TCF4

Summary

Gene Symbol: TCF4
Description: transcription factor 4
Alias: E2-2, FECD3, ITF-2, ITF2, PTHS, SEF-2, SEF2, SEF2-1, SEF2-1A, SEF2-1B, SEF2-1D, TCF-4, bHLHb19, transcription factor 4, SL3-3 enhancer factor 2, class B basic helix-loop-helix protein 19, immunoglobulin transcription factor 2
Species: human
Products:     TCF4

Top Publications

  1. Zweier C, Peippo M, Hoyer J, Sousa S, Bottani A, Clayton Smith J, et al. Haploinsufficiency of TCF4 causes syndromal mental retardation with intermittent hyperventilation (Pitt-Hopkins syndrome). Am J Hum Genet. 2007;80:994-1001 pubmed
    ..2-Mb deletion on 18q21.2 in one patient. Sequencing of the TCF4 transcription factor gene, which is contained in the deletion region, in 30 patients with significant phenotypic ..
  2. Corneliussen B, Thornell A, Hallberg B, Grundstrom T. Helix-loop-helix transcriptional activators bind to a sequence in glucocorticoid response elements of retrovirus enhancers. J Virol. 1991;65:6084-93 pubmed
    A family of nuclear proteins, designated SL3-3 enhancer factors 2 (SEF2), were found to interact with an Ephrussi box-like motif within the glucocorticoid response element in the enhancer of the murine leukemia virus SL3-3...
  3. Navarrete K, Pedroso I, de Jong S, Stefansson H, Steinberg S, Stefansson K, et al. TCF4 (e2-2; ITF2): a schizophrenia-associated gene with pleiotropic effects on human disease. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2013;162B:1-16 pubmed publisher
    Common SNPs in the transcription factor 4 (TCF4; ITF2, E2-2, SEF-2) gene, which encodes a basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) transcription factor, are associated with schizophrenia, conferring a small increase in risk...
  4. Kim S, Jang H, Kim J, Kim M, Noh S, Song K, et al. CpG methylation in exon 1 of transcription factor 4 increases with age in normal gastric mucosa and is associated with gene silencing in intestinal-type gastric cancers. Carcinogenesis. 2008;29:1623-31 pubmed publisher
    Transcriptional factor 4 (TCF4), encoding a basic helix-loop-helix transcriptional factor, has recently been demonstrated as a causative gene for Pitt-Hopkins syndrome, a neurodevelopmental disease...
  5. Sepp M, Pruunsild P, Timmusk T. Pitt-Hopkins syndrome-associated mutations in TCF4 lead to variable impairment of the transcription factor function ranging from hypomorphic to dominant-negative effects. Hum Mol Genet. 2012;21:2873-88 pubmed publisher
    Transcription factor TCF4 (alias ITF2, SEF2 or E2-2) is a broadly expressed basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein that functions as a homo- or heterodimer...
  6. de Pontual L, Mathieu Y, Golzio C, Rio M, Malan V, Boddaert N, et al. Mutational, functional, and expression studies of the TCF4 gene in Pitt-Hopkins syndrome. Hum Mutat. 2009;30:669-76 pubmed publisher
    Pitt-Hopkins syndrome is a severe congenital encephalopathy recently ascribed to de novo heterozygous TCF4 gene mutations...
  7. Amir A, Barua M, McKnight N, Cheng S, Yuan X, Balk S. A direct beta-catenin-independent interaction between androgen receptor and T cell factor 4. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:30828-34 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrates that there is a direct interaction between the AR DNA binding domain (DBD) and Tcf4. Tcf4 bound specifically to a glutathione S-transferase-ARDBD fusion protein and could be coimmunoprecipitated with ..
  8. Mackey D, Warrington N, Hewitt A, Oates S, Yazar S, Soloshenko A, et al. Role of the TCF4 gene intronic variant in normal variation of corneal endothelium. Cornea. 2012;31:162-6 pubmed publisher
    To identify early features of Fuchs endothelial dystrophy (FED) in carriers of the rs613872(G) transcription factor 4 gene (TCF4) aged 20 to 21 years...
  9. Liu Y, Ray S, Yang X, Luntz Leybman V, Chiu I. A splice variant of E2-2 basic helix-loop-helix protein represses the brain-specific fibroblast growth factor 1 promoter through the binding to an imperfect E-box. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:19269-76 pubmed
    ..These cDNA clones represent the variant of bHLH protein E2-2/SEF2-1 in having 12 additional nucleotides encoding the amino acids RSRS...

More Information

Publications66

  1. Breschel T, McInnis M, Margolis R, Sirugo G, Corneliussen B, Simpson S, et al. A novel, heritable, expanding CTG repeat in an intron of the SEF2-1 gene on chromosome 18q21.1. Hum Mol Genet. 1997;6:1855-63 pubmed
    ..1. The CTG repeat locus, termed CTG18.1, is located within an intron of human SEF2-1, a gene encoding a basic hellx-loop-hellx DNA binding protein involved in transcriptional regulation...
  2. Pscherer A, Dörflinger U, Kirfel J, Gawlas K, Ruschoff J, Buettner R, et al. The helix-loop-helix transcription factor SEF-2 regulates the activity of a novel initiator element in the promoter of the human somatostatin receptor II gene. EMBO J. 1996;15:6680-90 pubmed
    ..In summary, the SSTR2inr represents a novel type of initiator element that confers gene expression in the absence of a TATA-box or binding sites for other known initiator factors, like YY-1 or USF. ..
  3. Quednow B, Ettinger U, Mossner R, Rujescu D, Giegling I, Collier D, et al. The schizophrenia risk allele C of the TCF4 rs9960767 polymorphism disrupts sensorimotor gating in schizophrenia spectrum and healthy volunteers. J Neurosci. 2011;31:6684-91 pubmed publisher
    In a large-scale meta-analysis, it has been recently shown that the transcription factor 4 (TCF4) gene is among the most prominent susceptibility genes for schizophrenia...
  4. Lu R, Qu Y, Ge J, Zhang L, Su Z, Pflugfelder S, et al. Transcription factor TCF4 maintains the properties of human corneal epithelial stem cells. Stem Cells. 2012;30:753-61 pubmed publisher
    b>TCF4, a key transcription factor of Wnt signaling system, has been recently found to be essential for maintaining stem cells. However, its signaling pathway is not well elucidated...
  5. Li T, Li Z, Chen P, Zhao Q, Wang T, Huang K, et al. Common variants in major histocompatibility complex region and TCF4 gene are significantly associated with schizophrenia in Han Chinese. Biol Psychiatry. 2010;68:671-3 pubmed publisher
    ..64 × 10(-6)) located in the TCF4 gene were significant in our sample set...
  6. Sepp M, Kannike K, Eesmaa A, Urb M, Timmusk T. Functional diversity of human basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor TCF4 isoforms generated by alternative 5' exon usage and splicing. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22138 pubmed publisher
    b>Transcription factor 4 (TCF4 alias ITF2, E2-2, ME2 or SEF2) is a ubiquitous class A basic helix-loop-helix protein that binds to E-box DNA sequences (CANNTG)...
  7. Blake D, Forrest M, Chapman R, Tinsley C, O Donovan M, Owen M. TCF4, schizophrenia, and Pitt-Hopkins Syndrome. Schizophr Bull. 2010;36:443-7 pubmed publisher
    ..studies found, in addition to several other markers, a single nucleotide polymorphism in intron 4 of the TCF4 gene that was associated with schizophrenia...
  8. Armani R, Archer H, Clarke A, Vasudevan P, Zweier C, Ho G, et al. Transcription factor 4 and myocyte enhancer factor 2C mutations are not common causes of Rett syndrome. Am J Med Genet A. 2012;158A:713-9 pubmed publisher
    ..More recently, it has been suggested that phenotypes associated with TCF4 and MEF2C mutations may represent a form of RTT...
  9. CISSE B, Caton M, Lehner M, Maeda T, Scheu S, Locksley R, et al. Transcription factor E2-2 is an essential and specific regulator of plasmacytoid dendritic cell development. Cell. 2008;135:37-48 pubmed publisher
    ..We report that basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor (E protein) E2-2/Tcf4 is preferentially expressed in murine and human PDCs...
  10. Stamler J, Roos B, Wagoner M, Goins K, Kitzmann A, Riley J, et al. Confirmation of the association between the TCF4 risk allele and Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy in patients from the Midwestern United States. Ophthalmic Genet. 2013;34:32-4 pubmed publisher
    To determine the role of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs613872) in the TCF4 gene in Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) in patients from Iowa...
  11. Williams H, Moskvina V, Smith R, Dwyer S, Russo G, Owen M, et al. Association between TCF4 and schizophrenia does not exert its effect by common nonsynonymous variation or by influencing cis-acting regulation of mRNA expression in adult human brain. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2011;156B:781-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Among these, transcription factor 4 (TCF4) is one of the best supported although the associated SNP (rs9960767) is located within intron 3 and ..
  12. Li J, Sutter C, Parker D, Blauwkamp T, Fang M, Cadigan K. CBP/p300 are bimodal regulators of Wnt signaling. EMBO J. 2007;26:2284-94 pubmed
    ..cell line, we show that CBP and p300 can inhibit Wnt signaling and demonstrate that human p300 can bind directly to TCF4 in vitro...
  13. Persson P, Jogi A, Grynfeld A, Pahlman S, Axelson H. HASH-1 and E2-2 are expressed in human neuroblastoma cells and form a functional complex. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000;274:22-31 pubmed
    ..Two of the isolated clones contained cDNA from the E2-2 gene (also known as ITF2/SEF2-1). We show that E2-2 interacts with HASH-1 in both yeast and mammalian cells...
  14. Mootha V, Gong X, Ku H, Xing C. Association and familial segregation of CTG18.1 trinucleotide repeat expansion of TCF4 gene in Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014;55:33-42 pubmed publisher
    We tested the association between two intronic polymorphisms (CTG18.1 and rs613872) in TCF4 and Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD), and analyzed their segregation patterns in families...
  15. Brockschmidt A, Todt U, Ryu S, Hoischen A, Landwehr C, Birnbaum S, et al. Severe mental retardation with breathing abnormalities (Pitt-Hopkins syndrome) is caused by haploinsufficiency of the neuronal bHLH transcription factor TCF4. Hum Mol Genet. 2007;16:1488-94 pubmed
    ..5 Mb deletion in 18q21.2 containing a single gene, the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor TCF4. cDNA and genomic analyses in the patient and her parents demonstrated TCF4 haploinsufficiency as the underlying ..
  16. Sánchez Tilló E, de Barrios O, Siles L, Cuatrecasas M, Castells A, Postigo A. ?-catenin/TCF4 complex induces the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-activator ZEB1 to regulate tumor invasiveness. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:19204-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that ?-catenin/TCF4 binds directly to the ZEB1 promoter and activates its transcription...
  17. Forrest M, Hill M, Quantock A, Martin Rendon E, Blake D. The emerging roles of TCF4 in disease and development. Trends Mol Med. 2014;20:322-31 pubmed publisher
    Genome-wide association studies have identified common variants in transcription factor 4 (TCF4) as susceptibility loci for schizophrenia, Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy, and primary sclerosing cholangitis...
  18. Kramps T, Peter O, Brunner E, Nellen D, Froesch B, Chatterjee S, et al. Wnt/wingless signaling requires BCL9/legless-mediated recruitment of pygopus to the nuclear beta-catenin-TCF complex. Cell. 2002;109:47-60 pubmed
  19. Ghiselli G, Coffee N, Munnery C, Koratkar R, Siracusa L. The cohesin SMC3 is a target the for beta-catenin/TCF4 transactivation pathway. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:20259-67 pubmed
    ..of ApcMin/+ mice has led us to hypothesize that SMC3 expression is linked to activation of the APC/beta-catenin/TCF4 pathway...
  20. Riazuddin S, McGlumphy E, Yeo W, Wang J, Katsanis N, Gottsch J. Replication of the TCF4 intronic variant in late-onset Fuchs corneal dystrophy and evidence of independence from the FCD2 locus. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:2825-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, rs613872, an intronic variation of TCF4 associated with late-onset FCD, was reported...
  21. Baratz K, Tosakulwong N, Ryu E, Brown W, Branham K, Chen W, et al. E2-2 protein and Fuchs's corneal dystrophy. N Engl J Med. 2010;363:1016-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Alleles in the transcription factor 4 gene (TCF4), encoding a member of the E-protein family (E2-2), were associated with typical FCD (P=2...
  22. Levy L, Wei Y, Labalette C, Wu Y, Renard C, Buendia M, et al. Acetylation of beta-catenin by p300 regulates beta-catenin-Tcf4 interaction. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:3404-14 pubmed
    ..Acetylation of this residue increased the affinity of beta-catenin for Tcf4, and the cellular Tcf4-bound pool of beta-catenin was significantly enriched in acetylated form...
  23. Stefansson H, Ophoff R, Steinberg S, Andreassen O, Cichon S, Rujescu D, et al. Common variants conferring risk of schizophrenia. Nature. 2009;460:744-7 pubmed publisher
    ..3-22.1, a marker located upstream of the neurogranin gene (NRGN) on 11q24.2 and a marker in intron four of transcription factor 4 (TCF4) on 18q21.2...
  24. Zhu X, Gu H, Liu Z, Xu Z, Chen X, Sun X, et al. Associations between TCF4 gene polymorphism and cognitive functions in schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2013;38:683-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Future research is needed to replicate these results and to explore the biochemical mechanisms behind this association. ..
  25. Mosimann C, Hausmann G, Basler K. Parafibromin/Hyrax activates Wnt/Wg target gene transcription by direct association with beta-catenin/Armadillo. Cell. 2006;125:327-41 pubmed
  26. Yamada M, Ohnishi J, Ohkawara B, Iemura S, Satoh K, Hyodo Miura J, et al. NARF, an nemo-like kinase (NLK)-associated ring finger protein regulates the ubiquitylation and degradation of T cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF/LEF). J Biol Chem. 2006;281:20749-60 pubmed
    ..Collectively, our findings raise the possibility that NARF functions as a novel ubiquitin-ligase to suppress the Wnt-beta-catenin signaling. ..
  27. Giurgea I, Missirian C, Cacciagli P, Whalen S, Fredriksen T, Gaillon T, et al. TCF4 deletions in Pitt-Hopkins Syndrome. Hum Mutat. 2008;29:E242-51 pubmed publisher
    ..PHS was shown to be caused by de novo heterozygous mutations of the TCF4 gene, located in 18q21...
  28. Igo R, Kopplin L, Joseph P, Truitt B, Fondran J, Bardenstein D, et al. Differing roles for TCF4 and COL8A2 in central corneal thickness and fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e46742 pubmed publisher
    ..between FECD and central corneal thickness (CCT), we characterized common genetic variation in COL8A2 and TCF4, genes previously implicated in CCT and/or FECD...
  29. Riazuddin S, Vasanth S, Katsanis N, Gottsch J. Mutations in AGBL1 cause dominant late-onset Fuchs corneal dystrophy and alter protein-protein interaction with TCF4. Am J Hum Genet. 2013;93:758-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that AGBL1 interacts biochemically with the FCD-associated protein TCF4 and that the mutations found in our cohort of FCD individuals diminish this interaction...
  30. Kuot A, Hewitt A, Griggs K, Klebe S, Mills R, Jhanji V, et al. Association of TCF4 and CLU polymorphisms with Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy and implication of CLU and TGFBI proteins in the disease process. Eur J Hum Genet. 2012;20:632-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies reported significant association of polymorphisms in the TCF4 (transcription factor 4) gene, and a borderline association of PTPRG (protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, G) variants ..
  31. Wieben E, Aleff R, Tosakulwong N, Butz M, Highsmith W, Edwards A, et al. A common trinucleotide repeat expansion within the transcription factor 4 (TCF4, E2-2) gene predicts Fuchs corneal dystrophy. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e49083 pubmed publisher
    ..Variation in the transcription factor 4 (TCF4) gene has been identified as a major contributor to the disease...
  32. Forrest M, Chapman R, Doyle A, Tinsley C, Waite A, Blake D. Functional analysis of TCF4 missense mutations that cause Pitt-Hopkins syndrome. Hum Mutat. 2012;33:1676-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Autosomal dominant PTHS is caused by mutations in the transcription factor 4 (TCF4) gene, whereas NRXN1 and CNTNAP2 mutations are associated with autosomal recessive PTHS...
  33. Henthorn P, Kiledjian M, Kadesch T. Two distinct transcription factors that bind the immunoglobulin enhancer microE5/kappa 2 motif. Science. 1990;247:467-70 pubmed
    ..The two proteins interact with one another through their putative helix-loop-helix motifs and each possesses a distinct domain that dictates transcription activation. ..
  34. . Genome-wide association study identifies five new schizophrenia loci. Nat Genet. 2011;43:969-76 pubmed publisher
    ..0 × 10(-9)), ANK3 (rs10994359, P = 2.5 × 10(-8)) and the ITIH3-ITIH4 region (rs2239547, P = 7.8 × 10(-9)). ..
  35. Steinberg S, de Jong S, Andreassen O, Werge T, Børglum A, Mors O, et al. Common variants at VRK2 and TCF4 conferring risk of schizophrenia. Hum Mol Genet. 2011;20:4076-81 pubmed publisher
    ..alleles in the major histocompatibility complex region, near neurogranin (NRGN) and in an intron of transcription factor 4 (TCF4), we find two novel variants showing genome-wide significant association: rs2312147[C], upstream of ..
  36. Jansson E, Are A, Greicius G, Kuo I, Kelly D, Arulampalam V, et al. The Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway targets PPARgamma activity in colon cancer cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:1460-5 pubmed
    ..Mechanistically, PPARgamma, through interactions with beta-catenin and T cell transcription factor (Tcf)-4, may be a determinant of cell fate and is likely a target of the Wnt pathway in cancer cells. ..
  37. Sampson E, Haque Z, Ku M, Tevosian S, Albanese C, Pestell R, et al. Negative regulation of the Wnt-beta-catenin pathway by the transcriptional repressor HBP1. EMBO J. 2001;20:4500-11 pubmed
    ..The apparent mechanism is an inhibition of TCF/LEF DNA binding through a physical interaction with HBP1. These data suggest that the suppression of Wnt signaling by HBP1 may be a mechanism to prevent inappropriate proliferation. ..
  38. Williams H, Craddock N, Russo G, Hamshere M, Moskvina V, Dwyer S, et al. Most genome-wide significant susceptibility loci for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder reported to date cross-traditional diagnostic boundaries. Hum Mol Genet. 2011;20:387-91 pubmed publisher
    ..These comprise in schizophrenia, SNPs in or in the vicinity of transcription factor 4 (TCF4), neurogranin (NRGN) and an extended region covering the MHC locus on chromosome 6...
  39. Nateri A, Spencer Dene B, Behrens A. Interaction of phosphorylated c-Jun with TCF4 regulates intestinal cancer development. Nature. 2005;437:281-5 pubmed
    ..Here we show that phosphorylated c-Jun interacts with the HMG-box transcription factor TCF4 to form a ternary complex containing c-Jun, TCF4 and beta-catenin...
  40. Amiel J, Rio M, de Pontual L, Redon R, Malan V, Boddaert N, et al. Mutations in TCF4, encoding a class I basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, are responsible for Pitt-Hopkins syndrome, a severe epileptic encephalopathy associated with autonomic dysfunction. Am J Hum Genet. 2007;80:988-93 pubmed
    ..identified two de novo heterozygous missense mutations of a conserved amino acid in the basic region of the TCF4 gene in three additional subjects with PHS...
  41. Yamamoto H, Ihara M, Matsuura Y, Kikuchi A. Sumoylation is involved in beta-catenin-dependent activation of Tcf-4. EMBO J. 2003;22:2047-59 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that sumoylation of Tcf-4 is involved in beta-catenin-dependent and Tcf-4-mediated gene expression in the Wnt signaling pathway. ..
  42. Shekhar M, Tait L, Gerard B. Essential role of T-cell factor/beta-catenin in regulation of Rad6B: a potential mechanism for Rad6B overexpression in breast cancer cells. Mol Cancer Res. 2006;4:729-45 pubmed
  43. Andrieux J, Lepretre F, Cuisset J, Goldenberg A, Delobel B, Manouvrier Hanu S, et al. Deletion 18q21.2q21.32 involving TCF4 in a boy diagnosed by CGH-array. Eur J Med Genet. 2008;51:172-7 pubmed publisher
    ..CGH-array allowed characterisation of a de novo 6.2 Mb 18q21.2q21.32 interstitial deletion involving TCF4, the recently identified gene responsible for Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PHS)...
  44. Wirgenes K, Sønderby I, Haukvik U, Mattingsdal M, Tesli M, Athanasiu L, et al. TCF4 sequence variants and mRNA levels are associated with neurodevelopmental characteristics in psychotic disorders. Transl Psychiatry. 2012;2:e112 pubmed publisher
    b>TCF4 is involved in neurodevelopment, and intergenic and intronic variants in or close to the TCF4 gene have been associated with susceptibility to schizophrenia...
  45. Ellinghaus D, Folseraas T, Holm K, Ellinghaus E, Melum E, Balschun T, et al. Genome-wide association analysis in primary sclerosing cholangitis and ulcerative colitis identifies risk loci at GPR35 and TCF4. Hepatology. 2013;58:1074-83 pubmed publisher
    ..39 (1.24-1.55)] and at 18q21 [rs1452787 at transcription factor 4 (TCF4); P = 2.61 × 10(-8) , OR (95% CI) = 0.75 (0.68-0.83)]...
  46. Kalscheuer V, Feenstra I, van Ravenswaaij Arts C, Smeets D, Menzel C, Ullmann R, et al. Disruption of the TCF4 gene in a girl with mental retardation but without the classical Pitt-Hopkins syndrome. Am J Med Genet A. 2008;146A:2053-9 pubmed publisher
    ..fluorescence in situ hybridization indicated that on chromosome 18, the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor TCF4 gene is disrupted by the breakpoint. TCF4 plays a role in cell fate determination and differentiation...
  47. Nagasawa M, Schmidlin H, Hazekamp M, Schotte R, Blom B. Development of human plasmacytoid dendritic cells depends on the combined action of the basic helix-loop-helix factor E2-2 and the Ets factor Spi-B. Eur J Immunol. 2008;38:2389-400 pubmed publisher
    ..Together our results provide additional insight into the transcriptional network controlling pDC development as evidenced by the joint venture of E2-2 and Spi-B. ..
  48. Li Y, Minear M, Rimmler J, Zhao B, Balajonda E, Hauser M, et al. Replication of TCF4 through association and linkage studies in late-onset Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18044 pubmed publisher
    ..a recently reported genome-wide association study identified common alleles at a locus on chromosome 18 near TCF4 which confer susceptibility to FECD...
  49. Thalamuthu A, Khor C, Venkataraman D, Koh L, Tan D, Aung T, et al. Association of TCF4 gene polymorphisms with Fuchs' corneal dystrophy in the Chinese. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:5573-8 pubmed publisher
    To test the association between TCF4, a gene recently found to confer susceptibility to Fuchs' corneal dystrophy (FCD) in Caucasian populations, and Chinese patients with FCD...
  50. Prieur A, Cappellini M, Habif G, Lefranc M, Mazard T, Morency E, et al. Targeting the Wnt Pathway and Cancer Stem Cells with Anti-progastrin Humanized Antibodies as a Potential Treatment for K-RAS-Mutated Colorectal Cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2017;23:5267-5280 pubmed publisher
    ..a tumor-promoting peptide essential for the self-renewal of colon CSCs, which is also a direct β-catenin/TCF4 target gene...
  51. Qi J, Yu Y, Akilli Öztürk Ã, Holland J, Besser D, Fritzmann J, et al. New Wnt/β-catenin target genes promote experimental metastasis and migration of colorectal cancer cells through different signals. Gut. 2016;65:1690-701 pubmed publisher
    ..CRC) metastasis signature, BOP1, CKS2 and NFIL3, were identified as direct transcription targets of β-catenin/TCF4. Overexpression and knocking down of these genes in CRC cells promoted and inhibited, respectively, experimental ..
  52. Cheng Q, Liu L, Fu Y, Zhang Y, Yang Y, Liu J. RhPDCD5 combined with dexamethasone increases antitumor activity in multiple myeloma partially via inhibiting the Wnt signalling pathway. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2018;45:140-145 pubmed publisher
    ..plus Dex downregulated the mRNA and protein expressions of Wnt effectors including β-catenin, β-catenin (Ser675), TCF4, survivin and c-Myc when compared to Dex only...
  53. Wu J, Richards M, Huang J, Al Harthi L, Xu X, Lin R, et al. Human FasL gene is a target of ?-catenin/T-cell factor pathway and complex FasL haplotypes alter promoter functions. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e26143 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our data suggest that ?-catenin may be involved in FasL gene regulation and that FasL expression is influenced by FasL SNP haplotypes, which may have significant implications in immune response and tumorigenesis. ..
  54. Wang K, Jhanji V, Chen J, Law R, Leung A, Zhang M, et al. Association of transcription factor 4 (TCF4) and protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type G (PTPRG) with corneal dystrophies in southern Chinese. Ophthalmic Genet. 2014;35:138-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, TCF4 was considered as a major risk gene for European FED cases...
  55. Bleckmann A, Siam L, Klemm F, Rietkötter E, Wegner C, Kramer F, et al. Nuclear LEF1/TCF4 correlate with poor prognosis but not with nuclear ?-catenin in cerebral metastasis of lung adenocarcinomas. Clin Exp Metastasis. 2013;30:471-82 pubmed publisher
    An essential function of the transcription factors LEF1/TCF4 in cerebral metastases of lung adenocarcinomas has been described in mouse models, suggesting a WNT/?-catenin effect as potential mechanism...
  56. Lapham A, Adams J, Paterson A, Lee M, Brimmell M, Packham G. The Bcl-w promoter is activated by beta-catenin/TCF4 in human colorectal carcinoma cells. Gene. 2009;432:112-7 pubmed publisher
    ..b>TCF4 and beta-catenin interacted with the Bcl-w promoter in intact HCT116 cells and mutation of this site significantly ..
  57. Wang W, Xiao X, Chen X, Huo Y, Xi W, Lin Z, et al. Tumor-suppressive miR-145 co-repressed by TCF4-β-catenin and PRC2 complexes forms double-negative regulation loops with its negative regulators in colorectal cancer. Int J Cancer. 2018;142:308-321 pubmed publisher
    ..In our study, firstly by analyzing a ChIP-seq dataset against TCF4, the core transcription factor for initiation of Wnt signaling in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells, we screened out ..