Gene Symbol: TAX1BP1
Description: Tax1 binding protein 1
Alias: CALCOCO3, T6BP, TXBP151, tax1-binding protein 1, TRAF6-binding protein, Tax1 (human T-cell leukemia virus type I) binding protein 1
Species: human
Products:     TAX1BP1

Top Publications

  1. Shembade N, Ma A, Harhaj E. Inhibition of NF-kappaB signaling by A20 through disruption of ubiquitin enzyme complexes. Science. 2010;327:1135-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A20, together with the regulatory molecule TAX1BP1, interacted with Ubc13 and UbcH5c and triggered their ubiquitination and proteasome-dependent degradation...
  2. Thurston T, Ryzhakov G, Bloor S, von Muhlinen N, Randow F. The TBK1 adaptor and autophagy receptor NDP52 restricts the proliferation of ubiquitin-coated bacteria. Nat Immunol. 2009;10:1215-21 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that human cells utilize the ubiquitin system and NDP52 to activate autophagy against bacteria attempting to colonize their cytosol. ..
  3. Shembade N, Parvatiyar K, Harhaj N, Harhaj E. The ubiquitin-editing enzyme A20 requires RNF11 to downregulate NF-kappaB signalling. EMBO J. 2009;28:513-22 pubmed publisher
    ..RNF11 interacted with the NF-kappaB inhibitor A20 and its regulatory protein TAX1BP1 in a stimulus-dependent manner...
  4. De Valck D, Jin D, Heyninck K, Van de Craen M, Contreras R, Fiers W, et al. The zinc finger protein A20 interacts with a novel anti-apoptotic protein which is cleaved by specific caspases. Oncogene. 1999;18:4182-90 pubmed
    ..A cDNA fragment was isolated which encoded a portion of a novel protein (TXBP151), which was recently found to be a human T-cell leukemia virus type-I (HTLV-I) Tax-binding protein...
  5. Gachon F, Peleraux A, Thebault S, Dick J, Lemasson I, Devaux C, et al. CREB-2, a cellular CRE-dependent transcription repressor, functions in association with Tax as an activator of the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 promoter. J Virol. 1998;72:8332-7 pubmed
    ..Our results confirm that the activation of the HTLV-1 promoter through Tax and factors of the ATF/CREB family is PKA independent. ..
  6. Gao L, Coope H, Grant S, Ma A, Ley S, Harhaj E. ABIN1 protein cooperates with TAX1BP1 and A20 proteins to inhibit antiviral signaling. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:36592-602 pubmed publisher
    ..ABIN1 interacted with the A20 regulatory molecule TAX1BP1 and was essential for the recruitment of TAX1BP1 and A20 to the noncanonical I?B kinases TBK1 and IKKi in ..
  7. Shembade N, Pujari R, Harhaj N, Abbott D, Harhaj E. The kinase IKK? inhibits activation of the transcription factor NF-?B by phosphorylating the regulatory molecule TAX1BP1. Nat Immunol. 2011;12:834-43 pubmed publisher
    ..with proinflammatory cytokines, the deubiquitinase A20 inducibly interacts with the regulatory molecules TAX1BP1, Itch and RNF11 to form the A20 ubiquitin-editing complex...
  8. Parvatiyar K, Barber G, Harhaj E. TAX1BP1 and A20 inhibit antiviral signaling by targeting TBK1-IKKi kinases. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:14999-5009 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we describe the adaptor protein, TAX1BP1, as a key regulator of A20 function in terminating signaling to IRF3...
  9. Journo C, Filipe J, About F, Chevalier S, Afonso P, Brady J, et al. NRP/Optineurin Cooperates with TAX1BP1 to potentiate the activation of NF-kappaB by human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 tax protein. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000521 pubmed publisher
    ..Surprisingly, we find that in addition to Tax1, NRP interacts cooperatively with the Tax1 binding protein TAX1BP1, and that NRP and TAX1BP1 cooperate to modulate Tax1 ubiquitination and NF-kappaB activation...

More Information


  1. Shembade N, Harhaj N, Liebl D, Harhaj E. Essential role for TAX1BP1 in the termination of TNF-alpha-, IL-1- and LPS-mediated NF-kappaB and JNK signaling. EMBO J. 2007;26:3910-22 pubmed
    ..Here we demonstrate that Tax1-binding protein 1 (TAX1BP1) is essential for the termination of NF-kappaB and JNK activation in response to TNF-alpha, IL-1 and LPS ..
  2. Iha H, Peloponese J, Verstrepen L, Zapart G, Ikeda F, Smith C, et al. Inflammatory cardiac valvulitis in TAX1BP1-deficient mice through selective NF-kappaB activation. EMBO J. 2008;27:629-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that Tax1-binding protein 1 (TAX1BP1) is a negative regulator of TNF-alpha- and IL-1beta-induced NF-kappaB activation and that binding to mono- and ..
  3. Shembade N, Harhaj N, Parvatiyar K, Copeland N, Jenkins N, Matesic L, et al. The E3 ligase Itch negatively regulates inflammatory signaling pathways by controlling the function of the ubiquitin-editing enzyme A20. Nat Immunol. 2008;9:254-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrate that the regulatory molecule TAX1BP1 recruited the E3 ligase Itch to A20 via two 'PPXY' motifs...
  4. Hu S, Wang Y, Gong Y, Liu J, Li Y, Pan L. Mechanistic Insights into Recognitions of Ubiquitin and Myosin VI by Autophagy Receptor TAX1BP1. J Mol Biol. 2018;430:3283-3296 pubmed publisher
    b>TAX1BP1, a ubiquitin-binding adaptor, plays critical roles in the innate immunity and selective autophagy...
  5. Shembade N, Harhaj E. Elucidating dynamic protein-protein interactions and ubiquitination in NF-κB signaling pathways. Methods Mol Biol. 2015;1280:283-95 pubmed publisher
    ..A20 inducibly interacts with the adaptor molecule TAX1BP1 and the E3 ligases Itch and RNF11 to form an A20 ubiquitin-editing enzyme complex...
  6. Pezzani L, Milani D, Manzoni F, Baccarin M, Silipigni R, Guerneri S, et al. HOXA genes cluster: clinical implications of the smallest deletion. Ital J Pediatr. 2015;41:31 pubmed publisher
    ..involving the entire HOXA cluster and a small number of other genes as SNX10, SKAP2, EVX1, HIBADH, TAX1BP1, JAZF1, and CREB5...
  7. Pujari R, Hunte R, Thomas R, van der Weyden L, Rauch D, Ratner L, et al. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) tax requires CADM1/TSLC1 for inactivation of the NF-?B inhibitor A20 and constitutive NF-?B signaling. PLoS Pathog. 2015;11:e1004721 pubmed publisher
    ..Tax also interacts with TAX1BP1 to inactivate the NF-?B negative regulatory ubiquitin-editing A20 enzyme complex...
  8. Whang M, Tavares R, Benjamin D, Kattah M, Advincula R, Nomura D, et al. The Ubiquitin Binding Protein TAX1BP1 Mediates Autophagasome Induction and the Metabolic Transition of Activated T Cells. Immunity. 2017;46:405-420 pubmed publisher
    ..We have found that T cells lacking TAX1BP1 exhibit delays in growth of cell size and cell cycling...
  9. Yuan Y, Fan D, Zhu S, Yang J, Chen J. Identification and characterization of host cell proteins interacting with Scylla serrata reovirus non-structural protein p35. Virus Genes. 2017;53:317-322 pubmed publisher
    ..After two-hybrid library screening, we isolated partial cDNAs encoding hemocyanin, cryptocyanin, and TAX1BP1. Interaction of p35 with each of hemocyanin, cryptocyanin, and TAX1BP1 was confirmed by GST pull-down...
  10. Samie M, Lim J, Verschueren E, Baughman J, Peng I, Wong A, et al. Selective autophagy of the adaptor TRIF regulates innate inflammatory signaling. Nat Immunol. 2018;19:246-254 pubmed publisher
    ..Multiplex proteomic profiling identified SQSTM1 and Tax1BP1 as selective autophagy-related receptors that mediated the turnover of TRIF...
  11. Suzuki N, Rohaim A, Kato R, Dikic I, Wakatsuki S, Kawasaki M. A novel mode of ubiquitin recognition by the ubiquitin-binding zinc finger domain of WRNIP1. FEBS J. 2016;283:2004-17 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we report the structure of the tandem UBZ domains of Tax1-binding protein 1 (TAX1BP1) and show that the second UBZ of TAX1BP1 binds ubiquitin, presumably in a manner similar to that of WRNIP1 UBZ...
  12. Xiao Y, Wu Q, Duan M, Liu C, Yuan Y, Yang Z, et al. TAX1BP1 overexpression attenuates cardiac dysfunction and remodeling in STZ-induced diabetic cardiomyopathy in mice by regulating autophagy. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2018;1864:1728-1743 pubmed publisher
    ..The effects of Tax1 binding protein 1 (TAX1BP1) on both autophagy and inflammation suggest that it may participate in the progression of ..
  13. Petkova D, Verlhac P, Rozieres A, Baguet J, Clavière M, Kretz Remy C, et al. Distinct Contributions of Autophagy Receptors in Measles Virus Replication. Viruses. 2017;9: pubmed publisher
    ..We report that in addition to NDP52/CALCOCO? and OPTINEURIN/OPTN, another autophagy receptor, namely T6BP/TAXIBP1, also regulates the maturation of autophagosomes by promoting their fusion with lysosomes, independently of ..
  14. Mandelbaum J, Rollins N, Shah P, Bowman D, Lee J, Tayber O, et al. Identification of a lung cancer cell line deficient in atg7-dependent autophagy. Autophagy. 2015;: pubmed
    ..addition, parental H1650 cells that lacked ATG7 were still able to consume autophagy substrates SQSTM1, NBR1 and TAX1BP1 via a bafilomycin A1-sensitive pathway, suggesting that these proteins were not exclusively degraded ..
  15. Matsushita N, Suzuki M, Ikebe E, Nagashima S, Inatome R, Asano K, et al. Regulation of B cell differentiation by the ubiquitin-binding protein TAX1BP1. Sci Rep. 2016;6:31266 pubmed publisher
    Tax1-binding protein 1 (TAX1BP1) is a ubiquitin-binding protein that restricts nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation and facilitates the termination of aberrant inflammation...
  16. Moore A, Holzbaur E. Dynamic recruitment and activation of ALS-associated TBK1 with its target optineurin are required for efficient mitophagy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:E3349-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Mitophagy receptors, including optineurin (OPTN), nuclear dot 52 kDa protein (NDP52), and Tax1-binding protein 1 (TAX1BP1), are recruited to mitochondria via ubiquitin binding and mediate autophagic engulfment through their association ..
  17. Yao D, Xu L, Xu O, Li R, Chen M, Shen H, et al. O-Linked ?-N-Acetylglucosamine Modification of A20 Enhances the Inhibition of NF-?B (Nuclear Factor-?B) Activation and Elicits Vascular Protection After Acute Endoluminal Arterial Injury. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2018;38:1309-1320 pubmed publisher
    ..Thiamet G treatment did not increase A20 protein expression but did significantly enhance binding to TAX1BP1 (Tax1-binding protein 1), a key regulatory protein for A20 activity...
  18. Li H, Li H, Hao Y, Jiao Y, Li Z, Yue H, et al. Differential long non?coding RNA and mRNA expression in differentiated human glioblastoma stem cells. Mol Med Rep. 2016;14:2067-76 pubmed publisher
  19. Choi Y, Shembade N, Parvatiyar K, Balachandran S, Harhaj E. TAX1BP1 Restrains Virus-Induced Apoptosis by Facilitating Itch-Mediated Degradation of the Mitochondrial Adaptor MAVS. Mol Cell Biol. 2017;37: pubmed
    ..Here, we show that the adaptor protein TAX1BP1 functions as a negative regulator of virus-induced apoptosis...
  20. He F, Wollscheid H, Nowicka U, Biancospino M, Valentini E, Ehlinger A, et al. Myosin VI Contains a Compact Structural Motif that Binds to Ubiquitin Chains. Cell Rep. 2016;14:2683-94 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we found that an isoform-specific helix restricts MyUb binding to ubiquitin chains. This work provides fundamental insights into myosin VI interaction with ubiquitinated cargo and functional adaptors. ..
  21. Jongsma M, Berlin I, Wijdeven R, Janssen L, Janssen G, Garstka M, et al. An ER-Associated Pathway Defines Endosomal Architecture for Controlled Cargo Transport. Cell. 2016;166:152-66 pubmed publisher
    ..By drawing the endosomal system's architecture, RNF26 orchestrates endosomal maturation and trafficking of cargoes, including signaling receptors, in space and time. ..
  22. Tumbarello D, Manna P, Allen M, Bycroft M, Arden S, Kendrick Jones J, et al. The Autophagy Receptor TAX1BP1 and the Molecular Motor Myosin VI Are Required for Clearance of Salmonella Typhimurium by Autophagy. PLoS Pathog. 2015;11:e1005174 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that myosin VI and TAX1BP1 are recruited to ubiquitylated Salmonella and play a key role in xenophagy...
  23. Goodwin J, Dowdle W, Dejesus R, Wang Z, Bergman P, Kobylarz M, et al. Autophagy-Independent Lysosomal Targeting Regulated by ULK1/2-FIP200 and ATG9. Cell Rep. 2017;20:2341-2356 pubmed publisher
    ..we identify an alternative lysosomal transport pathway for ferritin that requires FIP200, ATG9A, VPS34, and TAX1BP1 but lacks involvement of the ATG8 lipidation machinery that constitutes classical macroautophagy...
  24. Yang Q, Liu T, Lin H, Zhang M, Wei J, Luo W, et al. TRIM32-TAX1BP1-dependent selective autophagic degradation of TRIF negatively regulates TLR3/4-mediated innate immune responses. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006600 pubmed publisher
    ..TRIM32-mediated as well as poly(I:C)- and LPS-induced degradation of TRIF is inhibited by deficiency of TAX1BP1, a receptor for selective autophagy. Furthermore, TRIM32 links TRIF and TAX1BP1 through distinct domains...
  25. Ling L, Goeddel D. T6BP, a TRAF6-interacting protein involved in IL-1 signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:9567-72 pubmed
    We report the identification of a TRAF-interacting protein, T6BP, that specifically associates with TRAF6. This interaction occurs between the coiled-coil region of T6BP and the N-terminal ring finger and zinc finger domains of TRAF6...
  26. Kampylafka E, Alexopoulos H, El Hamidieh A, Dalakas M, Andreakos E, Tzioufas A. Immunization of mice with a peptide derived from the HTLV-1 TAX1BP1 protein induces cross-reactive antibodies against aquaporin 4. Autoimmunity. 2015;48:453-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A particular epitope showed high-sequence similarity with a segment of the human TAX1BP1 protein, which is necessary for the replication of HTLV-1 virus...
  27. Ruiz M, Balachi J, Fernandes R, Galbiatti A, Maniglia J, Pavarino Bertelli E, et al. Analysis of the TAX1BP1 gene in head and neck cancer patients. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2010;76:193-8 pubmed
    ..To assess the T --> A polymorphism in gene TAX1BP1 (leu306ile) in patients with head and neck cancer and a control population...
  28. Borbulevych O, Piepenbrink K, Baker B. Conformational melding permits a conserved binding geometry in TCR recognition of foreign and self molecular mimics. J Immunol. 2011;186:2950-8 pubmed publisher
  29. Komkov A, Maschan M, Shvets V, Lebedev I. [The functional analysis of polymorphic insertions of Alu retroelements at acute lymphoblastic leukemia]. Bioorg Khim. 2012;38:351-64 pubmed
    ..Allele frequencies of three Alu insertions that are located in MEF2C (two of them) and TAX1BP1 genes significantly differ (p-value 0.027. 0.052. 0...
  30. Charoenthongtrakul S, Gao L, Parvatiyar K, Lee D, Harhaj E. RING finger protein 11 targets TBK1/IKKi kinases to inhibit antiviral signaling. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e53717 pubmed publisher
    ..The inhibitory function of RNF11 was dependent on the ubiquitin-binding adaptor molecule TAX1BP1 which was required for RNF11 to target TBK1/IKKi...
  31. Newman A, Scholefield C, Kemp A, Newman M, McIver E, Kamal A, et al. TBK1 kinase addiction in lung cancer cells is mediated via autophagy of Tax1bp1/Ndp52 and non-canonical NF-?B signalling. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e50672 pubmed publisher this context is characterised by sequestration of the xenophagy cargo receptor Ndp52 and its paralogue Tax1bp1, which we demonstrate here to be a bona fide cargo receptor...
  32. Nagaraja G, Kandpal R. Chromosome 13q12 encoded Rho GTPase activating protein suppresses growth of breast carcinoma cells, and yeast two-hybrid screen shows its interaction with several proteins. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;313:654-65 pubmed
    ..These cDNAs correspond to SWI/SNF, alpha-tubulin, HMG CoA reductase, and TAX1 binding protein (TAX1BP1)...
  33. Zhang L, Ding Y, Yuan Z, Liu J, Sun J, Lei F, et al. MicroRNA-500 sustains nuclear factor-κB activation and induces gastric cancer cell proliferation and resistance to apoptosis. Oncotarget. 2015;6:2483-95 pubmed
    ..miR-500 directly repressed the expression of CYLD, OTUD7B, and the A20 complex component Tax1-binding protein 1 (TAX1BP1), leading to ubiquitin conjugation of receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1) and sustained NF-ĸB ..
  34. Klinkenberg M, Van Huffel S, Heyninck K, Beyaert R. Functional redundancy of the zinc fingers of A20 for inhibition of NF-kappaB activation and protein-protein interactions. FEBS Lett. 2001;498:93-7 pubmed
    ..including two novel NF-kappaB inhibitory proteins (ABIN-1, ABIN-2), A20 itself, the anti-apoptotic protein TXBP151, and a regulatory component of the IkappaB kinase complex, IKKgamma...
  35. Majumdar I, Ahuja V, Paul J. Altered expression of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha -Induced Protein 3 correlates with disease severity in Ulcerative Colitis. Sci Rep. 2017;7:9420 pubmed publisher
    ..Alpha Induced Protein3 (TNFAIP3), the inhibitor of NF?B activation and its associated partners ITCH, RNF11 and Tax1BP1 in inflamed mucosa of UC patients...
  36. Wang Y, Li L, Han K, Zhai Z, Shu H. A20 is a potent inhibitor of TLR3- and Sendai virus-induced activation of NF-kappaB and ISRE and IFN-beta promoter. FEBS Lett. 2004;576:86-90 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that A20 targets TRIF to inhibit TLR3-mediated induction of IFN-beta transcription and functions as a feedback negative regulator for TLR3 signaling and cellular anti-viral response. ..
  37. Choi H, Lee S. TAX1BP1 downregulation by EBV-miR-BART15-3p enhances chemosensitivity of gastric cancer cells to 5-FU. Arch Virol. 2017;162:369-377 pubmed publisher
    ..We found a possible seed match site in the 3'-UTR of Tax1-binding protein 1 (TAX1BP1). The luciferase activity of a reporter vector including the 3'-UTR of TAX1BP1 was decreased by miR-BART15-3p...
  38. Dieguez Gonzalez R, Akar S, Calaza M, Perez Pampin E, Costas J, Torres M, et al. Genetic variation in the nuclear factor kappaB pathway in relation to susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2009;68:579-83 pubmed publisher
    ..RELA, RELB, NFKB1, NFKB2, NFKBIA, NFKBIB, NFKBIE, IKBKA, IKBKB, IKBKE, IKBKAP, KBRAS1, KBRAS2, MAP3K1, MAP3K14, TAX1BP1) were studied by mass spectrometry analysis complemented with 5'-nuclease fluorescence assays in the discovery ..
  39. Yang Y, Wang G, Huang X, Du Z. Expression, purification and crystallization of the SKICH domain of human TAX1BP1. Acta Crystallogr F Struct Biol Commun. 2014;70:619-23 pubmed publisher
    b>TAX1BP1 is a highly conserved, pleiotropic protein that plays many essential functions in human cells, including negative regulation of inflammatory and antimicrobial responses mediated by NF-?B and IRF3 signaling, inhibition of ..
  40. Wu K, Bottazzi M, de La Fuente C, Deng L, Gitlin S, Maddukuri A, et al. Protein profile of tax-associated complexes. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:495-508 pubmed
    ..A few of these proteins, including TXBP151, have been shown previously to bind to Tax...
  41. Dodon M, Hamaia S, Martin J, Gazzolo L. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 interferes with the binding of the human T cell leukemia virus type 1 rex regulatory protein to its response element. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:18744-52 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that hnRNP A1 by competing with Rex for the formation of REX-XRE complexes is specifically involved in the modulation of the post-transcriptional activity of Rex. ..
  42. Kelly C, Williams M, Mitchell K, Elborn J, Ennis M, Schock B. Expression of the nuclear factor-?B inhibitor A20 is altered in the cystic fibrosis epithelium. Eur Respir J. 2013;41:1315-23 pubmed publisher
    ..of A20 is facilitated by complex formation with ring finger protein (RNF)-11, Itch and TAX-1 binding protein-1 (TAX1BP1)...
  43. Chauhan S, Kumar S, Jain A, Ponpuak M, Mudd M, Kimura T, et al. TRIMs and Galectins Globally Cooperate and TRIM16 and Galectin-3 Co-direct Autophagy in Endomembrane Damage Homeostasis. Dev Cell. 2016;39:13-27 pubmed publisher
    ..The cooperation between TRIM16 and Galectin-3 in targeting and activation of selective autophagy protects cells from lysosomal damage and Mycobacterium tuberculosis invasion. ..
  44. Mildenberger J, Johansson I, Sergin I, Kjøbli E, Damas J, Razani B, et al. N-3 PUFAs induce inflammatory tolerance by formation of KEAP1-containing SQSTM1/p62-bodies and activation of NFE2L2. Autophagy. 2017;13:1664-1678 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, the autophagy receptor TAX1BP1 (Tax1 binding protein 1) and ubiquitin-editing enzyme TNFAIP3/A20 (TNF ? induced protein 3) could be identified in DHA-induced ..
  45. Ulrich M, Seeber S, Becker C, Enz R. Tax1-binding protein 1 is expressed in the retina and interacts with the GABA(C) receptor rho1 subunit. Biochem J. 2007;401:429-36 pubmed
    ..MS) identified the liver regeneration-related protein 2 that is identical with amino acids 253-813 of the Tax1BP1 (Tax1-binding protein 1)...
  46. Morriswood B, Ryzhakov G, Puri C, Arden S, Roberts R, Dendrou C, et al. T6BP and NDP52 are myosin VI binding partners with potential roles in cytokine signalling and cell adhesion. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:2574-85 pubmed
    ..We carried out a yeast two-hybrid screen and identified TRAF6-binding protein (T6BP) and nuclear dot protein 52 (NDP52) as myosin VI binding partners...