Gene Symbol: TGF-beta1
Description: transforming growth factor beta 1
Alias: CED, DPD1, LAP, TGFB, TGFbeta, transforming growth factor beta-1, TGF-beta-1, latency-associated peptide, prepro-transforming growth factor beta-1
Species: human
Products:     TGF-beta1

Top Publications

  1. Adorno M, Cordenonsi M, Montagner M, Dupont S, Wong C, Hann B, et al. A Mutant-p53/Smad complex opposes p63 to empower TGFbeta-induced metastasis. Cell. 2009;137:87-98 pubmed publisher
    b>TGFbeta ligands act as tumor suppressors in early stage tumors but are paradoxically diverted into potent prometastatic factors in advanced cancers. The molecular nature of this switch remains enigmatic...
  2. Gibbs J, Ornoff D, Igo H, Zeng J, Imani F. Cell cycle arrest by transforming growth factor beta1 enhances replication of respiratory syncytial virus in lung epithelial cells. J Virol. 2009;83:12424-31 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings identify a novel pathway for upregulation of virus replication and suggest a plausible mechanism for association of RSV with immune dysregulation and asthma. ..
  3. Barnett G, Elliott R, Alsner J, Andreassen C, Abdelhay O, Burnet N, et al. Individual patient data meta-analysis shows no association between the SNP rs1800469 in TGFB and late radiotherapy toxicity. Radiother Oncol. 2012;105:289-95 pubmed publisher
    ..To overcome publication bias, the international Radiogenomics Consortium collected and analysed individual patient level data from both published and unpublished studies...
  4. Shi Y, Zhang Q, Cheung P, Shi L, Fong C, Zhang Y, et al. Effects of rhDecorin on TGF-beta1 induced human hepatic stellate cells LX-2 activation. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1760:1587-95 pubmed
  5. Biswas S, Guix M, Rinehart C, Dugger T, Chytil A, Moses H, et al. Inhibition of TGF-beta with neutralizing antibodies prevents radiation-induced acceleration of metastatic cancer progression. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:1305-13 pubmed
    ..These data implicate TGF-beta induced by anticancer therapy as a pro-metastatic signal in tumor cells and provide a rationale for the simultaneous use of these therapies in combination with TGF-beta inhibitors. ..
  6. Fu H, Hu Z, Wen J, Wang K, Liu Y. TGF-beta promotes invasion and metastasis of gastric cancer cells by increasing fascin1 expression via ERK and JNK signal pathways. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2009;41:648-56 pubmed
    ..Our data for the first time demonstrated that fascin1 is an important mediator of TGF-beta1-induced invasion and metastasis of GC cells, which involves JNK and ERK signaling pathways. ..
  7. Ryu J, Lee M, Yun S, Han H. High glucose regulates cyclin D1/E of human mesenchymal stem cells through TGF-beta1 expression via Ca2+/PKC/MAPKs and PI3K/Akt/mTOR signal pathways. J Cell Physiol. 2010;224:59-70 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, high glucose stimulated hMSCs proliferation through TGF-beta(1) expression via Ca(2+)/PKC/MAPKs as well as PI3K/Akt/mTOR signal pathways. ..
  8. Lampropoulos P, Zizi Sermpetzoglou A, Rizos S, Kostakis A, Nikiteas N, Papavassiliou A. Prognostic significance of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) signaling axis molecules and E-cadherin in colorectal cancer. Tumour Biol. 2012;33:1005-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, TGF-?, TGF-?R2, Smad4, pSmad2/3, and E-cadherin emerge as valuable independent biomarkers of prognosis in CRC patients. ..
  9. Principe D, Doll J, Bauer J, Jung B, Munshi H, Bartholin L, et al. TGF-?: duality of function between tumor prevention and carcinogenesis. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2014;106:djt369 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding the mechanisms of TGF-? dysregulation will likely reveal novel points of convergence between TGF-? and other pathways that can be specifically targeted for therapy. ..

More Information

Publications265 found, 100 shown here

  1. Zhang P, DI J, Zhu Z, Wu H, Wang Y, Zhu G, et al. Association of transforming growth factor-beta 1 polymorphisms with genetic susceptibility to TNM stage I or II gastric cancer. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2008;38:861-6 pubmed publisher
    ..36-0.91) decreased risk of TNM stage I+II gastric cancer, respectively, as compared with non-carriers. We conclude that TGF-beta1-509T and +29C alleles may have a protective role in the development of stage I+II gastric cancer. ..
  2. Kim B, Olzmann J, Choi S, Ahn S, Kim T, Cho H, et al. Corneal dystrophy-associated R124H mutation disrupts TGFBI interaction with Periostin and causes mislocalization to the lysosome. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:19580-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our findings suggest that TGFBI and periostin may play cooperative cellular roles and that periostin may be involved in the pathogenesis of 5q31-linked corneal dystrophies. ..
  3. Javelaud D, Alexaki V, Dennler S, Mohammad K, Guise T, Mauviel A. TGF-?/SMAD/GLI2 signaling axis in cancer progression and metastasis. Cancer Res. 2011;71:5606-10 pubmed publisher
    ..This short review summarizes recent knowledge about GLI2 function and mechanisms of action downstream of TGF-? in cancer. ..
  4. Wrana J, Attisano L, Carcamo J, Zentella A, Doody J, Laiho M, et al. TGF beta signals through a heteromeric protein kinase receptor complex. Cell. 1992;71:1003-14 pubmed
    ..This mode of operation points to fundamental differences between this receptor and the protein-tyrosine kinase cytokine receptors. ..
  5. Fujii D, Brissenden J, Derynck R, Francke U. Transforming growth factor beta gene maps to human chromosome 19 long arm and to mouse chromosome 7. Somat Cell Mol Genet. 1986;12:281-8 pubmed
    ..1----q13.3. Of the 54 cells analyzed, 16 (30%) had label over region 19q13.1----q13.3. Thus, TGFB is assigned to chromosome 19, subbands q13.1----q13.3...
  6. Li W, Qureshi H, Liacini A, Dehnade F, Zafarullah M. Transforming growth factor Beta1 induction of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 3 in articular chondrocytes is mediated by reactive oxygen species. Free Radic Biol Med. 2004;37:196-207 pubmed
    ..Blocking TGF-beta1-induced gene expression by modulating cellular redox status with thiols can be potentially beneficial for treating arthritic and other disorders caused by excessive TGF-beta1. ..
  7. Buraczynska M, Baranowicz Gaszczyk I, Borowicz E, Ksiazek A. TGF-beta1 and TSC-22 gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes. Nephron Physiol. 2007;106:p69-75 pubmed
    ..The aim of our study was to investigate the role of molecular variants of the TGF-beta1 (transforming growth factor beta 1) and the TSC-22 (transforming growth factor beta stimulated clone 22) genes in diabetic nephropathy ..
  8. Romero D, Terzic A, Conley B, Craft C, Jovanovic B, Bergan R, et al. Endoglin phosphorylation by ALK2 contributes to the regulation of prostate cancer cell migration. Carcinogenesis. 2010;31:359-66 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate for the first time that TGF-beta receptor-mediated phosphorylation of endoglin is a Smad-independent mechanism involved in the regulation of prostate cancer cell migration. ..
  9. Baker K, Raut P, Jass J. Colorectal cancer cells express functional cell surface-bound TGFbeta. Int J Cancer. 2008;122:1695-700 pubmed
    Disruptions to the TGFbeta signaling pathway have been implicated in most human adenocarcinomas. In addition to its role in cancer cell migration and metastasis, TGFbeta has been implicated in tumor-mediated immunosuppression...
  10. Stockis J, Colau D, Coulie P, Lucas S. Membrane protein GARP is a receptor for latent TGF-beta on the surface of activated human Treg. Eur J Immunol. 2009;39:3315-22 pubmed publisher
    ..the latent form of TGF-beta, in which the mature TGF-beta protein is bound to the latency-associated peptide (LAP), and is thereby prevented from binding to the TGF-beta receptor...
  11. Panoulas V, Douglas K, Smith J, Stavropoulos Kalinoglou A, Metsios G, Nightingale P, et al. Transforming growth factor-beta1 869T/C, but not interleukin-6 -174G/C, polymorphism associates with hypertension in rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2009;48:113-8 pubmed publisher
    ..If this finding is confirmed in prospective studies, this polymorphism could be used as a screening tool for RA patients with higher risk of developing hypertension and lead to increased surveillance and earlier treatment. ..
  12. Burton T, Liang B, Dibrov A, Amara F. Transforming growth factor-beta-induced transcription of the Alzheimer beta-amyloid precursor protein gene involves interaction between the CTCF-complex and Smads. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;295:713-23 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that TGF-beta activation of Smad protein complexes promotes transcription of the APP gene. Increased synthesis of APP may in part determine Abeta production and deposition in affected AD brain. ..
  13. Andreassen C, Alsner J, Overgaard M, Overgaard J. Prediction of normal tissue radiosensitivity from polymorphisms in candidate genes. Radiother Oncol. 2003;69:127-35 pubmed
  14. Patel A, Lin L, Geyer A, Haspel J, An C, Cao J, et al. Autophagy in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e41394 pubmed publisher
    ..Autophagy is not induced in pulmonary fibrosis despite activation of pathways known to promote autophagy. Impairment of autophagy by TGF-?(1) may represent a mechanism for the promotion of fibrogenesis in IPF. ..
  15. Gu X, Zhao M, Li L, Li M, Qian J. [Cytokine gene polymorphism in sensitized kidney transplant recipients and its association with acute rejection episodes]. Di Yi Jun Yi Da Xue Xue Bao. 2003;23:1211-3 pubmed
  16. Altun B, Yilmaz R, Kahraman S, Genctoy G, Arici M, Onalan O, et al. Impact of cytokine gene polymorphism on cardiovascular risk in renal transplant recipients. Transpl Int. 2005;18:681-9 pubmed
    ..238 (G-->A)], interleukin-10 (IL-10) gene [-1082(A-->G), -819 (T-->C), -592 (A-->C)], transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta1) gene [codon 10 (T-->C), codon 25 (G-->C)], carotis intima media thickness (CIMT), ..
  17. Ludbrook S, Barry S, Delves C, Horgan C. The integrin alphavbeta3 is a receptor for the latency-associated peptides of transforming growth factors beta1 and beta3. Biochem J. 2003;369:311-8 pubmed
    ..interact with the RGD motif of the latency-associated peptide (LAPbeta(1)) of transforming growth factor beta(1) (TGFbeta(1)), with binding to alpha(v)beta(6) and alpha(v)beta(8) leading to TGFbeta(1) activation...
  18. Lee J, Lee K, Kim D, Heo D. Elevated TGF-beta1 secretion and down-modulation of NKG2D underlies impaired NK cytotoxicity in cancer patients. J Immunol. 2004;172:7335-40 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our data suggest that impaired NK function in cancer patients can be attributed to down-modulation of activating receptors, such as NKG2D, via secretion of TGF-beta1. ..
  19. Wang W, Huang X, Li A, Liu F, Li J, Truong L, et al. Signaling mechanism of TGF-beta1 in prevention of renal inflammation: role of Smad7. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2005;16:1371-83 pubmed
    ..Smad7-mediated inhibition of NF-kappaB activation via the induction of IkBalpha may be the central mechanism by which latent TGF-beta prevents renal inflammation. ..
  20. Terrazzino S, La Mattina P, Gambaro G, Masini L, Franco P, Canonico P, et al. Common variants of GSTP1, GSTA1, and TGF?1 are associated with the risk of radiation-induced fibrosis in breast cancer patients. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2012;83:504-11 pubmed publisher
  21. van de Laar I, Oldenburg R, Pals G, Roos Hesselink J, de Graaf B, Verhagen J, et al. Mutations in SMAD3 cause a syndromic form of aortic aneurysms and dissections with early-onset osteoarthritis. Nat Genet. 2011;43:121-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings endorse the TGF-? pathway as the primary pharmacological target for the development of new treatments for aortic aneurysms and osteoarthritis. ..
  22. Sun J, Feng A, Chen S, Zhang Y, Xie Q, Yang M, et al. Osteopontin splice variants expressed by breast tumors regulate monocyte activation via MCP-1 and TGF-?1. Cell Mol Immunol. 2013;10:176-82 pubmed publisher
    ..We also demonstrate that OPN regulates the alternative activation of monocytes via TGF-?1 and MCP-1, which may represent an additional mechanism for tumor immune escape. ..
  23. Dai F, Lin X, Chang C, Feng X. Nuclear export of Smad2 and Smad3 by RanBP3 facilitates termination of TGF-beta signaling. Dev Cell. 2009;16:345-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Conversely, depletion of RanBP3 expression or dominant-negative inhibition of RanBP3 enhances TGFbeta-induced antiproliferative and transcriptional responses...
  24. Andreassen C, Alsner J, Overgaard J, Herskind C, Haviland J, Owen R, et al. TGFB1 polymorphisms are associated with risk of late normal tissue complications in the breast after radiotherapy for early breast cancer. Radiother Oncol. 2005;75:18-21 pubmed
    ..005) as well as the TGFB1 position -509 T allele (P=0.018) and increased risk of altered breast appearance. No significant associations were found for the remaining SNPs. ..
  25. Kim M, Park D, Lee J, Choi D, Hwang K, Ryu H, et al. Progesterone-dependent release of transforming growth factor-beta1 from epithelial cells enhances the endometrial decidualization by turning on the Smad signalling in stromal cells. Mol Hum Reprod. 2005;11:801-8 pubmed
    ..The secreted, epithelial-derived TGF-beta1 then acts on adjacent stromal cells, at least in part, to turn on Smad signalling that could lead to stromal decidualization...
  26. Guo F, Carter D, Leask A. Mechanical tension increases CCN2/CTGF expression and proliferation in gingival fibroblasts via a TGF?-dependent mechanism. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19756 pubmed publisher
  27. Duan W, So T, Mehta A, Choi H, Croft M. Inducible CD4+LAP+Foxp3- regulatory T cells suppress allergic inflammation. J Immunol. 2011;187:6499-507 pubmed publisher
    ..population of CD4(+) T cells in the lungs and lung-draining lymph nodes that express latency-associated peptide (LAP) on their cell surface but do not express Foxp3...
  28. Chadjichristos C, Ghayor C, Herrouin J, Ala Kokko L, Suske G, Pujol J, et al. Down-regulation of human type II collagen gene expression by transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) in articular chondrocytes involves SP3/SP1 ratio. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:43903-17 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that TGF-beta1 inhibition of COL2A1 gene transcription in RAC is mediated by an increase of the Sp3/Sp1 ratio and by the repression of Sp1 transactivating effects on that gene. ..
  29. Carturan S, Roccatello D, Menegatti E, Di Simone D, Davit A, Piazza A, et al. Association between transforming growth factor beta1 gene polymorphisms and IgA nephropathy. J Nephrol. 2004;17:786-93 pubmed
    ..We investigated whether G-800A, C-509T and Leu10-->Pro polymorphisms in the TGF-beta1 gene could be involved in the development and progression of immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN)...
  30. Chen S, Ning H, Ishida W, Sodin Semrl S, Takagawa S, Mori Y, et al. The early-immediate gene EGR-1 is induced by transforming growth factor-beta and mediates stimulation of collagen gene expression. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:21183-97 pubmed
    ..The results therefore implicate Egr-1 in the profibrotic responses elicited by TGF-beta and suggest that Egr-1 may play a new and important role in the pathogenesis of fibrosis. ..
  31. Huang X, Chung A, Zhou L, Wang X, Lan H. Latent TGF-beta1 protects against crescentic glomerulonephritis. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008;19:233-42 pubmed publisher
  32. Santibanez J, Guerrero J, Quintanilla M, Fabra A, Martinez J. Transforming growth factor-beta1 modulates matrix metalloproteinase-9 production through the Ras/MAPK signaling pathway in transformed keratinocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;296:267-73 pubmed
  33. Peila R, Yucesoy B, White L, Johnson V, Kashon M, Wu K, et al. A TGF-beta1 polymorphism association with dementia and neuropathologies: the HAAS. Neurobiol Aging. 2007;28:1367-73 pubmed
    ..2-0.9). The CC genotype was associated with an increase risk of neocortical plaques (OR(CC)=4.34, CI: 1.6-11.8). These preliminary data suggest that the TGF genetic variability may be important in the risk of vascular related dementia. ..
  34. Iida J, McCarthy J. Expression of collagenase-1 (MMP-1) promotes melanoma growth through the generation of active transforming growth factor-beta. Melanoma Res. 2007;17:205-13 pubmed
    ..Thus, these results suggest that MMP-1 produced from melanoma cells would play a role in tumor progression by both degrading matrix proteins and generating active growth factors such as TGF-beta in vivo. ..
  35. Guido C, Whitaker Menezes D, Capparelli C, Balliet R, Lin Z, Pestell R, et al. Metabolic reprogramming of cancer-associated fibroblasts by TGF-? drives tumor growth: connecting TGF-? signaling with "Warburg-like" cancer metabolism and L-lactate production. Cell Cycle. 2012;11:3019-35 pubmed publisher
  36. Lysiak J, Hunt J, Pringle G, Lala P. Localization of transforming growth factor beta and its natural inhibitor decorin in the human placenta and decidua throughout gestation. Placenta. 1995;16:221-31 pubmed
    ..In addition, sites of TGF beta 1 mRNA synthesis were identified in early and late placenta by in situ hybridization...
  37. Gibellini D, Zauli G, Re M, Milani D, Furlini G, Caramelli E, et al. Recombinant human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) Tat protein sequentially up-regulates IL-6 and TGF-beta 1 mRNA expression and protein synthesis in peripheral blood monocytes. Br J Haematol. 1994;88:261-7 pubmed
  38. Ravichandran V, Jensen P, Major E. MEK1/2 inhibitors block basal and transforming growth factor 1beta1-stimulated JC virus multiplication. J Virol. 2007;81:6412-8 pubmed
    ..The effectiveness with which MEK1/2 inhibitors block JCV multiplication provides insight that may contribute to development of compounds directed against JCV. ..
  39. Strzalka B, Dorecka M, Stanik Walentek A, Kowalczyk M, Kapral M, Romaniuk W, et al. Quantitative analysis of transforming growth factor beta isoforms mRNA in the human corneal epithelium. Folia Biol (Praha). 2008;54:46-52 pubmed
    ..We found different expression of the TGF-beta1, -2 and -3 isoforms in the human corneal epithelium. Such differential expression of TGF-betas suggests that each of them may play a specific role in corneal tissue. ..
  40. Dai C, Yang J, Liu Y. Transforming growth factor-beta1 potentiates renal tubular epithelial cell death by a mechanism independent of Smad signaling. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:12537-45 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that hyperactive TGF-beta1 signaling potentiates renal tubular epithelial cell apoptosis by a Smad-independent, p38 MAP kinase-dependent mechanism. ..
  41. Lee K, Park S, Hamajima N, Tajima K, Yoo K, Shin A, et al. Genetic polymorphisms of TGF-beta1 & TNF-beta and breast cancer risk. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2005;90:149-55 pubmed
    ..8 kg/m2) (OR=1.9, 95% CI=1.04-3.37). The results of this study therefore suggest that polymorphisms of TGF-beta1 and TNF-beta genes may modify individual susceptibility to breast cancer in Korean women. ..
  42. Renard E, Chadjichristos C, Kypriotou M, Beauchef G, Bordat P, Dompmartin A, et al. Chondroitin sulphate decreases collagen synthesis in normal and scleroderma fibroblasts through a Smad-independent TGF-beta pathway--implication of C-Krox and Sp1. J Cell Mol Med. 2008;12:2836-47 pubmed publisher
    ..As a conclusion, our findings highlight a possible new role for CS and CSf as anti-fibrotic molecules and could help in elucidating the mechanisms of action by which CS and CSf exert their inhibitory effect on type I collagen synthesis. ..
  43. Yu S, Kwon O, Jung H, Bae K, Kwon K, Kim Y, et al. Influence of transforming growth factor-beta1 gene polymorphism at codon 10 on the development of cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis B virus carriers. J Korean Med Sci. 2010;25:564-9 pubmed publisher
    ..037, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.504-6.133, P=0.002) and L/L genotype (OR: 3.408, 95% CI: 1.279-9.085, P=0.014) are risk factors for cirrhosis. ..
  44. Cox A, Dunning A, Garcia Closas M, Balasubramanian S, Reed M, Pooley K, et al. A common coding variant in CASP8 is associated with breast cancer risk. Nat Genet. 2007;39:352-8 pubmed
    ..13) and 1.16 (95% c.i.: 1.08-1.25), respectively; P(trend) = 2.8 x 10(-5)). These results demonstrate that common breast cancer susceptibility alleles with small effects on risk can be identified, given sufficiently powerful studies. ..
  45. Paduch R, Kandefer Szerszen M. Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) and acetylcholine (ACh) alter nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) secretion in human colon adenocarcinoma cells. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 2009;45:543-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the TGF-beta1-ACh axis may regulate colon carcinoma progression and metastasis by altering NO secretion and influence inflammatory responses by modulating IL-1beta production. ..
  46. Doi S, Zou Y, Togao O, Pastor J, John G, Wang L, et al. Klotho inhibits transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) signaling and suppresses renal fibrosis and cancer metastasis in mice. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:8655-65 pubmed publisher
    ..These results have raised the possibility that secreted Klotho may function as an endogenous anti-EMT factor by inhibiting multiple growth factor signaling pathways simultaneously. ..
  47. Zhang Y, Handley D, Kaplan T, Yu H, Bais A, Richards T, et al. High throughput determination of TGF?1/SMAD3 targets in A549 lung epithelial cells. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20319 pubmed publisher
    b>Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF?1) plays a major role in many lung diseases including lung cancer, pulmonary hypertension, and pulmonary fibrosis...
  48. Tsukazaki T, Chiang T, Davison A, Attisano L, Wrana J. SARA, a FYVE domain protein that recruits Smad2 to the TGFbeta receptor. Cell. 1998;95:779-91 pubmed
    ..SARA functions to recruit Smad2 to the TGFbeta receptor by controlling the subcellular localization of Smad2 and by interacting with the TGFbeta receptor ..
  49. Goode E, Dunning A, Kuschel B, Healey C, Day N, Ponder B, et al. Effect of germ-line genetic variation on breast cancer survival in a population-based study. Cancer Res. 2002;62:3052-7 pubmed
    ..However, our results demonstrate the potential of the analysis of germ-line variation to provide insight into the biological determinants of response to treatment and prognosis in breast cancer. ..
  50. Lu Q, Patel B, Harrington E, Rounds S. Transforming growth factor-beta1 causes pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell apoptosis via ALK5. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2009;296:L825-38 pubmed publisher
    ..We speculate that imbalance of ALK1 and ALK5 may contribute to the development of pulmonary artery hypertension. ..
  51. Presser L, Haskett A, Waris G. Hepatitis C virus-induced furin and thrombospondin-1 activate TGF-?1: role of TGF-?1 in HCV replication. Virology. 2011;412:284-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these observations provide insight into the mechanism of TGF-?1 activation, which likely manifest in liver fibrosis associated with hepatitis C infection. ..
  52. Yamamura S, Matsumura N, Mandai M, Huang Z, Oura T, Baba T, et al. The activated transforming growth factor-beta signaling pathway in peritoneal metastases is a potential therapeutic target in ovarian cancer. Int J Cancer. 2012;130:20-8 pubmed publisher
    ..015). In summary, these results show that the activated TGF-? signaling pathway in peritoneal metastases is a potential therapeutic target in ovarian cancer. ..
  53. Hussein Y, Mohamed R, El Shahawy E, Alzahrani S. Interaction between TGF-?1 (869C/T) polymorphism and biochemical risk factor for prediction of disease progression in rheumatoid arthritis. Gene. 2014;536:393-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to determine whether TGF-?1 polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to RA and progression of joint destruction, as well as to identify the interaction between TGF-?1 polymorphism and biochemical risk factor...
  54. Dumont N, Bakin A, Arteaga C. Autocrine transforming growth factor-beta signaling mediates Smad-independent motility in human cancer cells. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:3275-85 pubmed
  55. Shephard P, Hinz B, Smola Hess S, Meister J, Krieg T, Smola H. Dissecting the roles of endothelin, TGF-beta and GM-CSF on myofibroblast differentiation by keratinocytes. Thromb Haemost. 2004;92:262-74 pubmed
    ..Direct co-culture with keratinocytes upregulates TGFbeta activity and also induces fibroblast to differentiate into alpha-smooth muscle actin (alphaSMA)-positive ..
  56. Qi W, Gao S, Wang Z. Transcriptional regulation of the TGF-beta1 promoter by androgen receptor. Biochem J. 2008;416:453-62 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings imply that androgen signalling may positively or negatively regulate TGF-beta1 expression in response to various signals or under different environmental conditions. ..
  57. Maheshwari A, Kelly D, Nicola T, Ambalavanan N, Jain S, Murphy Ullrich J, et al. TGF-?2 suppresses macrophage cytokine production and mucosal inflammatory responses in the developing intestine. Gastroenterology. 2011;140:242-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Enterally administered TGF-?(2) protected mice from experimental NEC-like injury. ..
  58. Katakami N, Kaneto H, Osonoi T, Kawai K, Ishibashi F, Imamura K, et al. Transforming growth factor ?1 T868C gene polymorphism is associated with cerebral infarction in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2011;94:e57-60 pubmed publisher
  59. Jin G, Deng Y, Miao R, Hu Z, Zhou Y, Tan Y, et al. TGFB1 and TGFBR2 functional polymorphisms and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a case-control analysis in a Chinese population. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2008;134:345-51 pubmed
    ..001) compared with subjects with both wild-type genotypes. These results are consistent with our previous findings in gastric cancer and support the hypothesis that genetic variants in TGFB1 and TGFBR2 may modulate the risk of ESCC. ..
  60. Wu K, Yang Y, Wang C, Davoli M, D Amico M, Li A, et al. DACH1 inhibits transforming growth factor-beta signaling through binding Smad4. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:51673-84 pubmed
    ..DACH1 participates in the negative regulation of TGF-beta signaling by interacting with NCoR and Smad4. ..