Gene Symbol: TBK1
Description: TANK binding kinase 1
Alias: FTDALS4, IIAE8, NAK, T2K, serine/threonine-protein kinase TBK1, NF-kB-activating kinase, NF-kappa-B-activating kinase
Species: human
Products:     TBK1

Top Publications

  1. Fitzgerald K, McWhirter S, Faia K, Rowe D, Latz E, Golenbock D, et al. IKKepsilon and TBK1 are essential components of the IRF3 signaling pathway. Nat Immunol. 2003;4:491-6 pubmed
    ..that the noncanonical IkappaB kinase homologs, IkappaB kinase-epsilon (IKKepsilon) and TANK-binding kinase-1 (TBK1), which were previously implicated in NF-kappaB activation, are also essential components of the IRF3 signaling ..
  2. Clark K, Plater L, Peggie M, Cohen P. Use of the pharmacological inhibitor BX795 to study the regulation and physiological roles of TBK1 and IkappaB kinase epsilon: a distinct upstream kinase mediates Ser-172 phosphorylation and activation. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:14136-46 pubmed publisher
    TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) and IkappaB kinase epsilon (IKKepsilon) regulate the production of Type 1 interferons during bacterial and viral infection, but the lack of useful pharmacological inhibitors has hampered progress in ..
  3. Ma X, Helgason E, Phung Q, Quan C, Iyer R, Lee M, et al. Molecular basis of Tank-binding kinase 1 activation by transautophosphorylation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:9378-83 pubmed publisher
    ..the biology of this key immunological factor have intensified recently as growing evidence implicates aberrant TBK1 activity in a variety of autoimmune diseases and cancers...
  4. Kawai T, Takahashi K, Sato S, Coban C, Kumar H, Kato H, et al. IPS-1, an adaptor triggering RIG-I- and Mda5-mediated type I interferon induction. Nat Immunol. 2005;6:981-8 pubmed
    ..b>TBK1 and IKKi protein kinases were required for the IPS-1-mediated interferon induction...
  5. Wild P, Farhan H, McEwan D, Wagner S, Rogov V, Brady N, et al. Phosphorylation of the autophagy receptor optineurin restricts Salmonella growth. Science. 2011;333:228-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The protein kinase TANK binding kinase 1 (TBK1) phosphorylated optineurin on serine-177, enhancing LC3 binding affinity and autophagic clearance of cytosolic ..
  6. Kishore N, Huynh Q, Mathialagan S, Hall T, Rouw S, Creely D, et al. IKK-i and TBK-1 are enzymatically distinct from the homologous enzyme IKK-2: comparative analysis of recombinant human IKK-i, TBK-1, and IKK-2. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:13840-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, although these IKKs are structurally similar, their enzymatic properties may provide insights into their unique functions. ..
  7. Pomerantz J, Baltimore D. NF-kappaB activation by a signaling complex containing TRAF2, TANK and TBK1, a novel IKK-related kinase. EMBO J. 1999;18:6694-704 pubmed
    ..In this report, we investigate the mechanism of the stimulatory activity of TANK. We find that TANK interacts with TBK1 (TANK-binding kinase 1), a novel IKK-related kinase that can activate NF-kappaB in a kinase-dependent manner...
  8. Wang L, Li S, Dorf M. NEMO binds ubiquitinated TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) to regulate innate immune responses to RNA viruses. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43756 pubmed publisher
    ..b>TBK1 is a critical kinase implicated in RLR-dependent IFN transcription...
  9. Mankouri J, Fragkoudis R, Richards K, Wetherill L, Harris M, Kohl A, et al. Optineurin negatively regulates the induction of IFNbeta in response to RNA virus infection. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000778 pubmed publisher
    ..and immunofluorescence studies identified optineurin in a protein complex containing the antiviral protein kinase TBK1 and the ubiquitin ligase TRAF3...

More Information


  1. Shen R, Hahn W. Emerging roles for the non-canonical IKKs in cancer. Oncogene. 2011;30:631-41 pubmed publisher
    The I?B Kinase (IKK)-related kinases TBK1 and IKK? have essential roles as regulators of innate immunity by modulating interferon and NF-?B signaling. Recent work has also implicated these non-canonical IKKs in malignant transformation...
  2. Otsuka M, Kato N, Moriyama M, Taniguchi H, Wang Y, Dharel N, et al. Interaction between the HCV NS3 protein and the host TBK1 protein leads to inhibition of cellular antiviral responses. Hepatology. 2005;41:1004-12 pubmed publisher
    ..studies suggest that a TIR domain-containing adaptor protein, TRIF, and two protein kinases, TANK-binding kinase-1 (TBK1) and IkappaB kinase-epsilon (IKKepsilon), play essential roles in TLR3-mediated IFN-beta production through the ..
  3. Liu X, Chen W, Wei B, Shan Y, Wang C. IFN-induced TPR protein IFIT3 potentiates antiviral signaling by bridging MAVS and TBK1. J Immunol. 2011;187:2559-68 pubmed publisher
    ..this leads to the activation of TNFR-associated factor family member-associated NF-?B activator-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) and phosphorylation of IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3). It remains to be elucidated how MAVS activates TBK1/IRF3...
  4. Alff P, Sen N, Gorbunova E, Gavrilovskaya I, Mackow E. The NY-1 hantavirus Gn cytoplasmic tail coprecipitates TRAF3 and inhibits cellular interferon responses by disrupting TBK1-TRAF3 complex formation. J Virol. 2008;82:9115-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of the cytoplasmic tail of the pathogenic NY-1 hantavirus Gn protein is sufficient to inhibit RIG-I- and TBK1-directed IFN responses...
  5. Ishikawa H, Barber G. STING is an endoplasmic reticulum adaptor that facilitates innate immune signalling. Nature. 2008;455:674-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, as well as identifying a regulator of innate immune signalling, our results imply a potential role for the translocon in innate signalling pathways activated by select viruses as well as intracellular DNA. ..
  6. Ikeda F, Hecker C, Rozenknop A, Nordmeier R, Rogov V, Hofmann K, et al. Involvement of the ubiquitin-like domain of TBK1/IKK-i kinases in regulation of IFN-inducible genes. EMBO J. 2007;26:3451-62 pubmed
    TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1/NAK/T2K) and I-kappaB Kinase (IKK-i/IKK-epsilon) play important roles in the regulation of interferon (IFN)-inducible genes during the immune response to bacterial and viral infections...
  7. Chien Y, Kim S, Bumeister R, Loo Y, Kwon S, Johnson C, et al. RalB GTPase-mediated activation of the IkappaB family kinase TBK1 couples innate immune signaling to tumor cell survival. Cell. 2006;127:157-70 pubmed
    ..find that the RalB/Sec5 effector complex directly recruits and activates the atypical IkappaB kinase family member TBK1. In cancer cells, constitutive engagement of this pathway, via chronic RalB activation, restricts initiation of ..
  8. Wang G, Chen G, Zheng D, Cheng G, Tang H. PLP2 of mouse hepatitis virus A59 (MHV-A59) targets TBK1 to negatively regulate cellular type I interferon signaling pathway. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17192 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we provide further evidence that PLP2 may also target TANK-binding kinase-1 (TBK1), the upstream kinase of IRF3 in the IFN signaling pathway...
  9. Huang J, Liu T, Xu L, Chen D, Zhai Z, Shu H. SIKE is an IKK epsilon/TBK1-associated suppressor of TLR3- and virus-triggered IRF-3 activation pathways. EMBO J. 2005;24:4018-28 pubmed
    ..IKKepsilon and TBK1 are two IKK-related kinases critically involved in virus- and TLR3-triggered activation of IRF-3...
  10. Gao L, Coope H, Grant S, Ma A, Ley S, Harhaj E. ABIN1 protein cooperates with TAX1BP1 and A20 proteins to inhibit antiviral signaling. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:36592-602 pubmed publisher
    ..molecule TAX1BP1 and was essential for the recruitment of TAX1BP1 and A20 to the noncanonical I?B kinases TBK1 and IKKi in response to poly(I:C) transfection...
  11. Yang M, Wang C, Zhu X, Tang S, Shi L, Cao X, et al. E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP facilitates Toll-like receptor signaling by recruiting and polyubiquitinating Src and atypical PKC{zeta}. J Exp Med. 2011;208:2099-112 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that CHIP facilitates the formation of a TLR signaling complex by recruiting, ubiquitinating, and activating Src and PKC?. ..
  12. Cui J, Li Y, Zhu L, Liu D, Songyang Z, Wang H, et al. NLRP4 negatively regulates type I interferon signaling by targeting the kinase TBK1 for degradation via the ubiquitin ligase DTX4. Nat Immunol. 2012;13:387-95 pubmed publisher
    ..NLRP4 regulated the activation of type I interferon mediated by double-stranded RNA or DNA by targeting the kinase TBK1 for degradation...
  13. Zhang M, Wang L, Zhao X, Zhao K, Meng H, Zhao W, et al. TRAF-interacting protein (TRIP) negatively regulates IFN-? production and antiviral response by promoting proteasomal degradation of TANK-binding kinase 1. J Exp Med. 2012;209:1703-11 pubmed
    TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) plays an essential role in Toll-like receptor (TLR)- and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-mediated induction of type I interferon (IFN; IFN-?/?) and host antiviral responses...
  14. Joung S, Park Z, Rani S, Takeuchi O, Akira S, Lee J. Akt contributes to activation of the TRIF-dependent signaling pathways of TLRs by interacting with TANK-binding kinase 1. J Immunol. 2011;186:499-507 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that Akt is a downstream molecule of TRIF/TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) and plays an important role in the activation of IRF3 by TLR3 and -4 agonists...
  15. Herman M, Ciancanelli M, Ou Y, Lorenzo L, Klaudel Dreszler M, Pauwels E, et al. Heterozygous TBK1 mutations impair TLR3 immunity and underlie herpes simplex encephalitis of childhood. J Exp Med. 2012;209:1567-82 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe here two unrelated children with HSE carrying different heterozygous mutations (D50A and G159A) in TBK1, the gene encoding TANK-binding kinase 1, a kinase at the crossroads of multiple IFN-inducing signaling pathways...
  16. Barbie D, Tamayo P, Boehm J, Kim S, Moody S, Dunn I, et al. Systematic RNA interference reveals that oncogenic KRAS-driven cancers require TBK1. Nature. 2009;462:108-12 pubmed publisher
    ..interference to detect synthetic lethal partners of oncogenic KRAS and found that the non-canonical IkappaB kinase TBK1 was selectively essential in cells that contain mutant KRAS...
  17. Clément J, Meloche S, Servant M. The IKK-related kinases: from innate immunity to oncogenesis. Cell Res. 2008;18:889-99 pubmed publisher
    ..has been highly influenced by the discovery of the IkappaB kinase (IKK)-related kinases, TANK Binding Kinase 1 (TBK1) and IKKi, which regulate the activity of interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-3/IRF-7 and NF-kappaB transcription ..
  18. Bonnard M, Mirtsos C, Suzuki S, Graham K, Huang J, Ng M, et al. Deficiency of T2K leads to apoptotic liver degeneration and impaired NF-kappaB-dependent gene transcription. EMBO J. 2000;19:4976-85 pubmed
    ..In this study, we purified and characterized a novel kinase (T2K, also known as TBK1 or NAK), which associates with TRAF2 and exhibits kinase activity towards I-kappaBalpha in vitro...
  19. Unterholzner L, Sumner R, Baran M, Ren H, Mansur D, Bourke N, et al. Vaccinia virus protein C6 is a virulence factor that binds TBK-1 adaptor proteins and inhibits activation of IRF3 and IRF7. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002247 pubmed publisher
    ..C6 inhibits IRF3 and IRF7 activation downstream of the kinases TANK binding kinase 1 (TBK1) and IκB kinase-ε (IKKε), which phosphorylate and activate these IRFs...
  20. Li Y, Li C, Xue P, Zhong B, Mao A, Ran Y, et al. ISG56 is a negative-feedback regulator of virus-triggered signaling and cellular antiviral response. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:7945-50 pubmed publisher
    ..coimmunoprecipitation experiments indicated that ISG56 disrupted the interactions between MITA and VISA or TBK1, two components in the virus-triggered IFN signaling pathways...
  21. Karim R, Tummers B, Meyers C, Biryukov J, Alam S, Backendorf C, et al. Human papillomavirus (HPV) upregulates the cellular deubiquitinase UCHL1 to suppress the keratinocyte's innate immune response. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003384 pubmed publisher
    ..This identifies UCHL1 as a negative regulator of PRR-induced immune responses and consequently its virus-increased expression as a strategy for hrHPV to persist. ..
  22. Oshiumi H, Miyashita M, Matsumoto M, Seya T. A distinct role of Riplet-mediated K63-Linked polyubiquitination of the RIG-I repressor domain in human antiviral innate immune responses. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003533 pubmed publisher
    ..autorepression of its N-terminal CARDs, which leads to the association of RIG-I with TRIM25 ubiquitin ligase and TBK1 protein kinase. Our data indicate that Riplet is a prerequisite for TRIM25 to activate RIG-I signaling...
  23. Tojima Y, Fujimoto A, Delhase M, Chen Y, Hatakeyama S, Nakayama K, et al. NAK is an IkappaB kinase-activating kinase. Nature. 2000;404:778-82 pubmed
    ..Here we describe an IKK-related kinase, named NAK (NF-kappaB-activating kinase), that can activate IKK through direct phosphorylation...
  24. Kayagaki N, Phung Q, Chan S, Chaudhari R, Quan C, O Rourke K, et al. DUBA: a deubiquitinase that regulates type I interferon production. Science. 2007;318:1628-32 pubmed
    ..A discrete ubiquitin interaction motif within DUBA was required for efficient deubiquitination of TRAF3 and optimal suppression of IFN-I. Our data identify DUBA as a negative regulator of innate immune responses. ..
  25. Unterstab G, Ludwig S, Anton A, Planz O, Dauber B, Krappmann D, et al. Viral targeting of the interferon-{beta}-inducing Traf family member-associated NF-{kappa}B activator (TANK)-binding kinase-1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:13640-5 pubmed
    ..Thus, our findings provide evidence for a previously undescribed mechanism by which a viral protein interferes with the induction of the antiviral IFN cascade. ..
  26. Zha J, Han K, Xu L, He W, Zhou Q, Chen D, et al. The Ret finger protein inhibits signaling mediated by the noncanonical and canonical IkappaB kinase family members. J Immunol. 2006;176:1072-80 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our findings suggest that RFP negatively regulates signaling involved in the antiviral response and inflammation by targeting the IKKs. ..
  27. Yang K, Shi H, Qi R, Sun S, Tang Y, Zhang B, et al. Hsp90 regulates activation of interferon regulatory factor 3 and TBK-1 stabilization in Sendai virus-infected cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:1461-71 pubmed
    ..The protein kinase TBK1 is a key regulator inducing phosphorylation of IRF3...
  28. Ryzhakov G, Randow F. SINTBAD, a novel component of innate antiviral immunity, shares a TBK1-binding domain with NAP1 and TANK. EMBO J. 2007;26:3180-90 pubmed
    ..Activation of IRF3 requires its phosphorylation by TBK1 (TANK-binding kinase) or IKKi (inhibitor of nuclear factor kappaB kinase, inducible)...
  29. Soulat D, Burckstummer T, Westermayer S, Goncalves A, Bauch A, Stefanovic A, et al. The DEAD-box helicase DDX3X is a critical component of the TANK-binding kinase 1-dependent innate immune response. EMBO J. 2008;27:2135-46 pubmed publisher
    TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) is of central importance for the induction of type-I interferon (IFN) in response to pathogens. We identified the DEAD-box helicase DDX3X as an interaction partner of TBK1...
  30. Tu D, Zhu Z, Zhou A, Yun C, Lee K, Toms A, et al. Structure and ubiquitination-dependent activation of TANK-binding kinase 1. Cell Rep. 2013;3:747-58 pubmed publisher
    Upon stimulation by pathogen-associated inflammatory signals, TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) induces type I interferon expression and modulates nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) signaling. Here, we describe the 2...
  31. Helgason E, Phung Q, Dueber E. Recent insights into the complexity of Tank-binding kinase 1 signaling networks: the emerging role of cellular localization in the activation and substrate specificity of TBK1. FEBS Lett. 2013;587:1230-7 pubmed publisher
    Tank-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) serves as an important component of multiple signaling pathways...
  32. Ng M, Ho T, Kok K, Siu K, Li J, Jin D. MIP-T3 is a negative regulator of innate type I IFN response. J Immunol. 2011;187:6473-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Overexpression of MIP-T3 inhibited RIG-I-, MDA5-, VISA-, TBK1-, and IKK?-induced transcriptional activity mediated by IFN-stimulated response elements and IFN-? promoter...
  33. Morton S, Hesson L, Peggie M, Cohen P. Enhanced binding of TBK1 by an optineurin mutant that causes a familial form of primary open angle glaucoma. FEBS Lett. 2008;582:997-1002 pubmed publisher
    TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) was identified as a binding partner for Optineurin (OPTN) in two-hybrid screens, an interaction confirmed by overexpression/immunoprecipitation experiments in HEK293 cells and by coimmunoprecipitation of ..
  34. Parvatiyar K, Barber G, Harhaj E. TAX1BP1 and A20 inhibit antiviral signaling by targeting TBK1-IKKi kinases. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:14999-5009 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation of IRF3 requires C-terminal phosphorylation by the upstream kinases TBK1-IKKi, where IRF3 phosphorylation promotes dimerization, and subsequent nuclear translocation to the IFNbeta ..
  35. Gatot J, Gioia R, Chau T, Patrascu F, Warnier M, Close P, et al. Lipopolysaccharide-mediated interferon regulatory factor activation involves TBK1-IKKepsilon-dependent Lys(63)-linked polyubiquitination and phosphorylation of TANK/I-TRAF. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:31131-46 pubmed
    Type I interferon gene induction relies on IKK-related kinase TBK1 and IKKepsilon-mediated phosphorylations of IRF3/7 through the Toll-like receptor-dependent signaling pathways...
  36. Newman A, Scholefield C, Kemp A, Newman M, McIver E, Kamal A, et al. TBK1 kinase addiction in lung cancer cells is mediated via autophagy of Tax1bp1/Ndp52 and non-canonical NF-κB signalling. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e50672 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrate that the xenophagy-associated kinase TBK1 drives basal autophagy, consistent with its known requirement in K-Ras-dependent NSCLC proliferation...
  37. Schoenemeyer A, Barnes B, Mancl M, Latz E, Goutagny N, Pitha P, et al. The interferon regulatory factor, IRF5, is a central mediator of toll-like receptor 7 signaling. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:17005-12 pubmed
    ..IRF5 and IRF7, therefore, emerge from these studies as critical mediators of TLR7 signaling. ..
  38. Xu L, Wang Y, Han K, Li L, Zhai Z, Shu H. VISA is an adapter protein required for virus-triggered IFN-beta signaling. Mol Cell. 2005;19:727-40 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that VISA is critically involved in both virus-triggered TLR3-independent and TLR3-mediated antiviral IFN signaling. ..
  39. Thurston T, Ryzhakov G, Bloor S, von Muhlinen N, Randow F. The TBK1 adaptor and autophagy receptor NDP52 restricts the proliferation of ubiquitin-coated bacteria. Nat Immunol. 2009;10:1215-21 pubmed publisher
    ..proteins can accumulate on the surface of such bacteria, and bacterial growth is restricted by Tank-binding kinase (TBK1)...
  40. Chariot A, Leonardi A, Muller J, Bonif M, Brown K, Siebenlist U. Association of the adaptor TANK with the I kappa B kinase (IKK) regulator NEMO connects IKK complexes with IKK epsilon and TBK1 kinases. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:37029-36 pubmed
    ..TANK was previously shown to assist NF-kappa B activation in a complex with TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) or IKK epsilon, two kinases distantly related to IKK alpha/beta, but the underlying mechanisms remained unknown...
  41. Guo B, Cheng G. Modulation of the interferon antiviral response by the TBK1/IKKi adaptor protein TANK. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:11817-26 pubmed
    ..Thus, TANK may be a critical adaptor that regulates the assembly of the TANK-binding kinase 1-inducible IkappaB kinase complex with upstream signaling molecules in multiple antiviral pathways. ..
  42. Sun W, Li Y, Chen L, Chen H, You F, Zhou X, et al. ERIS, an endoplasmic reticulum IFN stimulator, activates innate immune signaling through dimerization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:8653-8 pubmed publisher
    ..ERIS was dimerized on innate immune challenges. Coumermycin-induced ERIS dimerization led to strong and fast IFN induction, suggesting that dimerization of ERIS was critical for self-activation and subsequent downstream signaling. ..
  43. Prins K, C rdenas W, Basler C. Ebola virus protein VP35 impairs the function of interferon regulatory factor-activating kinases IKKepsilon and TBK-1. J Virol. 2009;83:3069-77 pubmed publisher
  44. Harris J, Oliere S, Sharma S, Sun Q, Lin R, Hiscott J, et al. Nuclear accumulation of cRel following C-terminal phosphorylation by TBK1/IKK epsilon. J Immunol. 2006;177:2527-35 pubmed
    ..b>TBK1 and IKKepsilon were recently described as essential regulators of IFN gene activation through direct ..
  45. Lin R, Yang L, Arguello M, Penafuerte C, Hiscott J. A CRM1-dependent nuclear export pathway is involved in the regulation of IRF-5 subcellular localization. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:3088-95 pubmed
    ..IKK-related kinases TBK1 and IKKepsilon have been shown to phosphorylate and activate IRF-3 and IRF-7, leading to the production of type 1 ..
  46. Tanaka Y, Chen Z. STING specifies IRF3 phosphorylation by TBK1 in the cytosolic DNA signaling pathway. Sci Signal. 2012;5:ra20 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we showed that STING stimulates phosphorylation of IRF3 by the kinase TBK1 (TANK-binding kinase 1) in an in vitro reconstitution system...
  47. Fujita F, Taniguchi Y, Kato T, Narita Y, Furuya A, Ogawa T, et al. Identification of NAP1, a regulatory subunit of IkappaB kinase-related kinases that potentiates NF-kappaB signaling. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:7780-93 pubmed
    The IkappaB kinase (IKK)-related kinase NAK (also known as TBK or T2K) contributes to the activation of NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression...
  48. van Zuylen W, Doyon P, Clément J, Khan K, D Ambrosio L, Dô F, et al. Proteomic profiling of the TRAF3 interactome network reveals a new role for the ER-to-Golgi transport compartments in innate immunity. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002747 pubmed publisher
    ..and NF-?B -dependent promoters following viral infection and ectopic expression of MAVS and Tank-binding kinase-1 (TBK1)...
  49. Zhao W. Negative regulation of TBK1-mediated antiviral immunity. FEBS Lett. 2013;587:542-8 pubmed publisher
    TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) plays pivotal roles in antiviral innate immunity. TBK1 mediates the activation of interferon regulatory factor (IRF) 3, leading to the induction of type I IFNs (IFN-?/?) following viral infections...
  50. Charoenthongtrakul S, Gao L, Parvatiyar K, Lee D, Harhaj E. RING finger protein 11 targets TBK1/IKKi kinases to inhibit antiviral signaling. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e53717 pubmed publisher
    ..RNF11 interacted with the noncanonical IKK kinases TBK1/IKKi and attenuated their Lys63-linked polyubiquitination by blocking interactions with the E3 ligase TRAF3...
  51. Panne D, McWhirter S, Maniatis T, Harrison S. Interferon regulatory factor 3 is regulated by a dual phosphorylation-dependent switch. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:22816-22 pubmed
    ..IRF-3 is activated through phosphorylation by the kinases IKK epsilon and/or TBK1. Phosphorylation results in IRF-3 dimerization and removal of an autoinhibitory structure to allow interaction with ..
  52. Sharma S, tenOever B, Grandvaux N, Zhou G, Lin R, Hiscott J. Triggering the interferon antiviral response through an IKK-related pathway. Science. 2003;300:1148-51 pubmed
    ..These studies illustrate an essential role for an IKK-related kinase pathway in triggering the host antiviral response to viral infection. ..
  53. Sato S, Sugiyama M, Yamamoto M, Watanabe Y, Kawai T, Takeda K, et al. Toll/IL-1 receptor domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-beta (TRIF) associates with TNF receptor-associated factor 6 and TANK-binding kinase 1, and activates two distinct transcription factors, NF-kappa B and IFN-regulatory factor-3, in the Toll-li. J Immunol. 2003;171:4304-10 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the association between TRIF and TBK1 appeared to require the kinase activity of TBK1, as well as phosphorylation of TRIF...
  54. Goncalves A, Burckstummer T, Dixit E, Scheicher R, Górna M, Karayel E, et al. Functional dissection of the TBK1 molecular network. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23971 pubmed publisher
    TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) and inducible I?B-kinase (IKK-i) are central regulators of type-I interferon induction...
  55. Xie X, Zhang D, Zhao B, Lu M, You M, Condorelli G, et al. IkappaB kinase epsilon and TANK-binding kinase 1 activate AKT by direct phosphorylation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:6474-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that the atypical I?B kinase ? and TANK-binding kinase 1 (IKK?/TBK1) phosphorylate AKT on both the hydrophobic motif and the activation loop in a manner dependent on PI3K signaling...
  56. Chau T, Gioia R, Gatot J, Patrascu F, Carpentier I, Chapelle J, et al. Are the IKKs and IKK-related kinases TBK1 and IKK-epsilon similarly activated?. Trends Biochem Sci. 2008;33:171-80 pubmed publisher
    The IkappaB kinases (IKKs) IKK-alpha and IKK-beta, and the IKK-related kinases TBK1 and IKK-epsilon, have essential roles in innate immunity through signal-induced activation of NF-kappaB, IRF3 and IRF7, respectively...
  57. Friedman C, O Donnell M, Legarda Addison D, Ng A, Cardenas W, Yount J, et al. The tumour suppressor CYLD is a negative regulator of RIG-I-mediated antiviral response. EMBO Rep. 2008;9:930-6 pubmed publisher
    ..CYLD removes polyubiquitin chains from RIG-I as well as from TANK binding kinase 1 (TBK1), the kinase that phosphorylates IRF3, coincident with an inhibition of the IRF3 signalling pathway...