Gene Symbol: TGF-beta1
Description: transforming growth factor beta 1
Alias: CED, DPD1, LAP, TGFB, TGFbeta, transforming growth factor beta-1, TGF-beta-1, latency-associated peptide, prepro-transforming growth factor beta-1
Species: human
Products:     TGF-beta1

Top Publications

  1. Nakamura K, Kitani A, Fuss I, Pedersen A, Harada N, Nawata H, et al. TGF-beta 1 plays an important role in the mechanism of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cell activity in both humans and mice. J Immunol. 2004;172:834-42 pubmed
    ..these cells do not protect recipient mice from colitis in the SCID transfer model in vivo, and, in addition, CD4+LAP+, but not CD4+LAP- T cells from normal mice protect recipient mice from colitis in this model...
  2. Crobu F, Palumbo L, Franco E, Bergerone S, Carturan S, Guarrera S, et al. Role of TGF-beta1 haplotypes in the occurrence of myocardial infarction in young Italian patients. BMC Med Genet. 2008;9:13 pubmed publisher
    b>Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta1) gene play an important role in the acute myocardial infarction (AMI), however no investigation has been conducted so far in young AMI patients...
  3. Oda K, Tanaka N, Arai T, Araki J, Song Y, Zhang L, et al. Polymorphisms in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine genes and susceptibility to atherosclerosis: a pathological study of 1503 consecutive autopsy cases. Hum Mol Genet. 2007;16:592-9 pubmed
  4. Taherkhani H, Hajilooi M, Fallah M, Khyabanchi O, Haidari M. Gene polymorphism in transforming growth factor-beta codon 10 is associated with susceptibility to Giardiasis. Int J Immunogenet. 2009;36:345-9 pubmed publisher
    ..01). Our data suggest that CC genotype of TGF-beta1 polymorphism at codon 10 is associated with occurrence of Giardiasis. ..
  5. Peng Z, Zhan L, Chen S, Xu E. Association of transforming growth factor-?1 gene C-509T and T869C polymorphisms with atherosclerotic cerebral infarction in the Chinese: a case-control study. Lipids Health Dis. 2011;10:100 pubmed publisher
    ..001). Our study suggests that C-509T and T869C gene polymorphisms in TGF-?1 may be a critical risk factor of genetic susceptibility to CI in the Chinese population. ..
  6. Mullen A, Orlando D, Newman J, Lovén J, Kumar R, Bilodeau S, et al. Master transcription factors determine cell-type-specific responses to TGF-? signaling. Cell. 2011;147:565-76 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that cell-type-specific master transcription factors determine the genes bound by Smad2/3 and are thus responsible for orchestrating the cell-type-specific effects of TGF-? signaling. ..
  7. Voets A, Oberije C, Struijk R, Reymen B, De Ruyck K, Thierens H, et al. No association between TGF-?1 polymorphisms and radiation-induced lung toxicity in a European cohort of lung cancer patients. Radiother Oncol. 2012;105:296-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We were not able to confirm the reported association, neither using maximum dyspnea score nor after correction for baseline dyspnea score. ..
  8. Sargent J, Milano A, Bhattacharyya S, Varga J, Connolly M, Chang H, et al. A TGFbeta-responsive gene signature is associated with a subset of diffuse scleroderma with increased disease severity. J Invest Dermatol. 2010;130:694-705 pubmed publisher
    ..Since transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) has been implicated in driving fibrosis in systemic sclerosis, a mechanism-derived gene expression signature was ..
  9. Kolosova I, Nethery D, Kern J. Role of Smad2/3 and p38 MAP kinase in TGF-?1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition of pulmonary epithelial cells. J Cell Physiol. 2011;226:1248-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Both Smad2/3 and p38 MAPK had a role in regulation of TGF-?1-induced collagen expression. Furthermore, these data demonstrate that Smads and p38 MAPK differentially regulate EMT-related changes in pulmonary epithelial cells. ..

More Information

Publications446 found, 100 shown here

  1. Rahmutula D, Marcus G, Wilson E, Ding C, Xiao Y, Paquet A, et al. Molecular basis of selective atrial fibrosis due to overexpression of transforming growth factor-?1. Cardiovasc Res. 2013;99:769-79 pubmed publisher
    ..The differential atrial vs. ventricular fibrotic response occurs at the level of TGF-?1 receptor binding or phosphorylation. ..
  2. Yamada Y, Miyauchi A, Takagi Y, Tanaka M, Mizuno M, Harada A. Association of the C-509-->T polymorphism, alone of in combination with the T869-->C polymorphism, of the transforming growth factor-beta1 gene with bone mineral density and genetic susceptibility to osteoporosis in Japanese women. J Mol Med (Berl). 2001;79:149-56 pubmed
  3. Atfi A, Dumont E, Colland F, Bonnier D, L Helgoualc h A, Prunier C, et al. The disintegrin and metalloproteinase ADAM12 contributes to TGF-beta signaling through interaction with the type II receptor. J Cell Biol. 2007;178:201-8 pubmed
    ..These results define ADAM12 as a new partner of TbetaRII that facilitates its trafficking to early endosomes in which activation of the Smad pathway is initiated. ..
  4. Stanczuk G, McCoy M, Hutchinson I, Sibanda E. The genetic predisposition to produce high levels of TGF-beta1 impacts on the severity of eclampsia/pre-eclampsia. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2007;86:903-8 pubmed
    ..The characterization of the immunogenetic make-up of the women may be an additional tool in the differentiation of component pathologies and/or prediction of severity of the syndrome. ..
  5. de Lima T, Sass N, Mattar R, Moron A, Torloni M, Franchim C, et al. Cytokine gene polymorphisms in preeclampsia and eclampsia. Hypertens Res. 2009;32:565-9 pubmed publisher
  6. Brown K, Aakre M, Gorska A, Price J, Eltom S, Pietenpol J, et al. Induction by transforming growth factor-beta1 of epithelial to mesenchymal transition is a rare event in vitro. Breast Cancer Res. 2004;6:R215-31 pubmed
  7. Rao M, Guo D, Jaber B, Tighiouart H, Pereira B, Balakrishnan V. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 gene polymorphisms and cardiovascular disease in hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int. 2004;66:419-27 pubmed
    ..Further studies are required to evaluate the role of TGF-beta1 as a candidate gene. ..
  8. Migita K, Miyazoe S, Maeda Y, Daikoku M, Abiru S, Ueki T, et al. Cytokine gene polymorphisms in Japanese patients with hepatitis B virus infection--association between TGF-beta1 polymorphisms and hepatocellular carcinoma. J Hepatol. 2005;42:505-10 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that the genetic polymorphism in codon 10 of the TGF-beta1 gene may play a role in HCC development in patients with chronic HBV infection. ..
  9. Amirzargar M, Yavangi M, Basiri A, Moghadam S, Khosravi F, Solgi G, et al. Genetic association of interleukin-4, interleukin-10, and transforming growth factor-beta gene polymorphism with allograft function in renal transplant patients. Transplant Proc. 2007;39:954-7 pubmed
    ..TGF-beta codon 10 T allele was 39% in RE, 35% in SGF, and 53% in control group. In conclusion, this study suggested that some cytokine gene alleles reflected SGF among kidney transplant recipients. ..
  10. Murata M, Matsuzaki K, Yoshida K, Sekimoto G, Tahashi Y, Mori S, et al. Hepatitis B virus X protein shifts human hepatic transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta signaling from tumor suppression to oncogenesis in early chronic hepatitis B. Hepatology. 2009;49:1203-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Hepatocytic pSmad3L and pSmad3C assessment in HBV-infected liver specimens should prove clinically useful for predicting risk of HCC. ..
  11. Doerner A, Zuraw B. TGF-beta1 induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human bronchial epithelial cells is enhanced by IL-1beta but not abrogated by corticosteroids. Respir Res. 2009;10:100 pubmed publisher
    ..Since asthma has been strongly associated with increased expression of TGFbeta1 in the airway, epithelial to mesenchymal transition may contribute to the contractile and fibrotic remodeling process that accompanies chronic asthma. ..
  12. Binker M, Binker Cosen A, Gaisano H, de Cosen R, Cosen Binker L. TGF-β1 increases invasiveness of SW1990 cells through Rac1/ROS/NF-κB/IL-6/MMP-2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;405:140-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The multifunctional cytokine transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) has been shown to increase both secretion of MMP-2 and invasion by several pancreatic ..
  13. Gregory P, Bracken C, Smith E, Bert A, Wright J, Roslan S, et al. An autocrine TGF-beta/ZEB/miR-200 signaling network regulates establishment and maintenance of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:1686-98 pubmed publisher
  14. Soltani A, Sohal S, Reid D, Weston S, Wood Baker R, Walters E. Vessel-associated transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-?1) is increased in the bronchial reticular basement membrane in COPD and normal smokers. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e39736 pubmed publisher
    ..This study evaluated TGF-?1 immunostaining in the Rbm and its relationship to vascularity in smokers with or without COPD...
  15. Wei Y, Zhu Y, Du B, Yang Z, Liang W, Lv M, et al. Association of transforming growth factor-beta1 gene polymorphisms with genetic susceptibility to nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Clin Chim Acta. 2007;380:165-9 pubmed
    ..Our data suggests that TGF-beta1 -509C/T and 869T/C polymorphisms could be used as genetic susceptibility markers of the NPC. ..
  16. Bran G, Goessler U, Schardt C, Hormann K, Riedel F, Sadick H. Effect of the abrogation of TGF-beta1 by antisense oligonucleotides on the expression of TGF-beta-isoforms and their receptors I and II in isolated fibroblasts from keloid scars. Int J Mol Med. 2010;25:915-21 pubmed
    ..Improving the understanding of TGF-beta in keloid disease could lead to the development of clinically useful therapeutic modalities for treatment of keloid disease or even allow identification of preventive strategies. ..
  17. Alsbeih G, al Harbi N, Al Hadyan K, El Sebaie M, Al Rajhi N. Association between normal tissue complications after radiotherapy and polymorphic variations in TGFB1 and XRCC1 genes. Radiat Res. 2010;173:505-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Large-scale studies are required to confirm these findings before polymorphisms can be used as predictive markers to individualize radiation therapy on genetic bases. ..
  18. Schneider D, Kleeff J, Berberat P, Zhu Z, Korc M, Friess H, et al. Induction and expression of betaig-h3 in pancreatic cancer cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002;1588:1-6 pubmed
  19. Silverman E, Palmer L, Subramaniam V, Hallock A, Mathew S, Vallone J, et al. Transforming growth factor-beta1 promoter polymorphism C-509T is associated with asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2004;169:214-9 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the T allele of C-509T is associated with the diagnosis of asthma and may enhance TGF-beta1 gene transcription. ..
  20. Sheppard D. Integrin-mediated activation of latent transforming growth factor beta. Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2005;24:395-402 pubmed
    ..Integrin-mediated TGFbeta activation has been shown to play important roles in modulating tissue fibrosis, acute lung injury and pulmonary ..
  21. Hu X. TGFbeta-mediated formation of pRb-E2F complexes in human myeloid leukemia cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;369:277-80 pubmed publisher
    b>TGFbeta is well known for its inhibitory effect on cell cycle G1 checkpoint kinases. However, its role in the control of pRb-E2F complexes is not well established...
  22. Gramley F, Lorenzen J, Koellensperger E, Kettering K, Weiss C, Munzel T. Atrial fibrosis and atrial fibrillation: the role of the TGF-?1 signaling pathway. Int J Cardiol. 2010;143:405-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The sequential changes in the contribution of different profibrotic processes during the establishment of AF may offer the opportunity to selectively interfere with the atrial remodeling process at different stages. ..
  23. Viloria Petit A, David L, Jia J, Erdemir T, Bane A, Pinnaduwage D, et al. A role for the TGFbeta-Par6 polarity pathway in breast cancer progression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:14028-33 pubmed publisher
    ..and an orthotopic mouse model of breast cancer, we reveal that Par6 signaling, which is regulated directly by TGFbeta, plays a role in breast cancer metastasis...
  24. Qi P, Ruan C, Wang H, Zhou F, Zhao Y, Gu X, et al. -509C>T polymorphism in the TGF-β1 gene promoter is not associated with susceptibility to and progression of colorectal cancer in Chinese. Colorectal Dis. 2010;12:1153-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that TGF-β1 -509C>T polymorphism is not associated with either an increased risk or progression of colorectal cancer. ..
  25. Papageorgis P, Lambert A, Ozturk S, Gao F, Pan H, Manne U, et al. Smad signaling is required to maintain epigenetic silencing during breast cancer progression. Cancer Res. 2010;70:968-78 pubmed publisher
    ..model system, we found that cells that underwent EMT exhibited overactive transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) signaling and loss of expression of the CDH1, CGN, CLDN4, and KLK10 genes as a result of hypermethylation of ..
  26. Guan X, Sturgis E, Lei D, Liu Z, Dahlstrom K, Wei Q, et al. Association of TGF-beta1 genetic variants with HPV16-positive oropharyngeal cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2010;16:1416-22 pubmed publisher
  27. Jian H, Shen X, Liu I, Semenov M, He X, Wang X. Smad3-dependent nuclear translocation of beta-catenin is required for TGF-beta1-induced proliferation of bone marrow-derived adult human mesenchymal stem cells. Genes Dev. 2006;20:666-74 pubmed
  28. Amini Nik S, Ebrahim R, Van Dam K, Cassiman J, Tejpar S. TGF-beta modulates beta-Catenin stability and signaling in mesenchymal proliferations. Exp Cell Res. 2007;313:2887-95 pubmed
    ..This modulation of beta-Catenin levels by TGF-beta may be involved in determining the tumoral phenotype of the cells. ..
  29. Kaplan D, Li M, Jenison M, Shlomchik W, Flavell R, Shlomchik M. Autocrine/paracrine TGFbeta1 is required for the development of epidermal Langerhans cells. J Exp Med. 2007;204:2545-52 pubmed
    ..Thus, TGFbeta1 derived from LCs acts directly on LCs through an autocrine/paracrine loop, and it is required for LC development and/or survival. ..
  30. Barreto de Souza V, Xavier Medeiros T, Machado Motta M, Bou Habib D, Saraiva E. HIV-1 infection and HIV-1 Tat protein permit the survival and replication of a non-pathogenic trypanosomatid in macrophages through TGF-beta1 production. Microbes Infect. 2008;10:642-9 pubmed publisher
  31. Tang Y, Wu X, Lei W, Pang L, Wan C, Shi Z, et al. TGF-beta1-induced migration of bone mesenchymal stem cells couples bone resorption with formation. Nat Med. 2009;15:757-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Disturbances of this process are associated with skeletal diseases, such as Camurati-Engelmann disease (CED)...
  32. Lee D, Chung Y, Kim J, Lee Y, Lee D, Jang M, et al. Transforming growth factor beta 1 overexpression is closely related to invasiveness of hepatocellular carcinoma. Oncology. 2012;82:11-8 pubmed publisher
    The study was aimed to investigate the relationship between plasma transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β(1)) expression and the characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
  33. Alakulppi N, Kyllönen L, Jäntti V, Matinlauri I, Partanen J, Salmela K, et al. Cytokine gene polymorphisms and risks of acute rejection and delayed graft function after kidney transplantation. Transplantation. 2004;78:1422-8 pubmed
    ..6, 95% CI 1.1-2.6, P = 0.040). Our results confirm that cytokine gene polymorphisms influence the outcome of kidney transplantation. Our data especially identify the TNF-alpha -308AA-genotype as a factor predisposing for AR episodes. ..
  34. Panutsopulos D, Papalambros E, Sigala F, Zafiropoulos A, Arvanitis D, Spandidos D. Protein and mRNA expression levels of VEGF-A and TGF-beta1 in different types of human coronary atherosclerotic lesions. Int J Mol Med. 2005;15:603-10 pubmed
  35. von Rahden B, Stein H, Feith M, Pühringer F, Theisen J, Siewert J, et al. Overexpression of TGF-beta1 in esophageal (Barrett's) adenocarcinoma is associated with advanced stage of disease and poor prognosis. Mol Carcinog. 2006;45:786-94 pubmed
    ..The TGF-beta pathway may be a potential target for molecular therapies of advanced tumors of this entity. ..
  36. Cigna N, Farrokhi Moshai E, Brayer S, Marchal Sommé J, Wemeau Stervinou L, Fabre A, et al. The hedgehog system machinery controls transforming growth factor-?-dependent myofibroblastic differentiation in humans: involvement in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Am J Pathol. 2012;181:2126-37 pubmed publisher
    ..These data identify the GLI transcription factors as potential therapeutic targets in lung fibrosis. ..
  37. Zheng W, Yan C, Wang X, Luo Z, Chen F, Yang Y, et al. TheTGFB1 functional polymorphism rs1800469 and susceptibility to atrial fibrillation in two Chinese Han populations. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e83033 pubmed publisher
    ..Similar results were obtained from subanalysis of the lone and paroxymal AF subgroups. Our results do not support the role of the TGFB1 rs1800469 functional gene variant in the development of AF in the Chinese Han population. ..
  38. Saha A, Gupta V, Bairwa N, Malhotra D, Bamezai R. Transforming growth factor-beta1 genotype in sporadic breast cancer patients from India: status of enhancer, promoter, 5'-untranslated-region and exon-1 polymorphisms. Eur J Immunogenet. 2004;31:37-42 pubmed
    ..The risk of cancer was found to be significant (OR = 4.525) for the -1349 C/T and T/T genotype background, suggesting that this genetic background may act as a risk factor for sporadic breast cancer. ..
  39. Ewart Toland A, Chan J, Yuan J, Balmain A, Ma J. A gain of function TGFB1 polymorphism may be associated with late stage prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2004;13:759-64 pubmed
    Transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) is known to exert both positive and negative effects on different stages of tumor formation...
  40. Oliver J, Agundez J, Morales S, Fernandez Arquero M, Fernandez Gutierrez B, De la Concha E, et al. Polymorphisms in the transforming growth factor-beta gene (TGF-beta) and the risk of advanced alcoholic liver disease. Liver Int. 2005;25:935-9 pubmed
    ..The polymorphisms at the TGF-beta(1) gene analysed in this study are probably not related to the risk of advanced ALD. ..
  41. Giannelli G, Bergamini C, Fransvea E, Sgarra C, Antonaci S. Laminin-5 with transforming growth factor-beta1 induces epithelial to mesenchymal transition in hepatocellular carcinoma. Gastroenterology. 2005;129:1375-83 pubmed
    ..Our study shows that Ln-5 and TGF-beta1 cooperatively induce EMT in HCC, suggesting the microenvironment as a potential target for new biological therapies. ..
  42. Li G, Heaton J, Gelehrter T. Role of steroid receptor coactivators in glucocorticoid and transforming growth factor beta regulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor gene expression. Mol Endocrinol. 2006;20:1025-34 pubmed
    b>TGFbeta is a major regulator of extracellular matrix deposition and a potent inducer of type-1 plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) gene expression...
  43. Babel N, Cherepnev G, Babel D, Tropmann A, Hammer M, Volk H, et al. Analysis of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, transforming growth factor-beta, interleukin-10, IL-6, and interferon-gamma gene polymorphisms in patients with chronic periodontitis. J Periodontol. 2006;77:1978-83 pubmed
    ..459; 95% CI = 0.230 to 0.920; P = 0.0421). The -174IL-6 and TGF-beta1 (codon 25) single-nucleotide polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to chronic periodontitis in the population studied. ..
  44. Thys M, Schrauwen I, Vanderstraeten K, Janssens K, Dieltjens N, Van Den Bogaert K, et al. The coding polymorphism T263I in TGF-beta1 is associated with otosclerosis in two independent populations. Hum Mol Genet. 2007;16:2021-30 pubmed
  45. Wang J, Yang L, Yang J, Kuropatwinski K, Wang W, Liu X, et al. Transforming growth factor beta induces apoptosis through repressing the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT/survivin pathway in colon cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2008;68:3152-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Stable transfection of a dominant-negative transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) type II receptor (DNRII) into FET cells that express autocrine TGFbeta shows loss of TGFbeta signaling and ..
  46. Wrighton K, Lin X, Yu P, Feng X. Transforming Growth Factor {beta} Can Stimulate Smad1 Phosphorylation Independently of Bone Morphogenic Protein Receptors. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:9755-63 pubmed publisher
    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) superfamily ligands control a diverse set of cellular processes by activating type I and type II serine-threonine receptor kinases...
  47. Barnett G, Coles C, Burnet N, Pharoah P, Wilkinson J, West C, et al. No association between SNPs regulating TGF-β1 secretion and late radiotherapy toxicity to the breast: results from the RAPPER study. Radiother Oncol. 2010;97:9-14 pubmed publisher
  48. Quarmby S, Fakhoury H, Levine E, Barber J, Wylie J, Hajeer A, et al. Association of transforming growth factor beta-1 single nucleotide polymorphisms with radiation-induced damage to normal tissues in breast cancer patients. Int J Radiat Biol. 2003;79:137-43 pubmed
  49. Cheng P, Chang M, Chao C, Lee Y. Hepatitis C viral proteins interact with Smad3 and differentially regulate TGF-beta/Smad3-mediated transcriptional activation. Oncogene. 2004;23:7821-38 pubmed
    ..This functional counteraction of TGF-beta responses provides insights into possible mechanisms, whereby the HCV oncogenic proteins antagonize the host defenses during hepatocarcinogenesis. ..
  50. Di Filippo S, Zeevi A, McDade K, Bastien O, Webber S. Impact of TGFbeta1 gene polymorphisms on acute and chronic rejection in pediatric heart transplant allografts. Transplantation. 2006;81:934-9 pubmed
    ..Genetic polymorphism may reveal patients at high-risk in whom therapies and monitoring should be adjusted. ..
  51. Sturrock A, Huecksteadt T, Norman K, Sanders K, Murphy T, Chitano P, et al. Nox4 mediates TGF-beta1-induced retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation, proliferation, and hypertrophy in human airway smooth muscle cells. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2007;292:L1543-55 pubmed
  52. Hatsushika K, Hirota T, Harada M, Sakashita M, Kanzaki M, Takano S, et al. Transforming growth factor-beta(2) polymorphisms are associated with childhood atopic asthma. Clin Exp Allergy. 2007;37:1165-74 pubmed
    ..The polymorphisms in TGF-beta(2) may become important information for asthma susceptibility in children. ..
  53. Szkodzinski J, Blazelonis A, Wilczek K, Hudzik B, Romanowski W, Gasior M, et al. The role of interleukin-6 and transforming growth factor-beta1 in predicting restenosis within stented infarct-related artery. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2009;22:493-500 pubmed
    ..The IL-6 plasma concentration may be a marker of in-stent restenosis in patients after PTCA, while the concentration of TGF-beta1 is not associated with the occurrence of restenosis at one year of follow-up. ..
  54. Guan X, Zhao H, Niu J, Tan D, Ajani J, Wei Q. Polymorphisms of TGFB1 and VEGF genes and survival of patients with gastric cancer. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2009;28:94 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study suggested that TGFB1+915CG/CC and VEGF -634CG genotypes may be associated with short-term survival in gastric cancer patients. However, larger studies are needed to verify these findings. ..
  55. Derynck R, Jarrett J, Chen E, Eaton D, Bell J, Assoian R, et al. Human transforming growth factor-beta complementary DNA sequence and expression in normal and transformed cells. Nature. 1985;316:701-5 pubmed
    ..TGF-beta messenger RNA is synthesized in various normal and transformed cells. ..
  56. Yamada Y. Association of polymorphisms of the transforming growth factor-beta1 gene with genetic susceptibility to osteoporosis. Pharmacogenetics. 2001;11:765-71 pubmed
  57. Zhang Q, Rubenstein J, Jang T, Pins M, Javonovic B, Yang X, et al. Insensitivity to transforming growth factor-beta results from promoter methylation of cognate receptors in human prostate cancer cells (LNCaP). Mol Endocrinol. 2005;19:2390-9 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that insensitivity to TGF-beta in some prostate cancer cells is due to promoter methylation in TbetaRs. ..
  58. Damaraju S, Murray D, Dufour J, Carandang D, Myrehaug S, Fallone G, et al. Association of DNA repair and steroid metabolism gene polymorphisms with clinical late toxicity in patients treated with conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2006;12:2545-54 pubmed
    ..In this study, we identified SNPs in LIG4, ERCC2, and CYP2D6 genes as putative markers to predict individuals at risk for complications arising from radiation therapy in prostate cancer. ..
  59. McMahon S, Charbonneau M, Grandmont S, Richard D, Dubois C. Transforming growth factor beta1 induces hypoxia-inducible factor-1 stabilization through selective inhibition of PHD2 expression. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:24171-81 pubmed
    ..Here, we demonstrate that TGFbeta acts on HIF-1alpha accumulation and activity by increasing HIF-1alpha protein stability...
  60. Sie M, Mattace Raso F, Uitterlinden A, Arp P, Hofman A, Hoeks A, et al. TGF-beta1 polymorphisms and arterial stiffness; the Rotterdam Study. J Hum Hypertens. 2007;21:431-7 pubmed
    ..The haplotype-based analyses yielded similar results. The results of this study show that the TGF-beta1 -800 G/A, -509 C/T, codon 10 Leu/Pro and codon 25 Arg/Pro polymorphisms are not associated with arterial stiffness. ..
  61. Davis B, Hilyard A, Lagna G, Hata A. SMAD proteins control DROSHA-mediated microRNA maturation. Nature. 2008;454:56-61 pubmed publisher
  62. Geng Z, Zheng J, Zhang X, Tao J, Wang L. Role of transforming growth factor-beta signaling pathway in pathogenesis of benign biliary stricture. World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14:4949-54 pubmed
    ..The high expression of TGF-beta/Smad/CTGF signaling pathway plays an important role in the pathogenesis of benign biliary stricture. ..
  63. Tran D, Andersson J, Wang R, Ramsey H, Unutmaz D, Shevach E. GARP (LRRC32) is essential for the surface expression of latent TGF-beta on platelets and activated FOXP3+ regulatory T cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:13445-50 pubmed publisher
    ..This latent complex can associate with latent TGFbeta-binding protein (LTBP) to produce a large latent form...
  64. Gupta S, Joshi K, Wig J, Arora S. High frequency of loss of allelic integrity at Wilms' tumor suppressor gene-1 locus in advanced breast tumors associated with aggressiveness of the tumor. Indian J Cancer. 2009;46:303-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The current study indicates that the high frequency of loss of allelic integrity at Wilms' tumor suppressor gene-1 locus in high-graded breast tumors is associated with aggressiveness of the tumor. ..
  65. Schirmer M, Brockmoller J, Rave Frank M, Virsik P, Wilken B, Kühnle E, et al. A putatively functional haplotype in the gene encoding transforming growth factor beta-1 as a potential biomarker for radiosensitivity. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2011;79:866-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The significance of this haplotype and the suggested link between TGF-β1 function and DNA integrity should be further explored in other cell types, as well as other experimental and clinical conditions. ..
  66. Pakala S, Singh K, Reddy S, Ohshiro K, Li D, Mishra L, et al. TGF-?1 signaling targets metastasis-associated protein 1, a new effector in epithelial cells. Oncogene. 2011;30:2230-41 pubmed publisher
  67. Zauli G, Davis B, Re M, Visani G, Furlini G, La Placa M. tat protein stimulates production of transforming growth factor-beta 1 by marrow macrophages: a potential mechanism for human immunodeficiency virus-1-induced hematopoietic suppression. Blood. 1992;80:3036-43 pubmed
  68. Hu R, Oyaizu N, Than S, Kalyanaraman V, Wang X, Pahwa S. HIV-1 gp160 induces transforming growth factor-beta production in human PBMC. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1996;80:283-9 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that HIV-1 gp160 may contribute to the immune defects in HIV infection by inducing TGF-beta secretion. ..
  69. Kolundzic R, Orlic D, Trkulja V, Pavelic K, Troselj K. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the interleukin-6 gene promoter, tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene promoter, and transforming growth factor-beta1 gene signal sequence as predictors of time to onset of aseptic loosening after total hip arthroplasty:. J Orthop Sci. 2006;11:592-600 pubmed
    ..This preliminary study is the first to suggest that the TGF-beta1 signal sequence (29T-->C) and IL-6 promoter (-597G-->A)|(-572G-->C) transitions are predictive for the time to onset of aseptic instability after THA. ..
  70. Foreman M, DeMeo D, Hersh C, Carey V, Fan V, Reilly J, et al. Polymorphic variation in surfactant protein B is associated with COPD exacerbations. Eur Respir J. 2008;32:938-44 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, genetic variation in surfactant protein B is associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease susceptibility and exacerbation frequency. ..
  71. Franco O, Jiang M, Strand D, Peacock J, Fernandez S, Jackson R, et al. Altered TGF-? signaling in a subpopulation of human stromal cells promotes prostatic carcinogenesis. Cancer Res. 2011;71:1272-81 pubmed publisher
    ..While the precise nature and/or origin of the particular stromal cell populations in vivo remain unknown, these findings strongly link heterogeneity in TGF-? signaling to tumor promotion by tumor stromal cells. ..
  72. Gong Y, Fan L, Wan H, Shi Y, Shi G, Feng Y, et al. Lack of association between the TGF-β(1) gene and development of COPD in Asians: a case-control study and meta-analysis. Lung. 2011;189:213-23 pubmed publisher
    ..In ethnic subgroup analysis, the risk of COPD associated with the rs1800469 T allele was not significantly elevated among Asians. TGF-β(1) gene polymorphisms are not associated with an increased risk of COPD in the Asian population. ..
  73. Grandclement C, Pallandre J, Valmary Degano S, Viel E, Bouard A, Balland J, et al. Neuropilin-2 expression promotes TGF-?1-mediated epithelial to mesenchymal transition in colorectal cancer cells. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20444 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that neuropilin-2 fulfills all the criteria of a therapeutic target to disrupt multiple oncogenic functions in solid tumors. ..
  74. Gagliardo R, Chanez P, Gjomarkaj M, La Grutta S, Bonanno A, Montalbano A, et al. The role of transforming growth factor-?1 in airway inflammation of childhood asthma. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2013;26:725-38 pubmed
    ..are increased in ISSs of IA and MA in comparison to C, concomitantly to the activation of intracellular signaling TGFbeta/Smads pathway in ISCs. In MA, TGF-beta1 levels correlated with the number of sputum eosinophils and neutrophils...
  75. Teicher B. Transforming growth factor-beta and the immune response to malignant disease. Clin Cancer Res. 2007;13:6247-51 pubmed
    ..Phase I clinical trials of an inhibitor of TGF-beta receptor type I kinase activity and a TGF-beta neutralizing antibody are under way. ..
  76. Ito M, Hanaoka M, Droma Y, Hatayama O, Sato E, Katsuyama Y, et al. The association of transforming growth factor beta 1 gene polymorphisms with the emphysema phenotype of COPD in Japanese. Intern Med. 2008;47:1387-94 pubmed
    ..One significant haplotype of TGFB1 is associated with the emphysema phenotype in the Japanese population. Two TGFB1 SNPs (rs1800469 and rs1982073) are associated with the severity of COPD in patients with emphysema phenotype. ..
  77. Mori T, Kawara S, Shinozaki M, Hayashi N, Kakinuma T, Igarashi A, et al. Role and interaction of connective tissue growth factor with transforming growth factor-beta in persistent fibrosis: A mouse fibrosis model. J Cell Physiol. 1999;181:153-9 pubmed
    ..The animal model on skin fibrosis by exogenous application of growth factors developed in this study may prove useful for future studies on fibrotic disorders. ..
  78. Poole K, Gibbs P, Evans P, Sadek S, Howell W. Influence of patient and donor cytokine genotypes on renal allograft rejection: evidence from a single centre study. Transpl Immunol. 2001;8:259-65 pubmed
    ..However, due to conflicting results from this and other studies, a multi-centre collaborative study may be required to determine whether cytokine genotypes are significant, independent predictors of renal allograft rejection. ..
  79. Tambur A, Ortegel J, Ben Ari Z, Shabtai E, Klein T, Michowiz R, et al. Role of cytokine gene polymorphism in hepatitis C recurrence and allograft rejection among liver transplant recipients. Transplantation. 2001;71:1475-80 pubmed
  80. Hirashima Y, Kobayashi H, Suzuki M, Tanaka Y, Kanayama N, Terao T. Transforming growth factor-beta1 produced by ovarian cancer cell line HRA stimulates attachment and invasion through an up-regulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 in human peritoneal mesothelial cells. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:26793-802 pubmed
    ..This represents a novel pathway by which tumor cells can regulate the plasminogen activator system-dependent cellular responses in mesothelial cells that may contribute to formation of peritoneal dissemination of ovarian cancer. ..
  81. Xu Z, Shen M, Ma D, Wang L, Zha X. TGF-beta1-promoted epithelial-to-mesenchymal transformation and cell adhesion contribute to TGF-beta1-enhanced cell migration in SMMC-7721 cells. Cell Res. 2003;13:343-50 pubmed
    ..These results indicated that TGF-beta1-promoted cell adhesion and TGF-beta1-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transformation might be both responsible for TGF-beta1-enhanced cell migration. ..
  82. Gourley I, DeNofrio D, Rand W, Desai S, Loh E, Kamoun M. The effect of recipient cytokine gene polymorphism on cardiac transplantation outcome. Hum Immunol. 2004;65:248-54 pubmed
    ..No other significant association was found with clinical outcomes and polymorphisms in the five cytokine genes studied in this population. ..
  83. Sato F, Narita I, Goto S, Kondo D, Saito N, Ajiro J, et al. Transforming growth factor-beta1 gene polymorphism modifies the histological and clinical manifestations in Japanese patients with IgA nephropathy. Tissue Antigens. 2004;64:35-42 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that TGF-beta1 gene polymorphisms are specifically associated with heavy proteinuria and mesangial cell proliferation in Japanese patients with IgAN, although they do not confer susceptibility to this disease...
  84. Kang H, Chae M, Park J, Kim E, Park J, Kam S, et al. Polymorphisms in TGF-beta1 gene and the risk of lung cancer. Lung Cancer. 2006;52:1-7 pubmed
    ..57-0.98; P = 0.04; and adjusted OR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.47-0.96; P = 0.02; respectively). The TGF-beta1 -509C > T and 869T > C polymorphisms and their haplotypes may contribute to genetic susceptibility to AC and SM of the lung. ..
  85. Lee K, Ho S, Lin H, Lin S, Liu C, Huang C, et al. Neutrophil-derived elastase induces TGF-beta1 secretion in human airway smooth muscle via NF-kappaB pathway. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2006;35:407-14 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that NE upregulates TGF-beta1 gene expression and release via My88/IRAK/NF-kappaB pathway, possibly through activation of TLR4, and shed light on a potential role of neutrophils in the pathogenesis of asthma. ..
  86. Kim S, Lim J, Park S, Yang J, Kim M, Kim M, et al. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 gene polymorphisms in Korean patients with pre-eclampsia. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2010;63:291-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The TGF-beta1 c.915G>C polymorphism was not detected in our population. Our findings indicate that the TGF-beta1 c.869T>C polymorphism may be a genetic risk factor for PE and IUGR-complicated PE. ..
  87. Kamato D, Burch M, Piva T, Rezaei H, Rostam M, Xu S, et al. Transforming growth factor-β signalling: role and consequences of Smad linker region phosphorylation. Cell Signal. 2013;25:2017-24 pubmed publisher
  88. Lotz M, Clark Lewis I, Ganu V. HIV-1 transactivator protein Tat induces proliferation and TGF beta expression in human articular chondrocytes. J Cell Biol. 1994;124:365-71 pubmed
    ..of the interactions between Tat and TGF beta showed that Tat increased synthesis and TGF beta activity and TGF beta 1 mRNA levels...
  89. Morrell N, Yang X, Upton P, Jourdan K, Morgan N, Sheares K, et al. Altered growth responses of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells from patients with primary pulmonary hypertension to transforming growth factor-beta(1) and bone morphogenetic proteins. Circulation. 2001;104:790-5 pubmed
    ..We conclude that PASMCs from patients with PPH exhibit abnormal growth responses to TGF-beta(1) and BMPs and that altered integration of TGF-beta superfamily growth signals may contribute to the pathogenesis of PPH. ..
  90. Pulleyn L, Newton R, Adcock I, Barnes P. TGFbeta1 allele association with asthma severity. Hum Genet. 2001;109:623-7 pubmed
    ..In this study, we show that the -509T variant on haplotype 1 is the most informative marker of the TGFbeta1 contribution to asthma severity. ..
  91. Arnulf B, Villemain A, Nicot C, Mordelet E, Charneau P, Kersual J, et al. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus oncoprotein Tax represses TGF-beta 1 signaling in human T cells via c-Jun activation: a potential mechanism of HTLV-I leukemogenesis. Blood. 2002;100:4129-38 pubmed
    ..Thus, we describe a new function of Tax, as a repressor of TGF-beta1 signaling through JNK/c-Jun constitutive activation, which may play a critical role in ATL leukemogenesis. ..