tax

Summary

Gene Symbol: tax
Description: p40
Species: Human T-lymphotropic virus 1

Top Publications

  1. Pichler K, Kattan T, Gentzsch J, Kress A, Taylor G, Bangham C, et al. Strong induction of 4-1BB, a growth and survival promoting costimulatory receptor, in HTLV-1-infected cultured and patients' T cells by the viral Tax oncoprotein. Blood. 2008;111:4741-51 pubmed publisher
    ..of costimulatory receptors, while the growth-stimulating HTLV-1 functions are mediated by the viral oncoprotein Tax. Here we analyzed the impact of Tax on costimulatory receptors in T cells with repressible Tax and found that among ..
  2. Kinjo T, Ham Terhune J, Peloponese J, Jeang K. Induction of reactive oxygen species by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 tax correlates with DNA damage and expression of cellular senescence marker. J Virol. 2010;84:5431-7 pubmed publisher
    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax affects cellular genomic stability and senescence. As yet, the mechanism(s) for these events caused by Tax is incompletely understood...
  3. Alefantis T, Mostoller K, Jain P, Harhaj E, Grant C, Wigdahl B. Secretion of the human T cell leukemia virus type I transactivator protein tax. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:17353-62 pubmed
    ..The HTLV-I protein Tax is well known as a transcriptional transactivator and inducer of cellular transformation...
  4. Koga H, Ohshima T, Shimotohno K. Enhanced activation of tax-dependent transcription of human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) long terminal repeat by TORC3. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:52978-83 pubmed
    b>Tax, a protein encoded by the env-pX gene of human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I), interacts with various host cell transcription factors...
  5. Kamoi K, Yamamoto K, Misawa A, Miyake A, Ishida T, Tanaka Y, et al. SUV39H1 interacts with HTLV-1 Tax and abrogates Tax transactivation of HTLV-1 LTR. Retrovirology. 2006;3:5 pubmed
    b>Tax is the oncoprotein of HTLV-1 which deregulates signal transduction pathways, transcription of genes and cell cycle regulation of host cells...
  6. Jeong S, Ryo A, Yamamoto N. The prolyl isomerase Pin1 stabilizes the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax oncoprotein and promotes malignant transformation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;381:294-9 pubmed publisher
    The HTLV Tax protein is crucial for viral replication and malignant transformation. We investigated the possible role of peptidyl prolyl isomerase Pin1 in the positive regulation of the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax...
  7. Jeong S, Lu H, Cho W, Park H, Pise Masison C, Brady J. Coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 enhances transcriptional activity of the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 long terminal repeat through direct interaction with Tax. J Virol. 2006;80:10036-44 pubmed
    ..which methylates histone H3 and other proteins such as p300/CBP, is positively involved in the regulation of Tax transactivation...
  8. Jin D, Spencer F, Jeang K. Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 oncoprotein Tax targets the human mitotic checkpoint protein MAD1. Cell. 1998;93:81-91 pubmed
    In searching for cellular targets of the HTLV-I oncoprotein Tax, we identified TXBP181, which we characterized as the human homolog of yeast mitotic checkpoint MAD1 protein...
  9. Winter H, Marriott S. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax enhances serum response factor DNA binding and alters site selection. J Virol. 2007;81:6089-98 pubmed
    ..The viral transforming protein Tax regulates the transcription of viral and cellular genes by interacting with cellular transcription factors and ..
  10. Baydoun H, Bai X, Shelton S, Nicot C. HTLV-I tax increases genetic instability by inducing DNA double strand breaks during DNA replication and switching repair to NHEJ. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42226 pubmed publisher
    ..Although HTLV-I-transformed leukemic cells have numerous genetic lesions, the precise role of the viral tax gene in this process is not fully understood...

Detail Information

Publications67

  1. Pichler K, Kattan T, Gentzsch J, Kress A, Taylor G, Bangham C, et al. Strong induction of 4-1BB, a growth and survival promoting costimulatory receptor, in HTLV-1-infected cultured and patients' T cells by the viral Tax oncoprotein. Blood. 2008;111:4741-51 pubmed publisher
    ..of costimulatory receptors, while the growth-stimulating HTLV-1 functions are mediated by the viral oncoprotein Tax. Here we analyzed the impact of Tax on costimulatory receptors in T cells with repressible Tax and found that among ..
  2. Kinjo T, Ham Terhune J, Peloponese J, Jeang K. Induction of reactive oxygen species by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 tax correlates with DNA damage and expression of cellular senescence marker. J Virol. 2010;84:5431-7 pubmed publisher
    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax affects cellular genomic stability and senescence. As yet, the mechanism(s) for these events caused by Tax is incompletely understood...
  3. Alefantis T, Mostoller K, Jain P, Harhaj E, Grant C, Wigdahl B. Secretion of the human T cell leukemia virus type I transactivator protein tax. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:17353-62 pubmed
    ..The HTLV-I protein Tax is well known as a transcriptional transactivator and inducer of cellular transformation...
  4. Koga H, Ohshima T, Shimotohno K. Enhanced activation of tax-dependent transcription of human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) long terminal repeat by TORC3. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:52978-83 pubmed
    b>Tax, a protein encoded by the env-pX gene of human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I), interacts with various host cell transcription factors...
  5. Kamoi K, Yamamoto K, Misawa A, Miyake A, Ishida T, Tanaka Y, et al. SUV39H1 interacts with HTLV-1 Tax and abrogates Tax transactivation of HTLV-1 LTR. Retrovirology. 2006;3:5 pubmed
    b>Tax is the oncoprotein of HTLV-1 which deregulates signal transduction pathways, transcription of genes and cell cycle regulation of host cells...
  6. Jeong S, Ryo A, Yamamoto N. The prolyl isomerase Pin1 stabilizes the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax oncoprotein and promotes malignant transformation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;381:294-9 pubmed publisher
    The HTLV Tax protein is crucial for viral replication and malignant transformation. We investigated the possible role of peptidyl prolyl isomerase Pin1 in the positive regulation of the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax...
  7. Jeong S, Lu H, Cho W, Park H, Pise Masison C, Brady J. Coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 enhances transcriptional activity of the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 long terminal repeat through direct interaction with Tax. J Virol. 2006;80:10036-44 pubmed
    ..which methylates histone H3 and other proteins such as p300/CBP, is positively involved in the regulation of Tax transactivation...
  8. Jin D, Spencer F, Jeang K. Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 oncoprotein Tax targets the human mitotic checkpoint protein MAD1. Cell. 1998;93:81-91 pubmed
    In searching for cellular targets of the HTLV-I oncoprotein Tax, we identified TXBP181, which we characterized as the human homolog of yeast mitotic checkpoint MAD1 protein...
  9. Winter H, Marriott S. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax enhances serum response factor DNA binding and alters site selection. J Virol. 2007;81:6089-98 pubmed
    ..The viral transforming protein Tax regulates the transcription of viral and cellular genes by interacting with cellular transcription factors and ..
  10. Baydoun H, Bai X, Shelton S, Nicot C. HTLV-I tax increases genetic instability by inducing DNA double strand breaks during DNA replication and switching repair to NHEJ. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42226 pubmed publisher
    ..Although HTLV-I-transformed leukemic cells have numerous genetic lesions, the precise role of the viral tax gene in this process is not fully understood...
  11. Pise Masison C, Brady J. Setting the stage for transformation: HTLV-1 Tax inhibition of p53 function. Front Biosci. 2005;10:919-30 pubmed
    ..the pathogenesis has been linked to the pleiotropic activity of the viral transcriptional activator protein Tax. Tax has been shown to regulate viral and cellular gene expression and to functionally interfere with proteins ..
  12. Bellon M, Baydoun H, Yao Y, Nicot C. HTLV-I Tax-dependent and -independent events associated with immortalization of human primary T lymphocytes. Blood. 2010;115:2441-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Although in vitro immortalization by HTLV-I virus is very efficient, we report that Tax has poor oncogenic activity in human primary T cells and that immortalization by Tax is rare...
  13. Shembade N, Harhaj N, Yamamoto M, Akira S, Harhaj E. The human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax oncoprotein requires the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Ubc13 for NF-kappaB activation. J Virol. 2007;81:13735-42 pubmed
    Ubiquitination of the human T-cell leukemia virus 1 Tax oncoprotein provides an important regulatory mechanism that promotes the Tax-mediated activation of NF-kappaB...
  14. Durkin S, Ward M, Fryrear K, Semmes O. Site-specific phosphorylation differentiates active from inactive forms of the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax oncoprotein. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:31705-12 pubmed
    The human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 oncoprotein Tax is a phosphoprotein with a predominately nuclear subcellular localization that accomplishes multiple functions via protein-protein interactions...
  15. Pise Masison C, Jeong S, Brady J. Human T cell leukemia virus type 1: the role of Tax in leukemogenesis. Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz). 2005;53:283-96 pubmed
    ..the pathogenesis has been linked to the pleiotropic activity of the viral transcriptional activator protein Tax. Tax has been shown to regulate viral and cellular gene expression and to functionally interfere with proteins ..
  16. Ishioka K, Higuchi M, Takahashi M, Yoshida S, Oie M, Tanaka Y, et al. Inactivation of tumor suppressor Dlg1 augments transformation of a T-cell line induced by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax protein. Retrovirology. 2006;3:71 pubmed
    ..The interaction of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax1 protein with the tumor suppressor Dlg1 is correlated with cellular transformation...
  17. Twizere J, Springael J, Boxus M, Burny A, Dequiedt F, Dewulf J, et al. Human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 Tax oncoprotein regulates G-protein signaling. Blood. 2007;109:1051-60 pubmed
    ..HTLV-1 encodes the oncoprotein Tax-1, which modulates viral and cellular gene expression leading to T-cell transformation...
  18. Wäldele K, Silbermann K, Schneider G, Ruckes T, Cullen B, Grassmann R. Requirement of the human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-1) tax-stimulated HIAP-1 gene for the survival of transformed lymphocytes. Blood. 2006;107:4491-9 pubmed
    ..a consistent phenotype of HTLV-1-transformed and ATL-derived cultures and its stimulation by the viral oncoprotein Tax. Cotransfections revealed a 60-fold increase of HIAP-1 promoter activity mediated by Tax mainly via nuclear factor-..
  19. Yoshita M, Higuchi M, Takahashi M, Oie M, Tanaka Y, Fujii M. Activation of mTOR by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax is important for the transformation of mouse T cells to interleukin-2-independent growth. Cancer Sci. 2012;103:369-74 pubmed publisher
    ..HTLV-1 encodes Tax, which plays crucial roles in HTLV-1-mediated immortalization and transformation of human T cells...
  20. Hong S, Wang L, Gao X, Kuo Y, Liu B, Merling R, et al. Heptad repeats regulate protein phosphatase 2a recruitment to I-kappaB kinase gamma/NF-kappaB essential modulator and are targeted by human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 tax. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:12119-26 pubmed
    ..HTLV-1 transactivator Tax also binds HLX2, and this interaction is enhanced by CCR2 but reduced by LZ...
  21. Harhaj E, Harhaj N, Grant C, Mostoller K, Alefantis T, Sun S, et al. Human T cell leukemia virus type I Tax activates CD40 gene expression via the NF-kappa B pathway. Virology. 2005;333:145-58 pubmed
    ..In this study, we demonstrate that HTLV-I Tax induces the aberrant expression of CD40, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family that plays an ..
  22. Nakachi S, Nakazato T, Ishikawa C, Kimura R, Mann D, Senba M, et al. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 tax transactivates the matrix metalloproteinase 7 gene via JunD/AP-1 signaling. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1813:731-41 pubmed publisher
    ..was induced following infection of a human T-cell line with HTLV-1, and specifically by the viral protein Tax. Functionally, MMP-7 promoted cell migration of HTLV-1-infected T cells...
  23. Higuchi M, Fujii M. Distinct functions of HTLV-1 Tax1 from HTLV-2 Tax2 contribute key roles to viral pathogenesis. Retrovirology. 2009;6:117 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we summarize the functions of Tax1 associated with cell survival, cell proliferation, persistent infection as well as pathogenesis. We emphasize special attention to distinctions between Tax1 and Tax2. ..
  24. Kehn K, Fuente C, Strouss K, Berro R, Jiang H, Brady J, et al. The HTLV-I Tax oncoprotein targets the retinoblastoma protein for proteasomal degradation. Oncogene. 2005;24:525-40 pubmed
    ..The transforming ability of HTLV-I has been largely attributed to the viral protein Tax, which modulates the activity of several well-known cell cycle regulators...
  25. Peloponese J, Kinjo T, Jeang K. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax and cellular transformation. Int J Hematol. 2007;86:101-6 pubmed
    ..ATL is characterized by abnormal lymphocytes, called flower cells, which have cleaved and convoluted nuclei. Tax, encoded by the HTLV-1 pX region, is a critical nonstructural protein that plays a central role in leukemogenesis; ..
  26. Fryrear K, Guo X, Kerscher O, Semmes O. The Sumo-targeted ubiquitin ligase RNF4 regulates the localization and function of the HTLV-1 oncoprotein Tax. Blood. 2012;119:1173-81 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we show that the Human T-cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1) oncoprotein Tax is a substrate for RNF4 both in vivo and in vitro...
  27. Okamoto K, Fujisawa J, Reth M, Yonehara S. Human T-cell leukemia virus type-I oncoprotein Tax inhibits Fas-mediated apoptosis by inducing cellular FLIP through activation of NF-kappaB. Genes Cells. 2006;11:177-91 pubmed
    ..Previous analyses of tax transgenic mice suggested that protection of peripheral T-cells from Fas-mediated apoptosis by virus-encoded ..
  28. Baydoun H, Duc Dodon M, Lebrun S, Gazzolo L, Bex F. Regulation of the human T-cell leukemia virus gene expression depends on the localization of regulatory proteins Tax, Rex and p30II in specific nuclear subdomains. Gene. 2007;386:191-201 pubmed
    The human T-cell leukemia virus HTLV-1 encodes regulatory proteins, Tax, Rex and p30(II), which are involved in the control of viral gene expression at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels...
  29. Gupta S, Guo X, Durkin S, Fryrear K, Ward M, Semmes O. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax oncoprotein prevents DNA damage-induced chromatin egress of hyperphosphorylated Chk2. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:29431-40 pubmed
    De novo expression of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax results in cellular genomic instability...
  30. Durkin S, Guo X, Fryrear K, Mihaylova V, Gupta S, Belgnaoui S, et al. HTLV-1 Tax oncoprotein subverts the cellular DNA damage response via binding to DNA-dependent protein kinase. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:36311-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous research has established that the viral oncoprotein Tax mediates the transformation process by impairing cell cycle control and cellular response to DNA damage...
  31. Bertazzoni U, Turci M, Avesani F, Di Gennaro G, Bidoia C, Romanelli M. Intracellular localization and cellular factors interaction of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 Tax proteins: similarities and functional differences. Viruses. 2011;3:541-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Is this difference due to their transactivating Tax proteins, Tax-1 and Tax-2, which are responsible for viral and cellular gene activation? Do Tax-1 and Tax-2 differ ..
  32. Lee S, Weiss R, Javier R. Binding of human virus oncoproteins to hDlg/SAP97, a mammalian homolog of the Drosophila discs large tumor suppressor protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:6670-5 pubmed
    ..Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax and most oncogenic human papillomavirus E6 oncoproteins also possessed PDZ domain-binding motifs at their C termini ..
  33. Fryrear K, Durkin S, Gupta S, Tiedebohl J, Semmes O. Dimerization and a novel Tax speckled structure localization signal are required for Tax nuclear localization. J Virol. 2009;83:5339-52 pubmed publisher
    The human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 oncoprotein Tax has pleiotropic activities, a subset of which likely leads to immortalization of T cells. Tax is expressed and known to function in both the cell nucleus and the cytoplasm...
  34. Harhaj N, Sun S, Harhaj E. Activation of NF-kappa B by the human T cell leukemia virus type I Tax oncoprotein is associated with ubiquitin-dependent relocalization of I kappa B kinase. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:4185-92 pubmed
    ..HTLV-1 encodes a trans-activating protein, Tax, which is largely responsible for the oncogenic properties of the virus...
  35. Wu K, Bottazzi M, de La Fuente C, Deng L, Gitlin S, Maddukuri A, et al. Protein profile of tax-associated complexes. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:495-508 pubmed
    ..b>Tax, a 40-kDa protein, regulates viral and cellular transcription, host signal transduction, the cell cycle, and ..
  36. Xiao G. NF-kappaB activation: Tax sumoylation is out, but what about Tax ubiquitination?. Retrovirology. 2012;9:78 pubmed publisher
    Activation of the NF-?B transcription factors by the viral protein Tax plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of diseases associated with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)...
  37. Merling R, Chen C, Hong S, Zhang L, Liu M, Kuo Y, et al. HTLV-1 Tax mutants that do not induce G1 arrest are disabled in activating the anaphase promoting complex. Retrovirology. 2007;4:35 pubmed
    HTLV-1 Tax is a potent activator of viral transcription and NF-kappaB...
  38. Avesani F, Romanelli M, Turci M, Di Gennaro G, Sampaio C, Bidoia C, et al. Association of HTLV Tax proteins with TAK1-binding protein 2 and RelA in calreticulin-containing cytoplasmic structures participates in Tax-mediated NF-?B activation. Virology. 2010;408:39-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Both Tax-1 protein from HTLV-1 and Tax-2 from HTLV-2 activate the NF-?B pathway...
  39. Lemasson I, Polakowski N, Laybourn P, Nyborg J. Tax-dependent displacement of nucleosomes during transcriptional activation of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:13075-82 pubmed
    ..Within the repressive chromatin environment, the virally encoded Tax protein mediates the recruitment of the coactivators CREB-binding protein/p300 to the HTLV-1 promoter, located ..
  40. Wang D, Guo M, Hu H, Zhao Z, Qiu H, Shao H, et al. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 oncoprotein tax represses ZNF268 expression through the cAMP-responsive element-binding protein/activating transcription factor pathway. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:16299-308 pubmed publisher
    Expression of the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) oncoprotein Tax is correlated with cellular transformation, contributing to the development of adult T-cell leukemia...
  41. Nejmeddine M, Negi V, Mukherjee S, Tanaka Y, Orth K, Taylor G, et al. HTLV-1-Tax and ICAM-1 act on T-cell signal pathways to polarize the microtubule-organizing center at the virological synapse. Blood. 2009;114:1016-25 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously demonstrated that the combination of intracellular Tax protein expression and the stimulation of the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on the cell surface is ..
  42. Tang H, Gao W, Chan C, Siu Y, Wong C, Kok K, et al. LKB1 tumor suppressor and salt-inducible kinases negatively regulate human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 transcription. Retrovirology. 2013;10:40 pubmed publisher
    ..and salt-inducible kinases (SIKs) in the activation of HTLV-1 long terminal repeats (LTR) by the oncoprotein Tax. Activation of LKB1 and SIKs effectively blunted Tax activity in a phosphorylation-dependent manner, whereas ..
  43. Kwon H, Ogle L, Benitez B, Bohuslav J, Montano M, Felsher D, et al. Lethal cutaneous disease in transgenic mice conditionally expressing type I human T cell leukemia virus Tax. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:35713-22 pubmed
    ..T cell transformation induced by HTLV-I involves the action of the 40-kDa viral Tax transactivator protein...
  44. Majone F, Luisetto R, Zamboni D, Iwanaga Y, Jeang K. Ku protein as a potential human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax target in clastogenic chromosomal instability of mammalian cells. Retrovirology. 2005;2:45 pubmed
    The HTLV-1 Tax oncoprotein rapidly induces cytogenetic damage which can be measured by a significant increase in the number of micronuclei (MN) in cells. Tax is thought to have both aneuploidogenic and clastogenic effects...
  45. Hieshima K, Nagakubo D, Nakayama T, Shirakawa A, Jin Z, Yoshie O. Tax-inducible production of CC chemokine ligand 22 by human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-infected T cells promotes preferential transmission of HTLV-1 to CCR4-expressing CD4+ T cells. J Immunol. 2008;180:931-9 pubmed
    ..In terms of gene expression and protein secretion, we found a strong correlation between HTLV-1 Tax oncoprotein and CCL22, a CCR4 ligand, in HTLV-1-infected T cells...
  46. Shoji T, Higuchi M, Kondo R, Takahashi M, Oie M, Tanaka Y, et al. Identification of a novel motif responsible for the distinctive transforming activity of human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV) type 1 Tax1 protein from HTLV-2 Tax2. Retrovirology. 2009;6:83 pubmed publisher
    ..This distinction was mediated by at least two Tax1 specific functions, an interaction with host cellular factors through the PDZ domain binding motif (PBM) and the activation of NF-kappa B2 (NF-kappa B2)/p100...
  47. Liu B, Hong S, Tang Z, Yu H, Giam C. HTLV-I Tax directly binds the Cdc20-associated anaphase-promoting complex and activates it ahead of schedule. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:63-8 pubmed
    Expression of the human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) transactivator/oncoprotein, Tax, leads to faulty mitosis as reflected by chromosome aneuploidy, cytokinesis failure, and formation of micro- and multinucleated cells...
  48. Wu X, Sun S. Retroviral oncoprotein Tax deregulates NF-kappaB by activating Tak1 and mediating the physical association of Tak1-IKK. EMBO Rep. 2007;8:510-5 pubmed
    The Tax oncoprotein of human T-cell leukaemia virus type I (HTLV-I) persistently activates nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), which is required for HTLV-I-mediated T-cell transformation...
  49. Lodewick J, Lamsoul I, Bex F. Move or die: the fate of the Tax oncoprotein of HTLV-1. Viruses. 2011;3:829-57 pubmed publisher
    The HTLV-1 Tax protein both activates viral replication and is involved in HTLV-1-mediated transformation of T lymphocytes...
  50. Lodewick J, Lamsoul I, Polania A, Lebrun S, Burny A, Ratner L, et al. Acetylation of the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax oncoprotein by p300 promotes activation of the NF-kappaB pathway. Virology. 2009;386:68-78 pubmed publisher
    The oncogenic potential of the HTLV-1 Tax protein involves activation of the NF-kappaB pathway, which depends on Tax phosphorylation, ubiquitination and sumoylation...
  51. Huang G, Zhang Z, Jin D. Stimulation of IKK-gamma oligomerization by the human T-cell leukemia virus oncoprotein Tax. FEBS Lett. 2002;531:494-8 pubmed
    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 oncoprotein Tax activates NF-kappaB through direct binding to IKK-gamma, the regulatory component of the IkappaB kinase complex...
  52. Chandhasin C, Ducu R, Berkovich E, Kastan M, Marriott S. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 tax attenuates the ATM-mediated cellular DNA damage response. J Virol. 2008;82:6952-61 pubmed publisher
    ..type 1 (HTLV-1), is associated with extensive genomic instability that has been attributed to the viral oncoprotein Tax. How Tax influences cellular responses to DNA damage to mediate genomic instability, however, remains unclear...
  53. Alefantis T, Jain P, Ahuja J, Mostoller K, Wigdahl B. HTLV-1 Tax nucleocytoplasmic shuttling, interaction with the secretory pathway, extracellular signaling, and implications for neurologic disease. J Biomed Sci. 2005;12:961-74 pubmed
    The human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) oncoprotein Tax interacts with numerous cellular pathways promoting both the survival and pathogenesis of the virus in the human population...
  54. Yasunaga J, Lin F, Lu X, Jeang K. Ubiquitin-specific peptidase 20 targets TRAF6 and human T cell leukemia virus type 1 tax to negatively regulate NF-kappaB signaling. J Virol. 2011;85:6212-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The HTLV-1 viral oncoprotein Tax functions pivotally in leukemogenesis through its potent activation of NF-?B...
  55. Kfoury Y, Nasr R, Favre Bonvin A, El Sabban M, Renault N, Giron M, et al. Ubiquitylated Tax targets and binds the IKK signalosome at the centrosome. Oncogene. 2008;27:1665-76 pubmed
    Constitutive activation of the NF-kappaB pathway by the Tax oncoprotein plays a crucial role in the proliferation and transformation of HTLV-I infected T lymphocytes...
  56. Lamsoul I, Lodewick J, Lebrun S, Brasseur R, Burny A, Gaynor R, et al. Exclusive ubiquitination and sumoylation on overlapping lysine residues mediate NF-kappaB activation by the human T-cell leukemia virus tax oncoprotein. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:10391-406 pubmed
    ..which is linked to infection by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 and the expression of its regulatory protein Tax. Although activation of the NF-kappaB pathway by Tax involves its interaction with the regulatory subunit of the ..
  57. Okajima M, Takahashi M, Higuchi M, Ohsawa T, Yoshida S, Yoshida Y, et al. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax induces an aberrant clustering of the tumor suppressor Scribble through the PDZ domain-binding motif dependent and independent interaction. Virus Genes. 2008;37:231-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Tax1 through two binding sites induce aberrant clustering of Scribble, thereby altering the functions in HTLV-1-infected cells, which may thus play a role in persistent HTLV-1 infection and the pathogenesis. ..
  58. Imai M, Higuchi M, Kawamura H, Yoshita M, Takahashi M, Oie M, et al. Human T cell leukemia virus type 2 (HTLV-2) Tax2 has a dominant activity over HTLV-1 Tax1 to immortalize human CD4+ T cells. Virus Genes. 2013;46:39-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The distinct T cell immortalization activities of Tax2 and Tax1 might therefore play a role in the different pathogeneses observed for these two viruses...
  59. Bogenberger J, Laybourn P. Human T Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 protein Tax reduces histone levels. Retrovirology. 2008;5:9 pubmed publisher
    ..The virally encoded Tax protein is thought to be necessary and sufficient for T-cell leukemogenesis...
  60. Haller K, Wu Y, Derow E, Schmitt I, Jeang K, Grassmann R. Physical interaction of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax with cyclin-dependent kinase 4 stimulates the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:3327-38 pubmed
    The Tax oncoprotein of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) induces leukemia in transgenic mice and permanent T-cell growth in vitro. In transformed lymphocytes, it acts as an essential growth factor...
  61. Fu J, Yan P, Li S, Qu Z, Xiao G. Molecular determinants of PDLIM2 in suppressing HTLV-I Tax-mediated tumorigenesis. Oncogene. 2010;29:6499-507 pubmed publisher
    Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) encodes a Tax oncoprotein that has crucial roles in both virus replication and cell transformation...
  62. Ducu R, Dayaram T, Marriott S. The HTLV-1 Tax oncoprotein represses Ku80 gene expression. Virology. 2011;416:1-8 pubmed publisher
    The HTLV-I oncoprotein Tax interferes with DNA double strand break repair...
  63. Bidoia C, Mazzorana M, Pagano M, Arrigoni G, Meggio F, Pinna L, et al. The pleiotropic protein kinase CK2 phosphorylates HTLV-1 Tax protein in vitro, targeting its PDZ-binding motif. Virus Genes. 2010;41:149-57 pubmed publisher
    The HTLV-1 transactivator Tax is an oncoprotein capable of deregulating the expression of many cellular genes and interfering with signalling pathways...
  64. Zhang L, Zhi H, Liu M, Kuo Y, Giam C. Induction of p21(CIP1/WAF1) expression by human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 Tax requires transcriptional activation and mRNA stabilization. Retrovirology. 2009;6:35 pubmed publisher
    HTLV-1 Tax can induce senescence by up-regulating the levels of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21(CIP1/WAF1) and p27(KIP1)...
  65. Arpin André C, Mesnard J. The PDZ domain-binding motif of the human T cell leukemia virus type 1 tax protein induces mislocalization of the tumor suppressor hScrib in T cells. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:33132-41 pubmed
    ..In this regard, the oncogenic potential of the human T cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax protein correlates with its binding capacity to the tumor suppressor hDlg...
  66. Geiger T, Sharma N, Kim Y, Nyborg J. The human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 tax protein confers CBP/p300 recruitment and transcriptional activation properties to phosphorylated CREB. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:1383-92 pubmed
    The human T-cell leukemia virus-encoded oncoprotein Tax is a potent activator of viral transcription...
  67. Pichler K, Schneider G, Grassmann R. MicroRNA miR-146a and further oncogenesis-related cellular microRNAs are dysregulated in HTLV-1-transformed T lymphocytes. Retrovirology. 2008;5:100 pubmed publisher
    ..Transformation of infected cells involves HTLV-1's oncoprotein Tax, which perturbs cell cycle regulation and modulates cellular gene expression...