Gene Symbol: TCF3
Description: transcription factor 3
Alias: AGM8, E2A, E47, ITF1, TCF-3, VDIR, bHLHb21, p75, transcription factor E2-alpha, NOL1-TCF3 fusion, VDR interacting repressor, class B basic helix-loop-helix protein 21, helix-loop-helix protein HE47, immunoglobulin transcription factor 1, kappa-E2-binding factor, negative vitamin D response element-binding protein, transcription factor 3 (E2A immunoglobulin enhancer binding factors E12/E47), transcription factor 3 variant 3, transcription factor ITF-1, vitamin D receptor-interacting repressor
Species: human
Products:     TCF3

Top Publications

  1. Hunger S, Galili N, Carroll A, Crist W, Link M, Cleary M. The t(1;19)(q23;p13) results in consistent fusion of E2A and PBX1 coding sequences in acute lymphoblastic leukemias. Blood. 1991;77:687-93 pubmed
    ..The t(1;19) juxtaposes the E2A gene from chromosome 19 with the PBX1 gene on chromosome 1, leading to the production of fusion transcripts and ..
  2. Nourse J, Mellentin J, Galili N, Wilkinson J, Stanbridge E, Smith S, et al. Chromosomal translocation t(1;19) results in synthesis of a homeobox fusion mRNA that codes for a potential chimeric transcription factor. Cell. 1990;60:535-45 pubmed
    The gene (E2A) for enhancer binding transcription factors E12 and E47 maps to the t(1;19) chromosomal translocation breakpoint in pre-B cell leukemias...
  3. Zhang J, Kalkum M, Yamamura S, Chait B, Roeder R. E protein silencing by the leukemogenic AML1-ETO fusion protein. Science. 2004;305:1286-9 pubmed
  4. Mathas S, Kreher S, Meaburn K, Johrens K, Lamprecht B, Assaf C, et al. Gene deregulation and spatial genome reorganization near breakpoints prior to formation of translocations in anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:5831-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, our data demonstrate that deregulation of breakpoint-proximal genes has a key role in ALCL. ..
  5. Hwang Verslues W, Chang P, Wei P, Yang C, Huang C, Kuo W, et al. miR-495 is upregulated by E12/E47 in breast cancer stem cells, and promotes oncogenesis and hypoxia resistance via downregulation of E-cadherin and REDD1. Oncogene. 2011;30:2463-74 pubmed publisher
    ..miR-495 expression was directly modulated by transcription factor E12/E47, which itself is highly expressed in BCSCs...
  6. Huggins G, Chin M, Sibinga N, Lee S, Haber E, Lee M. Characterization of the mUBC9-binding sites required for E2A protein degradation. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:28690-6 pubmed
    Mammalian Ubc9 (mUbc9) is required for rapid degradation of the E2A proteins E12 and E47 by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. We have shown elsewhere that mUbc9 interacts with amino acids 477-530 of E12/E47...
  7. Slattery C, McMorrow T, Ryan M. Overexpression of E2A proteins induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells suggesting a potential role in renal fibrosis. FEBS Lett. 2006;580:4021-30 pubmed
    ..To further examine the role of E2A proteins in EMT, E12 and E47 were overexpressed, alone and in combination, in human RPTEC...
  8. Bain G, Maandag E, Izon D, Amsen D, Kruisbeek A, Weintraub B, et al. E2A proteins are required for proper B cell development and initiation of immunoglobulin gene rearrangements. Cell. 1994;79:885-92 pubmed
    E12 and E47 are two helix-loop-helix transcription factors that arise by alternative splicing of the E2A gene. Both have been implicated in the regulation of immunoglobulin gene expression...
  9. Kardava L, Yang Q, St Leger A, Foon K, Lentzsch S, Vallejo A, et al. The B lineage transcription factor E2A regulates apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. Int Immunol. 2011;23:375-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigate the role of the major B-cell transcription factor E2A, a known regulator of B-cell survival and proliferation, to CLL persistence...

More Information


  1. Lassar A, Davis R, Wright W, Kadesch T, Murre C, Voronova A, et al. Functional activity of myogenic HLH proteins requires hetero-oligomerization with E12/E47-like proteins in vivo. Cell. 1991;66:305-15 pubmed
    In this report we provide four lines of evidence indicating that E12/E47-like proteins interact in vivo with the myogenic HLH proteins MyoD and myogenin...
  2. Chiaro C, Lazarova D, Bordonaro M. Tcf3 and cell cycle factors contribute to butyrate resistance in colorectal cancer cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;428:121-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified overexpression of Tcf3 as being partially responsible for the butyrate-resistant phenotype, as this DNA-binding protein suppresses the ..
  3. Liu T, Chen S, Kuo S, Cheng A, Lin C. E2A-positive gastric MALT lymphoma has weaker plasmacytoid infiltrates and stronger expression of the memory B-cell-associated miR-223: possible correlation with stage and treatment response. Mod Pathol. 2010;23:1507-17 pubmed publisher
    ..B cells do not express markers of germinal-center B cells, such as E2A (immunoglobulin enhancer-binding factor E12/E47), B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma 6 (BCL6), or activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)...
  4. Patel D, Chaudhary J. Increased expression of bHLH transcription factor E2A (TCF3) in prostate cancer promotes proliferation and confers resistance to doxorubicin induced apoptosis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;422:146-51 pubmed publisher
    E2A (TCF3) is a multifunctional basic helix loop helix (bHLH), transcription factor. E2A regulates transcription of target genes by homo- or heterodimerization with cell specific bHLH proteins...
  5. Reschly E, Spaulding C, Vilimas T, Graham W, Brumbaugh R, Aifantis I, et al. Notch1 promotes survival of E2A-deficient T cell lymphomas through pre-T cell receptor-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Blood. 2006;107:4115-21 pubmed
    Loss of E2A transcription factor activity or activation of the intracellular form of Notch1 (ICN) leads to the development of leukemia or lymphoma in humans or mice, respectively...
  6. Slyper M, Shahar A, Bar Ziv A, Granit R, Hamburger T, Maly B, et al. Control of breast cancer growth and initiation by the stem cell-associated transcription factor TCF3. Cancer Res. 2012;72:5613-24 pubmed publisher
    ..b>TCF3 (also known as TCF7L1) is a member of the TCF/LEF transcription factor family that is central in regulating ..
  7. Lingbeck J, Trausch Azar J, Ciechanover A, Schwartz A. E12 and E47 modulate cellular localization and proteasome-mediated degradation of MyoD and Id1. Oncogene. 2005;24:6376-84 pubmed
    ..E12 and E47, splice products of the E2A gene, interact with MyoD to activate transcription of the muscle program and are also ..
  8. Zhao H, Huang A, Li P, Quan Y, Feng B, Chen X, et al. E2A suppresses invasion and migration by targeting YAP in colorectal cancer cells. J Transl Med. 2013;11:317 pubmed publisher
    E2A gene, which encodes two basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors E12 and E47, has been identified as regulator of B lymphoid hematopoiesis and suppressor of lymphoma...
  9. Smith K, Chanda S, Lingbeek M, Ross D, Botstein D, Van Lohuizen M, et al. Bmi-1 regulation of INK4A-ARF is a downstream requirement for transformation of hematopoietic progenitors by E2a-Pbx1. Mol Cell. 2003;12:393-400 pubmed lymphoid malignancies, but are consistently absent in pre-B cell leukemias induced by the chimeric oncoprotein E2a-Pbx1 created by t(1;19) chromosomal translocations...
  10. LeBrun D. E2A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors in human leukemia. Front Biosci. 2003;8:s206-22 pubmed
    The gene E2A on chromosome 19 is involved in recurrent chromosomal rearrangements associated with pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia...
  11. Shen C, Kadesch T. B-cell-specific DNA binding by an E47 homodimer. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:4518-24 pubmed
    ..and the analysis of "forced heterodimers" indicate that BCF1 is primarily a homodimer of the E2A protein E47. Since E47 is widely expressed, our results argue for a difference in the inherent DNA-binding properties of the ..
  12. Mellentin J, Murre C, Donlon T, McCaw P, Smith S, Carroll A, et al. The gene for enhancer binding proteins E12/E47 lies at the t(1;19) breakpoint in acute leukemias. Science. 1989;246:379-82 pubmed
    The gene (E2A) that codes for proteins with the properties of immunoglobulin enhancer binding factors E12/E47 was mapped to chromosome region 19p13.2-p13.3, a site associated with nonrandom translocations in acute lymphoblastic leukemias...
  13. Murre C, McCaw P, Baltimore D. A new DNA binding and dimerization motif in immunoglobulin enhancer binding, daughterless, MyoD, and myc proteins. Cell. 1989;56:777-83 pubmed
    ..Remarkable is the stringent conservation of hydrophobic residues present in both helices. We demonstrate that this new motif plays a crucial role in both dimerization and DNA binding. ..
  14. Schwartz R, Engel I, Fallahi Sichani M, Petrie H, Murre C. Gene expression patterns define novel roles for E47 in cell cycle progression, cytokine-mediated signaling, and T lineage development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:9976-81 pubmed
    In maturing T lineage cells, the helix-loop-helix protein E47 has been shown to enforce a critical proliferation and developmental checkpoint commonly referred to as beta selection...
  15. Wadman I, Osada H, Grutz G, Agulnick A, Westphal H, Forster A, et al. The LIM-only protein Lmo2 is a bridging molecule assembling an erythroid, DNA-binding complex which includes the TAL1, E47, GATA-1 and Ldb1/NLI proteins. EMBO J. 1997;16:3145-57 pubmed
    ..We now show that in erythroid cells Lmo2 forms a novel DNA-binding complex, with GATA-1, TAL1 and E2A, and the recently identified LIM-binding protein Ldb1/NLI...
  16. Steininger A, Möbs M, Ullmann R, Köchert K, Kreher S, Lamprecht B, et al. Genomic loss of the putative tumor suppressor gene E2A in human lymphoma. J Exp Med. 2011;208:1585-93 pubmed publisher
    The transcription factor E2A is essential for lymphocyte development. In this study, we describe a recurrent E2A gene deletion in at least 70% of patients with Sézary syndrome (SS), a subtype of T cell lymphoma...
  17. Murre C, McCaw P, Vaessin H, Caudy M, Jan L, Jan Y, et al. Interactions between heterologous helix-loop-helix proteins generate complexes that bind specifically to a common DNA sequence. Cell. 1989;58:537-44 pubmed
    ..has recently been identified in various proteins, including two that bind to immunoglobulin enhancers (E12 and E47)...
  18. Nie L, Xu M, Vladimirova A, Sun X. Notch-induced E2A ubiquitination and degradation are controlled by MAP kinase activities. EMBO J. 2003;22:5780-92 pubmed
    ..Here, we report that signaling through Notch modulates the turnover of E2A proteins including E12 and E47, which are basic helix-loop-helix proteins crucial for B and T lymphocyte ..
  19. Rios R, Silva H, Carneiro N, Pires A, Carneiro T, Costa R, et al. Solanum paniculatum L. decreases levels of inflammatory cytokines by reducing NFKB, TBET and GATA3 gene expression in vitro. J Ethnopharmacol. 2017;209:32-40 pubmed publisher
    ..paniculatum in inflammatory conditions. Additional studies must be conducted to further explore the anti-inflammatory potential of SpE and to elucidate possible clinical applications. ..
  20. Ding Z, Yang H, Xia T, Wang B, Ding Q. Integrative genomic analyses of the RNA-binding protein, RNPC1, and its potential role in cancer prediction. Int J Mol Med. 2015;36:473-84 pubmed publisher
  21. Zhang Y, Wang M, Dong H, Yu X, Zhang J. Anti-hypoglycemic and hepatocyte-protective effects of hyperoside from Zanthoxylum bungeanum leaves in mice with high-carbohydrate/high-fat diet and alloxan-induced diabetes. Int J Mol Med. 2018;41:77-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our findings suggest that HZL, which was effective in inhibiting oxidative stress-related pathways may be beneficial for use in the treatment of DM...
  22. Qureshi A, Khan D, Mushtaq S, Ye S, Xiong M, Qureshi N. δ-Tocotrienol feeding modulates gene expression of EIF2, mTOR, protein ubiquitination through multiple-signaling pathways in chronic hepatitis C patients. Lipids Health Dis. 2018;17:167 pubmed publisher
    ..IL-21, IL-24, IL-27, IL-32), interferon β-1a, interferon γ, TNF-α, STAT2, NOX1, prostaglandin J2, NF-κB, 1κB, TCF3, and also miRNA-15, miRNA-124, miRNA-218-5P with significant activation of Z-Score (P < 0.05)...
  23. Zhu Y, Fu J, Yang H, Pan Y, Yao L, Xue X. Hyperoxia-induced methylation decreases RUNX3 in a newborn rat model of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Respir Res. 2015;16:75 pubmed publisher
    ..05). 1) DNA methylation and H3K27 trimethylation are present in the BPD model; 2) RUNX3 down-regulation is attributed to both DNMT3b-catalyzed DNA methylation and EZH2-catalyzed histone methylation. ..
  24. Zhu Y, Wang J, Meng X, Xie H, Tan J, Guo X, et al. A positive feedback loop promotes HIF-1? stability through miR-210-mediated suppression of RUNX3 in paraquat-induced EMT. J Cell Mol Med. 2017;21:3529-3539 pubmed publisher
    ..This study further elucidates the mechanism of PQ-induced pulmonary fibrosis and may provide a new perspective for the future development of therapies...
  25. Voronova A, Baltimore D. Mutations that disrupt DNA binding and dimer formation in the E47 helix-loop-helix protein map to distinct domains. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:4722-6 pubmed
    ..HLH) structure was recognized recently in a number of regulatory proteins, including the E47 and E12 proteins that bind to the kappa E2 motif in immunoglobulin kappa gene enhancer...
  26. Segalés J, Islam A, Kumar R, Liu Q, Sousa Victor P, Dilworth F, et al. Chromatin-wide and transcriptome profiling integration uncovers p38α MAPK as a global regulator of skeletal muscle differentiation. Skelet Muscle. 2016;6:9 pubmed publisher
    ..p38α-bound promoters are enriched with binding motifs for several transcription factors, with Sp1, Tcf3/E47, Lef1, FoxO4, MyoD, and NFATc standing out in all experimental conditions...
  27. Wafa A, As sad M, Liehr T, Aljapawe A, Al Achkar W. Childhood pre-B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia with translocation t(1;19)(q21.1;p13.3) and two additional chromosomal aberrations involving chromosomes 1, 6, and 13: a case report. J Med Case Rep. 2017;11:94 pubmed publisher
    The translocation t(1;19)(q23;p13), which results in the TCF3-PBX1 chimeric gene, is one of the most frequent rearrangements observed in B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia...
  28. Frasca D, Landin A, Lechner S, Ryan J, Schwartz R, Riley R, et al. Aging down-regulates the transcription factor E2A, activation-induced cytidine deaminase, and Ig class switch in human B cells. J Immunol. 2008;180:5283-90 pubmed
    ..We have previously shown in mice that the E2A-encoded transcription factor E47, which regulates many B cell functions, is down-regulated in old splenic B cells...
  29. Hauser J, Grundström C, Kumar R, Grundström T. Regulated localization of an AID complex with E2A, PAX5 and IRF4 at the Igh locus. Mol Immunol. 2016;80:78-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that defective calmodulin inhibition of the transcription factor E2A after activation of the B cell receptor (BCR) leads to reduced BCR, IL4 plus CD40 ligand stimulated CSR to IgE and ..
  30. Shen S, Yu H, Liu X, Liu Y, Zheng J, Wang P, et al. PIWIL1/piRNA-DQ593109 Regulates the Permeability of the Blood-Tumor Barrier via the MEG3/miR-330-5p/RUNX3 Axis. Mol Ther Nucleic Acids. 2018;10:412-425 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, downregulating PIWIL1 and piR-DQ593109 increased BTB permeability through the MEG3/miR-330-5p/RUNX3 axis. These data may provide insight into glioma treatment. ..
  31. Piskacek M, Havelka M, Rezacova M, Knight A. The 9aaTAD Is Exclusive Activation Domain in Gal4. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0169261 pubmed publisher
    ..The family of the 9aaTAD activators currently comprises over 40 members including p53, MLL, E2A and other members of the Gal4 family; Oaf1, Pip2, Pdr1 and Pdr3...
  32. Nie D, Chen Z, Ebrahimi Fakhari D, Di Nardo A, Jülich K, Robson V, et al. The Stress-Induced Atf3-Gelsolin Cascade Underlies Dendritic Spine Deficits in Neuronal Models of Tuberous Sclerosis Complex. J Neurosci. 2015;35:10762-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Identification of genes whose translation is abnormal in TSC may provide insights to previously unidentified therapeutic targets. ..
  33. Fraszczak J, Helness A, Chen R, Vadnais C, Robert F, Khandanpour C, et al. Threshold Levels of Gfi1 Maintain E2A Activity for B Cell Commitment via Repression of Id1. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0160344 pubmed publisher
    ..1 forms the core element. Here we show that a direct link between Gfi1, the transcription factor E2A and its inhibitor Id1 is a critical element of this regulatory circuit...
  34. Firulli B, Hadzic D, McDaid J, Firulli A. The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors dHAND and eHAND exhibit dimerization characteristics that suggest complex regulation of function. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:33567-73 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results show that dHAND and eHAND can form homo- and heterodimer combinations with multiple bHLH partners and that this broad dimerization profile reflects the mechanisms by which HAND genes regulate transcription. ..
  35. Barber K, Harrison C, Broadfield Z, Stewart A, Wright S, Martineau M, et al. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of TCF3 (E2A)/19p13.3 rearrangements in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2007;46:478-86 pubmed
    ..chromosomal abnormalities in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) and usually gives rise to the TCF3-PBX1 fusion gene...
  36. Hu X, Li X, Valverde K, Fu X, NOGUCHI C, Qiu Y, et al. LSD1-mediated epigenetic modification is required for TAL1 function and hematopoiesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:10141-6 pubmed publisher
  37. Jurkin J, Krump C, Köffel R, Fieber C, Schuster C, Brunner P, et al. Human skin dendritic cell fate is differentially regulated by the monocyte identity factor Kruppel-like factor 4 during steady state and inflammation. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017;139:1873-1884.e10 pubmed publisher
    ..Monocyte differentiation into LCs depends on activation of Notch signaling and the concomitant loss of KLF4. ..
  38. Hirabayashi S, Ohki K, Nakabayashi K, Ichikawa H, Momozawa Y, Okamura K, et al. ZNF384-related fusion genes define a subgroup of childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia with a characteristic immunotype. Haematologica. 2017;102:118-129 pubmed publisher
    ..1% in 291 B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients enrolled in a single clinical trial, and TCF3-ZNF384 was the most recurrent, with a frequency of 2.4%...
  39. Layne M, Endege W, Jain M, Yet S, Hsieh C, Chin M, et al. Aortic carboxypeptidase-like protein, a novel protein with discoidin and carboxypeptidase-like domains, is up-regulated during vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:15654-60 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that ACLP may play a role in differentiated vascular smooth muscle cells. ..
  40. Wagener R, Aukema S, Schlesner M, Haake A, Burkhardt B, Claviez A, et al. The PCBP1 gene encoding poly(rC) binding protein I is recurrently mutated in Burkitt lymphoma. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2015;54:555-64 pubmed publisher
    ..using next generation sequencing approaches have identified various recurrently mutated genes including ID3, TCF3, CCND3, and TP53...
  41. Yang Z, MacQuarrie K, Analau E, Tyler A, Dilworth F, Cao Y, et al. MyoD and E-protein heterodimers switch rhabdomyosarcoma cells from an arrested myoblast phase to a differentiated state. Genes Dev. 2009;23:694-707 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we show that a combination of inhibitory Musculin:E-protein complexes and a novel splice form of E2A compete with MyoD for the generation of active full-length E-protein:MyoD heterodimers...
  42. Li H, Li D, Meng N. Effects of RUNX3 mediated Notch signaling pathway on biological characteristics of colorectal cancer cells. Int J Oncol. 2017;50:2059-2068 pubmed publisher
    ..05). RUNX3 contributes to attenuate the proliferation and metastasis of CRC cells, and promotes cell apoptosis through inhibition of Notch signaling pathway. ..
  43. Qiu L, Xu L, Chang G, Guo Q, Liu X, Bi Y, et al. DNA methylation-mediated transcription factors regulate Piwil1 expression during chicken spermatogenesis. J Reprod Dev. 2016;62:367-72 pubmed publisher
    ..that methylation of the -148 CpG site, which is the predicted binding site for the transcription factors TCF3 and NRF1, was differentially methylated in different spermatogenic cells...
  44. Li X, Zhou X, Li Y, Zu L, Pan H, Liu B, et al. Activating transcription factor 3 promotes malignance of lung cancer cells in vitro. Thorac Cancer. 2017;8:181-191 pubmed publisher
    ..Upregulation of ATF3 in lung cancer promotes cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, and may represent a novel therapeutic target for lung cancer. ..
  45. Kho C, Huggins G, Endege W, Hsieh C, Lee M, Haber E. Degradation of E2A proteins through a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, UbcE2A. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:3845-51 pubmed
    The helix-loop-helix E2A proteins (E12 and E47) govern cellular growth and differentiation...
  46. Denk F, Ramer L, Erskine E, Nassar M, Bogdanov Y, Signore M, et al. Tamoxifen induces cellular stress in the nervous system by inhibiting cholesterol synthesis. Acta Neuropathol Commun. 2015;3:74 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose TAM administration in vitamin E-rich vehicles such as wheat germ oil as a simple remedy. ..
  47. Dong L, Krewson E, Yang L. Acidosis Activates Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Pathways through GPR4 in Human Vascular Endothelial Cells. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
    ..As ER stress/UPR can cause inflammation and cell apoptosis, acidosis/GPR4-induced ER stress pathways in ECs may regulate vascular growth and inflammatory response in the acidic microenvironment. ..
  48. Glick E, Leshkowitz D, Walker M. Transcription factor BETA2 acts cooperatively with E2A and PDX1 to activate the insulin gene promoter. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:2199-204 pubmed
    ..Separate expression of BETA2, E2A, or PDX1 led to modest (<10-fold) activation of the insulin promoter, whereas co-expression of the three ..
  49. Taniue K, Kurimoto A, Takeda Y, Nagashima T, Okada Hatakeyama M, Katou Y, et al. ASBEL-TCF3 complex is required for the tumorigenicity of colorectal cancer cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:12739-12744 pubmed publisher the ANA (Abundant in neuroepithelium area)/BTG3 (B-cell translocation gene 3) locus] and transcription factor 3 (TCF3), both of which are required for the survival and tumorigenicity of colorectal cancer cells...
  50. Koren L, Barash U, Zohar Y, Karin N, Aronheim A. The cardiac maladaptive ATF3-dependent cross-talk between cardiomyocytes and macrophages is mediated by the IFN?-CXCL10-CXCR3 axis. Int J Cardiol. 2017;228:394-400 pubmed publisher
    ..ATF3-KO mice escape from PE-dependent maladaptive cardiac remodeling by suppressing the IFN?-CXCL10-CXCR3 axis at multiple levels. ..
  51. Lee S, Jung Y, Choi Y, Lee Y. Targeting of RUNX3 by miR-130a and miR-495 cooperatively increases cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis in gastric cancer cells. Oncotarget. 2015;6:33269-78 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, targeting miR-130a and miR-495 could be a potential therapeutics to recover RUNX3 expression under hypoxic conditions and in early tumorigenic progression. ..
  52. Zhang D, Chen B, Zhang L, Cheng M, Fang X, Wu X. Basic Transcription Factor 3 Is Required for Proliferation and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition via Regulation of FOXM1 and JAK2/STAT3 Signaling in Gastric Cancer. Oncol Res. 2017;25:1453-1462 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide a novel understanding of the mechanism of GC and highlight the important role of BTF3/FOXM1 in tumor growth and BTF3/JAK2/STAT3 in EMT and metastasis. ..
  53. Tu N, Katano T, Matsumura S, Pham V, Muratani T, Minami T, et al. Role of c-Jun N-terminal kinase in late nerve regeneration monitored by in vivo imaging of thy1-yellow fluorescent protein transgenic mice. Eur J Neurosci. 2016;43:548-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The model characterized here has the advantage of in vivo monitoring of the evaluation of morphological and functional recovery in the same mice for a long period of time. ..
  54. Zhang X, Inukai T, Hirose K, Akahane K, Kuroda I, Honna Oshiro H, et al. Oncogenic fusion E2A-HLF sensitizes t(17;19)-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis by upregulating the expression of death receptors. Leukemia. 2012;26:2483-93 pubmed publisher
    t(17;19)-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) shows extremely poor prognosis. E2A-HLF derived from t(17;19) blocks apoptosis induced by the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway and has a central role in leukemogenesis and chemoresistance...
  55. Fernández Verdejo R, Vanwynsberghe A, Essaghir A, Demoulin J, Hai T, Deldicque L, et al. Activating transcription factor 3 attenuates chemokine and cytokine expression in mouse skeletal muscle after exercise and facilitates molecular adaptation to endurance training. FASEB J. 2017;31:840-851 pubmed publisher
    ..Demoulin, J.-B., Hai, T., Deldicque, L., Francaux, M. Activating transcription factor 3 attenuates chemokine and cytokine expression in mouse skeletal muscle after exercise and facilitates molecular adaptation to endurance training. ..
  56. Lu Y, Wu D, Wang J, Li Y, Chai X, Kang Q. miR-320a regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis in multiple myeloma by targeting pre-B-cell leukemia transcription factor 3. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;473:1315-1320 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings collectively indicate that miR-320a inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in MM cells by directly targeting PBX3, supporting its utility as a novel and potential therapeutic agent for miRNA-based MM therapy. ..
  57. Lim R, Li L, Yong E, Chew N. STAT-3 regulation of CXCR4 is necessary for the prenylflavonoid Icaritin to enhance mesenchymal stem cell proliferation, migration and osteogenic differentiation. Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj. 2018;1862:1680-1692 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide a strong basis for future clinical studies to confirm the therapeutic potential of ICT for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis and fragility fractures. ..
  58. Li S, Lu X, He H, Cui R, Wang X, Wang X, et al. A novel culture system robustly maintained pluripotency of embryonic stem cells and accelerated somatic reprogramming by activating Wnt signaling. Am J Transl Res. 2017;9:4534-4544 pubmed
    ..Wnt signaling by Wnt3a-CM at the early stage of reprogramming promoted generation of iPS cells by up-regulating Tcf3 and Tcf4, improving mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET), promptly reactivating endogenous pluripotent genes, ..
  59. Knöfler M, Meinhardt G, Bauer S, Loregger T, Vasicek R, Bloor D, et al. Human Hand1 basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein: extra-embryonic expression pattern, interaction partners and identification of its transcriptional repressor domains. Biochem J. 2002;361:641-51 pubmed
    ..In the presence of E12/E47, Hand1 stimulated the transcription of luciferase reporters harbouring degenerate E-boxes, suggesting that E-..
  60. Zhou H, Wang L, Xu Q, Liu Q, Liu H, Qiu W, et al. ID3 may protect mice from anti?GBM glomerulonephritis by regulating the differentiation of Th17 and Treg cells. Mol Med Rep. 2017;16:9086-9094 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, ID3 was able to interact with transcription factor E2A. A significant increase in binding between ID3 and E2A was observed in anti?GBM GN from day 7 onwards, with a peak ..
  61. Ishigaki K, Namba H, Nakashima M, Nakayama T, Mitsutake N, Hayashi T, et al. Aberrant localization of beta-catenin correlates with overexpression of its target gene in human papillary thyroid cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002;87:3433-40 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that aberrant activation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is strongly involved in thyroid tumorigenesis. ..
  62. Johnson J, Zhang W, Rudnick A, Rutter W, German M. Transcriptional synergy between LIM-homeodomain proteins and basic helix-loop-helix proteins: the LIM2 domain determines specificity. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:3488-96 pubmed
    ..The LIM-homeodomain protein Lmx1 cooperates with the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein E47/Pan-1 to activate the insulin promoter in transfected fibroblasts...
  63. Loveys D, Streiff M, Schaefer T, Kato G. The mUBC9 murine ubiquitin conjugating enzyme interacts with the E2A transcription factors. Gene. 1997;201:169-77 pubmed
    ..5-kb cDNAs encoding the identical murine E2, or ubiquitin conjugating enzyme by virtue of its interaction with the E2A transcription factor...
  64. Rogers J, Owens K, Kurkewich J, Klopfenstein N, Iyer S, Simon M, et al. E2A Antagonizes PU.1 Activity through Inhibition of DNA Binding. Biomed Res Int. 2016;2016:3983686 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated whether E2A and/or EBF associate with PU.1. We observed that the E2A component, E47, but not EBF, directly binds to PU.1. Additionally E47 represses PU...
  65. Huang A, Zhao H, Quan Y, Jin R, Feng B, Zheng M. E2A predicts prognosis of colorectal cancer patients and regulates cancer cell growth by targeting miR-320a. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e85201 pubmed publisher
    Transcriptional factor E2A is crucial for the normal development and differentiation of B and T lymphocytes. Dysregulation of E2A leads to leukemia and tumorigenesis of some solid tumors...
  66. Mehmood R, Yasuhara N, Fukumoto M, Oe S, Tachibana T, Yoneda Y. Cross-talk between distinct nuclear import pathways enables efficient nuclear import of E47 in conjunction with its partner transcription factors. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:3715-24 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously showed that two basic helix-loop-helix proteins, NeuroD1 and E47, synergistically affect each other's nuclear import...
  67. Rittie L, Stoll S, Kang S, Voorhees J, Fisher G. Hedgehog signaling maintains hair follicle stem cell phenotype in young and aged human skin. Aging Cell. 2009;8:738-51 pubmed
    ..Targeted transcriptional profiling indicates that KRT15, KRT19, Dkk3, Dkk4, Tcf3, S100A4, Gas1, EGFR and CTGF/CCN2 are also preferentially expressed by human bulge cells, compared to ..
  68. Sakamoto S, Wakae K, Anzai Y, Murai K, Tamaki N, Miyazaki M, et al. E2A and CBP/p300 act in synergy to promote chromatin accessibility of the immunoglobulin ? locus. J Immunol. 2012;188:5547-60 pubmed publisher
    ..It has been shown that enforced expression of the basic helix-loop-helix protein, E2A, together with RAG1/2 in a nonlymphoid cell line BOSC23 can induce V(D)J recombination in endogenous Ig? and TCR ..
  69. Fernández Verdejo R, Vanwynsberghe A, Hai T, Deldicque L, Francaux M. Activating transcription factor 3 regulates chemokine expression in contracting C2C12 myotubes and in mouse skeletal muscle after eccentric exercise. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;492:249-254 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results also indicate that ATF3-independent mechanisms would regulate macrophage infiltration upon muscle-damaging exercise. The implications of chemokine regulation in skeletal muscle remain to be determined. ..
  70. Zhang J, Guo F, Wei J, Xian M, Tang S, Zhao Y, et al. An integrated approach to identify critical transcription factors in the protection against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress by Danhong injection. Free Radic Biol Med. 2017;112:480-493 pubmed publisher
  71. Ahmed N, Ghatak S, El Masry M, Gnyawali S, Roy S, Amer M, et al. Epidermal E-Cadherin Dependent β-Catenin Pathway Is Phytochemical Inducible and Accelerates Anagen Hair Cycling. Mol Ther. 2017;25:2502-2512 pubmed publisher
    ..Nuclear β-catenin interacted with Tcf3. Such sequestration of Tcf3 from its otherwise known function to repress pluripotent factors induced the plasticity ..
  72. Seo S, Jang M, Kim D, Kim S, Oh S, Jung C, et al. MicroRNA-150 controls differentiation of intraepithelial lymphocytes through TGF-β receptor II regulation. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2018;141:1382-1394.e14 pubmed publisher
    ..miR-150 is an intrinsic regulator of IEL differentiation through TGF-βRII regulation. miR-150-mediated IEL generation is crucial for maintaining intestinal integrity against anticancer drug-induced mucositis. ..
  73. Flacke G, Schwarzenberger F, Penfold L, Walker S, Martin G, Millar R, et al. Characterizing the reproductive biology of the female pygmy hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis) through non-invasive endocrine monitoring. Theriogenology. 2017;102:126-138 pubmed publisher
    ..3HS:BSA; PdG: pregnanediol-3-glucuronide R13904; mono-P4: Quidel clone 425) and three estrogen metabolite EIAs (E2a: estradiol-17?-OH 17-HS:BSA; E2b: estradiol 17? R0008; E2c: estradiol 17? R4972) accurately reflected reproductive ..
  74. Greenbaum S, Lazorchak A, Zhuang Y. Differential functions for the transcription factor E2A in positive and negative gene regulation in pre-B lymphocytes. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:45028-35 pubmed
    The transcription factors encoded by the E2A gene have been shown to play essential roles in the initiation and progression of lymphocyte development...
  75. Shestakova E, Boutin M, Bourassa S, Bonneil E, Bijl J. [Identification of proteins associated with transcription factors HOXA9 and E2A-PBX1 by tandem affinity purification]. Mol Biol (Mosk). 2017;51:490-501 pubmed publisher
    Chimeric transcription factor E2A-PBX1 induces the development of acute lymphoblastic B-cell leukemia in children...
  76. Hammer A, Morris N, Cannon A, Khan O, Gagnon R, Movtchan N, et al. Interleukin-22 Prevents Microbial Dysbiosis and Promotes Intestinal Barrier Regeneration Following Acute Injury. Shock. 2017;48:657-665 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings suggest that IL-22/STAT3 signaling is critical to gut barrier integrity and targeting this pathway may be of beneficial clinical relevance following burn injury...
  77. Cozen W, Timofeeva M, Li D, Diepstra A, Hazelett D, Delahaye Sourdeix M, et al. A meta-analysis of Hodgkin lymphoma reveals 19p13.3 TCF3 as a novel susceptibility locus. Nat Commun. 2014;5:3856 pubmed publisher
    ..81, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.76-0.86, P(combined) = 3.5 × 10(-10)), located in intron 2 of TCF3 (also known as E2A), a regulator of B- and T-cell lineage commitment known to be involved in HL pathogenesis...
  78. Sriuranpong V, Borges M, Strock C, Nakakura E, Watkins D, Blaumueller C, et al. Notch signaling induces rapid degradation of achaete-scute homolog 1. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:3129-39 pubmed
    ..This novel function of activated Notch to rapidly degrade a class II bHLH protein may prove to be important in many contexts in development and in cancer. ..
  79. Felice M, Gallego M, Alonso C, Alfaro E, Guitter M, Bernasconi A, et al. Prognostic impact of t(1;19)/ TCF3-PBX1 in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia in the context of Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster-based protocols. Leuk Lymphoma. 2011;52:1215-21 pubmed publisher
    ..We compared the outcome of balanced and unbalanced der(19)t(1;19) cases and also patients with t(1;19)/TCF3-PBX1 versus patients without this translocation, to assess its prognostic value...
  80. Yan F, Shen N, Pang J, Zhang Y, Rao E, Bode A, et al. Fatty acid-binding protein FABP4 mechanistically links obesity with aggressive AML by enhancing aberrant DNA methylation in AML cells. Leukemia. 2017;31:1434-1442 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal the FABP4/DNMT1 axis in the control of AML cell fate in obesity and suggest that interference with the FABP4/DNMT1 axis might be a new strategy to treat leukemia. ..
  81. Mayoral Varo V, Calcabrini A, Sanchez Bailon M, Martin Perez J. miR205 inhibits stem cell renewal in SUM159PT breast cancer cells. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0188637 pubmed publisher
    ..miR205 also reduced expression of CD44 and TAZ, E2A.E12, Twist, Snail1 and CK5, associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)...
  82. Rothschild G, Zhao X, Iavarone A, Lasorella A. E Proteins and Id2 converge on p57Kip2 to regulate cell cycle in neural cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:4351-61 pubmed
    ..the use of global gene expression analysis in neuroblastoma cells engineered to acutely express the E protein E47 and Id2, we find that p57Kip2 is a target of E47...
  83. Rubinstein J, Elagib K, Goldfarb A. Cyclic AMP signaling inhibits megakaryocytic differentiation by targeting transcription factor 3 (E2A) cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A) transcriptional axis. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:19207-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Using this system to screen for downstream effectors, we identified the transcription factor E2A as a key target in a novel repressive signaling pathway...
  84. Chen Z, Xiao Y, Zhang J, Li J, Liu Y, Zhao Y, et al. Transcription factors E2A, FOXO1 and FOXP1 regulate recombination activating gene expression in cancer cells. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20475 pubmed publisher
    ..By RT-PCR, Western blot and immunofluorescence, we found that transcription factors E2A, FOXO1 and FOXP1 were expressed and localized to the nuclei of these cancer cells...
  85. Sun G, Zhang C, Feng M, Liu W, Xie H, Qin Q, et al. Methylation analysis of p16, SLIT2, SCARA5, and Runx3 genes in hepatocellular carcinoma. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e8279 pubmed publisher
    ..05).The methylation status of SCARA5 and Runx3 genes are abnormal in HCC patients, which may further be used as molecular markers for early auxiliary diagnosis of liver cancer. ..
  86. Persson P, Jogi A, Grynfeld A, Pahlman S, Axelson H. HASH-1 and E2-2 are expressed in human neuroblastoma cells and form a functional complex. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000;274:22-31 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, E2-2 forms a functional complex with HASH-1, and might therefore be involved in the development of specific parts of the central and peripheral nervous systems. ..
  87. Mo M, Chen Z, Zhou H, Li H, Hirata T, Jablons D, et al. Detection of E2A-PBX1 fusion transcripts in human non-small-cell lung cancer. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2013;32:29 pubmed publisher
    b>E2A-PBX1 fusion gene caused by t(1;19)(q23;p13), has been well characterized in acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL). There is no report on E2A-PBX1 fusion transcripts in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC)...
  88. Amemiya Kudo M, Oka J, Ide T, Matsuzaka T, Sone H, Yoshikawa T, et al. Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins activate insulin gene promoter directly and indirectly through synergy with BETA2/E47. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:34577-89 pubmed
    Insulin gene expression is regulated by pancreatic beta cell-specific factors, PDX-1 and BETA2/E47. Here we have demonstrated that the insulin promoter is a novel target for SREBPs established as lipid-synthetic transcription factors...
  89. Bai W, Jin P, Kuang M, Wei Q, Shi F, Davis J, et al. Temporal regulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation, heat shock protein 70 and activating transcription factor 3 during prostaglandin F-induced luteal regression in pseudopregnant rats following heat stress. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2017;29:1184-1193 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the present study provides further evidence that heat stress may enhance HSP70 and affect ERK1/2 and ATF3 expression, but not Akt activation, during PGF-induced luteal regression in pseudopregnant rats...