
    ..The results presented in this paper provide evidence for the involvement of an oxidative process in the apoptosis elicited by TGF-beta(2) in HLECs. ..
  84. Noma T, Glick A, Geiser A, O Reilly M, Miller J, Roberts A, et al. Molecular cloning and structure of the human transforming growth factor-beta 2 gene promoter. Growth Factors. 1991;4:247-55 pubmed
    ..The TGF-beta 2 promoter is markedly different from the promoters that have been recently characterized for TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 3. ..
  85. Saharinen J, Keski Oja J. Specific sequence motif of 8-Cys repeats of TGF-beta binding proteins, LTBPs, creates a hydrophobic interaction surface for binding of small latent TGF-beta. Mol Biol Cell. 2000;11:2691-704 pubmed
  86. Beisner J, Buck M, Fritz P, Dippon J, Schwab M, Brauch H, et al. A novel functional polymorphism in the transforming growth factor-beta2 gene promoter and tumor progression in breast cancer. Cancer Res. 2006;66:7554-61 pubmed
    ..We identified a functional polymorphism in the TGFB2 promoter, a 4-bp insertion at position -246 relative to the transcriptional start site (-246ins)...
  87. Shah C, Wang H, Bei L, Platanias L, Eklund E. HoxA10 regulates transcription of the gene encoding transforming growth factor beta2 (TGFbeta2) in myeloid cells. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:3161-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Because HoxA proteins had not been previously known to influence expression of pro-proliferative cytokines, this has implications for understanding molecular mechanisms involved in progenitor expansion and the pathobiology of AML. ..
  88. Gast H, Gordic S, Petrzilka S, Lopez M, Muller A, Gietl A, et al. Transforming growth factor-beta inhibits the expression of clock genes. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2012;1261:79-87 pubmed publisher
    ..TGF-β2-induced dysregulation of clock genes may alter neuronal pathways, which may be causally related to abnormal sleep-wake rhythms in AD patients. ..
  89. Castaldi P, Cho M, San Jose Estepar R, McDonald M, Laird N, Beaty T, et al. Genome-wide association identifies regulatory Loci associated with distinct local histogram emphysema patterns. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2014;190:399-409 pubmed publisher
    ..previously associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease susceptibility (HHIP, IREB2/CHRNA3, CYP2A6/ADCK, TGFB2, and MMP12)...
  90. Schaible T, Reineke J, Gortner L, Monz D, Schaffelder R, Tutdibi E. Are Cytokines Useful Biomarkers to Determine Disease Severity in Neonates with Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia?. Am J Perinatol. 2017;34:648-654 pubmed publisher
    ..Concerning the severity of CDH, we measured significantly higher levels of TGFb2 in CDH patients with liver-up than in liver-down cases and controls (p < 0.006)...