Gene Symbol: tat
Description: p14
Alias: p14, Tat
Species: Human immunodeficiency virus 1
Products:     tat

Top Publications

  1. Chou S, Upton H, Bao K, Schulze Gahmen U, Samelson A, He N, et al. HIV-1 Tat recruits transcription elongation factors dispersed along a flexible AFF4 scaffold. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E123-31 pubmed publisher
    The HIV-1 Tat protein stimulates viral gene expression by recruiting human transcription elongation complexes containing P-TEFb, AFF4, ELL2, and ENL or AF9 to the viral promoter, but the molecular organization of these complexes remains ..
  2. Ramakrishnan R, Rice A. Cdk9 T-loop phosphorylation is regulated by the calcium signaling pathway. J Cell Physiol. 2012;227:609-17 pubmed publisher
    ..In reporter plasmid assays, inhibition of the Ca(2+) signaling pathway repressed the PCNA promoter and HIV-1 Tat transactivation of the HIV-1 LTR, but not HTLV-1 Tax transactivation of the HTLV-1 LTR, suggesting that ..
  3. Huo L, Li D, Sun X, Shi X, Karna P, Yang W, et al. Regulation of Tat acetylation and transactivation activity by the microtubule-associated deacetylase HDAC6. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:9280-6 pubmed publisher
    Reversible acetylation of Tat is critical for its transactivation activity toward HIV-1 transcription. However, the enzymes involved in the acetylation/deacetylation cycles have not been fully characterized...
  4. Siliciano R, Greene W. HIV latency. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2011;1:a007096 pubmed publisher
    ..g., NF?B and NFAT), the absence of Tat and associated host factors that promote efficient transcriptional elongation, epigenetic changes inhibiting HIV-1 ..
  5. Chang J, Mukerjee R, Bagashev A, Del Valle L, Chabrashvili T, Hawkins B, et al. HIV-1 Tat protein promotes neuronal dysfunction through disruption of microRNAs. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:41125-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, using primary cultures and neuronal cell lines, we examined the impact of a viral protein (HIV-1 Tat) on the expression of miRNAs due to its characteristic features such as release from the infected cells and taken ..
  6. Hayes A, Qian S, Yu L, Boris Lawrie K. Tat RNA silencing suppressor activity contributes to perturbation of lymphocyte miRNA by HIV-1. Retrovirology. 2011;8:36 pubmed publisher
    ..For instance, miRNA-mediated RNA silencing of HIV-1 translation is antagonized by HIV-1 Tat RNA silencing suppressor activity...
  7. Debebe Z, Ammosova T, Breuer D, Lovejoy D, Kalinowski D, Kumar K, et al. Iron chelators of the di-2-pyridylketone thiosemicarbazone and 2-benzoylpyridine thiosemicarbazone series inhibit HIV-1 transcription: identification of novel cellular targets--iron, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 2, and CDK9. Mol Pharmacol. 2011;79:185-96 pubmed publisher
    HIV-1 transcription is activated by HIV-1 Tat protein, which recruits cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9)/cyclin T1 and other host transcriptional coactivators to the HIV-1 promoter...
  8. Rayne F, Debaisieux S, Yezid H, Lin Y, Mettling C, Konate K, et al. Phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate enables efficient secretion of HIV-1 Tat by infected T-cells. EMBO J. 2010;29:1348-62 pubmed publisher
    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transcription relies on its transactivating Tat protein...
  9. Kajaste Rudnitski A, Marelli S, Pultrone C, Pertel T, Uchil P, Mechti N, et al. TRIM22 inhibits HIV-1 transcription independently of its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, Tat, and NF-kappaB-responsive long terminal repeat elements. J Virol. 2011;85:5183-96 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, TRIM22 did not affect Tat-mediated LTR transactivation. Finally, these effects were independent of TRIM22 E3 ubiquitin-ligase activity...

More Information


  1. Barboric M, Lenasi T. Kick-sTARting HIV-1 transcription elongation by 7SK snRNP deporTATion. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2010;17:928-30 pubmed publisher
    The HIV-1 Tat protein promotes viral transcription elongation by recruiting P-TEFb to RNA element TAR on the viral mRNA. Recent work from D'Orso and Frankel uncovers unexpected aspects of this process.
  2. Chen L, Choi J, Choi Y, Hennig B, Toborek M. HIV-1 Tat-induced cerebrovascular toxicity is enhanced in mice with amyloid deposits. Neurobiol Aging. 2012;33:1579-90 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we administered specific HIV-1 protein Tat into the cerebral vasculature of 50-52-week-old double transgenic (B6C3-Tg) mice that express a chimeric mouse/..
  3. Akhtar L, Qin H, Muldowney M, Yanagisawa L, Kutsch O, Clements J, et al. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 inhibits antiviral IFN-beta signaling to enhance HIV-1 replication in macrophages. J Immunol. 2010;185:2393-404 pubmed publisher
  4. Khiati A, Chaloin O, Muller S, Tardieu M, Horellou P. Induction of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) gene expression by human immunodeficiency virus-1 Tat in human astrocytes is CDK9 dependent. J Neurovirol. 2010;16:150-67 pubmed publisher
    ..HIV-1 Tat protein is thought to contribute to HAD by transactivating host genes, such as that encoding monocyte ..
  5. Xu R, Feng X, Xie X, Zhang J, Wu D, Xu L. HIV-1 Tat protein increases the permeability of brain endothelial cells by both inhibiting occludin expression and cleaving occludin via matrix metalloproteinase-9. Brain Res. 2012;1436:13-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies have proven that the Tat protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) alters TJ protein expression...
  6. Vitagliano L, Fiume G, Scognamiglio P, Doti N, Cannavò R, Puca A, et al. Structural and functional insights into I?B-?/HIV-1 Tat interaction. Biochimie. 2011;93:1592-600 pubmed publisher
    ..blocks the HIV-1 expression and replication in a NF-?B-independent manner by directly binding to the virus-encoded Tat transactivator...
  7. Monini P, Cafaro A, Srivastava I, Moretti S, Sharma V, Andreini C, et al. HIV-1 tat promotes integrin-mediated HIV transmission to dendritic cells by binding Env spikes and competes neutralization by anti-HIV antibodies. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e48781 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that, in the presence of a biologically active Tat subunit vaccine, a trimeric Env protein prevents in monkeys virus spread from the portal of entry to regional lymph ..
  8. Adams S, Aksenova M, Aksenov M, Mactutus C, Booze R. ER-? mediates 17?-estradiol attenuation of HIV-1 Tat-induced apoptotic signaling. Synapse. 2010;64:829-38 pubmed publisher
    ..We tested the ability of estrogen to protect against apoptotic signaling in cortical cell cultures exposed to Tat 1-86 (50 nM), and additionally, whether the beneficial actions of estrogen involved an estrogen receptor sensitive ..
  9. Johri M, Mishra R, Chhatbar C, Unni S, Singh S. Tits and bits of HIV Tat protein. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2011;11:269-83 pubmed publisher
    HIV-Tat protein displays an array of functions that are essential for HIV replication...
  10. Zhang S, Sun Y, Fan R, Xu Q, Liu X, Zhang X, et al. HIV-1 Tat regulates cyclin B1 by promoting both expression and degradation. FASEB J. 2010;24:495-503 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that HIV-encoded Tat protein regulates cyclin B1 levels in two different ways: first, Tat stimulates the transcription of cyclin B1, ..
  11. Sobhian B, Laguette N, Yatim A, Nakamura M, Levy Y, Kiernan R, et al. HIV-1 Tat assembles a multifunctional transcription elongation complex and stably associates with the 7SK snRNP. Mol Cell. 2010;38:439-51 pubmed publisher
    HIV-1 transactivator Tat has greatly contributed to our understanding of transcription elongation by RNAPII. We purified HIV-1 Tat-associated factors from HeLa nuclear extract and show that Tat forms two distinct and stable complexes...
  12. Mishra R, Singh S. HIV-1 Tat C modulates expression of miRNA-101 to suppress VE-cadherin in human brain microvascular endothelial cells. J Neurosci. 2013;33:5992-6000 pubmed publisher
    HIV-1 infection leads to the development of HIV-associated neurological disorders. The HIV-1 Tat protein has been reported to exert an adverse effect on blood-brain barrier integrity and permeability...
  13. Zhong Y, Zhang B, Eum S, Toborek M. HIV-1 Tat triggers nuclear localization of ZO-1 via Rho signaling and cAMP response element-binding protein activation. J Neurosci. 2012;32:143-50 pubmed publisher
    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific protein trans-activator of transcription (Tat) can contribute to the dysfunction of brain endothelial cells and HIV trafficking into the brain by disrupting tight junction (TJ) integrity at ..
  14. Hahn Y, Vo P, Fitting S, Block M, Hauser K, Knapp P. beta-Chemokine production by neural and glial progenitor cells is enhanced by HIV-1 Tat: effects on microglial migration. J Neurochem. 2010;114:97-109 pubmed publisher
    ..to assess chemokine/cytokine expression after treatment with viral proteins transactivator of transcription (Tat) or glycoprotein 120 (gp120)...
  15. Jablonski J, Amelio A, Giacca M, Caputi M. The transcriptional transactivator Tat selectively regulates viral splicing. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:1249-60 pubmed publisher
    ..While the viral factor Tat is known for its transcriptional transactivator properties, we present evidence for an unexpected function of Tat ..
  16. Hamasaki T, Okamoto M, Baba M. Identification of novel inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by in silico screening targeting cyclin T1/Tat interaction. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013;57:1323-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Cyclin T1 (CycT1) interacts with HIV-1 Tat and transactivation-responsive (TAR) RNA, leading to the activation of viral transcription through the ..
  17. López Huertas M, Callejas S, Abia D, Mateos E, Dopazo A, Alcami J, et al. Modifications in host cell cytoskeleton structure and function mediated by intracellular HIV-1 Tat protein are greatly dependent on the second coding exon. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:3287-307 pubmed publisher
    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) regulator Tat is essential for viral replication because it achieves complete elongation of viral transcripts...
  18. Fiume G, Vecchio E, De Laurentiis A, Trimboli F, Palmieri C, Pisano A, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus-1 Tat activates NF-?B via physical interaction with I?B-? and p65. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:3548-62 pubmed publisher
    ..We report that in single round HIV-1 infection, or single-pulse PMA stimulation, the HIV-1 Tat transactivator activated NF-?B by hijacking the inhibitor I?B-? and by preventing the repressor binding to the NF-?..
  19. Chan J, Greene W. NF-?B/Rel: agonist and antagonist roles in HIV-1 latency. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2011;6:12-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The ultimate, albeit lofty, goal is to achieve full viral eradication. However, a more reasonable goal might be a functional cure where patients experience a drug-free remission. ..
  20. Lee M, Park J. Pathway analysis in HEK 293T cells overexpressing HIV-1 tat and nucleocapsid. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2009;19:1103-8 pubmed
    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 protein Tat acts as a transcription transactivator that stimulates expression of the infected viral genome. It is released from infected cells and can similarly affect neighboring cells...
  21. Li Z, Guo J, Wu Y, Zhou Q. The BET bromodomain inhibitor JQ1 activates HIV latency through antagonizing Brd4 inhibition of Tat-transactivation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:277-87 pubmed publisher
    ..The viral Tat protein recruits human Super Elongation Complex (SEC) to paused Pol II to overcome this limitation...
  22. Eugenin E, King J, Hazleton J, Major E, Bennett M, Zukin R, et al. Differences in NMDA receptor expression during human development determine the response of neurons to HIV-tat-mediated neurotoxicity. Neurotox Res. 2011;19:138-48 pubmed publisher
    ..elaboration of inflammatory factors and neurotoxic viral proteins, including the viral transactivating protein tat. We and others demonstrated that tat induces apoptosis in differentiated mature human neurons...
  23. Karn J. The molecular biology of HIV latency: breaking and restoring the Tat-dependent transcriptional circuit. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2011;6:4-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Latency arises when the regulatory feedback mechanism driven by HIV Tat expression is disrupted...
  24. Chan J, Greene W. Dynamic roles for NF-?B in HTLV-I and HIV-1 retroviral pathogenesis. Immunol Rev. 2012;246:286-310 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we discuss the dynamic and intimate interplay that occurs between NF-?B and the HTLV-I and HIV-1 retroviral pathogens. ..
  25. Gibellini D, De Crignis E, Ponti C, Borderi M, Clo A, Miserocchi A, et al. HIV-1 Tat protein enhances RANKL/M-CSF-mediated osteoclast differentiation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;401:429-34 pubmed publisher
    ..This study analyzed the biological effects of Tat on peripheral blood monocyte-derived osteoclast differentiation...
  26. Ammosova T, Yedavalli V, Niu X, Jerebtsova M, Van Eynde A, Beullens M, et al. Expression of a protein phosphatase 1 inhibitor, cdNIPP1, increases CDK9 threonine 186 phosphorylation and inhibits HIV-1 transcription. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:3798-804 pubmed publisher
    ..Our previous studies showed that HIV-1 Tat protein binds to PP1 through the Tat Q(35)VCF(38) sequence, which is similar to the PP1-binding RVXF motif and that ..
  27. Bigalke J, Czudnochowski N, Vollmuth F, Vogel Bachmayr K, Anand K, Geyer M. Formation of Tat-TAR containing ribonucleoprotein complexes for biochemical and structural analyses. Methods. 2011;53:78-84 pubmed publisher
    ..JDV retroviruses forms a unique RNA based promoter element that together with the transcription activator protein Tat stimulates viral gene expression at the level of transcription elongation...
  28. Clerzius G, Gélinas J, Gatignol A. Multiple levels of PKR inhibition during HIV-1 replication. Rev Med Virol. 2011;21:42-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The viral Tat protein also counteracts PKR activation by several mechanisms...
  29. He N, Chan C, Sobhian B, Chou S, Xue Y, Liu M, et al. Human Polymerase-Associated Factor complex (PAFc) connects the Super Elongation Complex (SEC) to RNA polymerase II on chromatin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:E636-45 pubmed publisher
    ..transcription elongation activators/coactivators P-TEFb, ELL2, AFF4/1, ENL, and AF9, is recruited by HIV-1 Tat and mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) proteins to activate the expression of HIV-1 and MLL-target genes, respectively...
  30. Mishra R, Chhatbar C, Singh S. HIV-1 Tat C-mediated regulation of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor-3 by microRNA 32 in human microglia. J Neuroinflammation. 2012;9:131 pubmed publisher
    HIV-1 Tat protein is known to be associated with neuroinflammation, a condition that develops in almost half of patients infected with HIV-1. HIV-1 Tat can alter glial neuroprotective functions, leading to neurotoxicity within the CNS...
  31. Johnson T, Patel K, Johnson K, Maric D, Calabresi P, Hasbun R, et al. Induction of IL-17 and nonclassical T-cell activation by HIV-Tat protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:13588-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The mechanism of T-cell activation in this population is not well understood. We found HIV-Tat protein and IL-17-expressing mononuclear cells in the brain of an individual with IRIS...
  32. Tugizov S, Herrera R, CHIN HONG P, Veluppillai P, Greenspan D, Michael Berry J, et al. HIV-associated disruption of mucosal epithelium facilitates paracellular penetration by human papillomavirus. Virology. 2013;446:378-88 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that HIV proteins tat and gp120 were expressed within the oral and anal mucosal epithelial microenvironment of HIV-infected individuals...
  33. Li J, Yim H, Lau A. Role of HIV-1 Tat in AIDS pathogenesis: its effects on cytokine dysregulation and contributions to the pathogenesis of opportunistic infection. AIDS. 2010;24:1609-23 pubmed publisher
  34. Breuer D, Kotelkin A, Ammosova T, Kumari N, Ivanov A, Ilatovskiy A, et al. CDK2 regulates HIV-1 transcription by phosphorylation of CDK9 on serine 90. Retrovirology. 2012;9:94 pubmed publisher
    HIV-1 transcription is activated by the viral Tat protein that recruits host positive transcription elongation factor-b (P-TEFb) containing CDK9/cyclin T1 to the HIV-1 promoter...
  35. Buccigrossi V, Laudiero G, Nicastro E, Miele E, Esposito F, Guarino A. The HIV-1 transactivator factor (Tat) induces enterocyte apoptosis through a redox-mediated mechanism. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e29436 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously demonstrated that HIV-1 transactivator factor (Tat) induces an enterotoxic effect on intestinal epithelial cells that could be responsible for HIV-associated diarrhea...
  36. Sakane N, Kwon H, Pagans S, Kaehlcke K, Mizusawa Y, Kamada M, et al. Activation of HIV transcription by the viral Tat protein requires a demethylation step mediated by lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1/KDM1). PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002184 pubmed publisher
    The essential transactivator function of the HIV Tat protein is regulated by multiple posttranslational modifications...
  37. Lin S, Wang X, Nadeau P, Mergia A. HIV infection upregulates caveolin 1 expression to restrict virus production. J Virol. 2010;84:9487-96 pubmed publisher
    ..MDMs), THP-1 macrophages, and U87-CD4 cells results in a dramatic upregulation of Cav-1 expression mediated by HIV Tat. The activity of p53 is essential for Tat-induced Cav-1 expression, as our findings show enhanced phosphorylation ..
  38. Asamitsu K, Hibi Y, Imai K, Victoriano A, Kurimoto E, Kato K, et al. Functional characterization of human cyclin T1 N-terminal region for human immunodeficiency virus-1 Tat transcriptional activation. J Mol Biol. 2011;410:887-95 pubmed publisher
    ..the cyclin T1 (CycT1) subunit of a host cellular factor, positive transcription elongation factor b, with the viral Tat protein at the transactivation response (TAR) element of nascent viral transcripts...
  39. Lu S, Tremblay M, King I, Qi J, Reynolds H, Marker D, et al. HIV-1 Tat-induced microgliosis and synaptic damage via interactions between peripheral and central myeloid cells. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23915 pubmed publisher
    ..during acute neuroinflammation we injected a single dose of the HIV-1 transactivator of transcription protein (Tat) or control vehicle into hippocampus of wild-type or chimeric C57Bl/6 mice genetically marked to distinguish ..
  40. Rafati H, Parra M, Hakre S, Moshkin Y, Verdin E, Mahmoudi T. Repressive LTR nucleosome positioning by the BAF complex is required for HIV latency. PLoS Biol. 2011;9:e1001206 pubmed publisher
    ..Upon activation, BAF was lost from the HIV promoter, while PBAF was selectively recruited by acetylated Tat to facilitate LTR transcription...
  41. Chen X, Cheng L, Jia X, Zeng Y, Yao S, Lv Z, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat accelerates Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus Kaposin A-mediated tumorigenesis of transformed fibroblasts in vitro as well as in nude and immunocompetent mice. Neoplasia. 2009;11:1272-84 pubmed
    ..Previously, we identified that HIV-1 transactivative transcription protein (Tat) was an important cofactor that activated lytic cycle replication of KSHV...
  42. Strazza M, Pirrone V, Wigdahl B, Nonnemacher M. Breaking down the barrier: the effects of HIV-1 on the blood-brain barrier. Brain Res. 2011;1399:96-115 pubmed publisher
    ..cells in both the periphery and the CNS give rise to elevated levels of viral proteins, including gp120, Tat, and Nef, and of host inflammatory mediators such as cytokines and chemokines...
  43. Gandhi N, Saiyed Z, Napuri J, Samikkannu T, Reddy P, Agudelo M, et al. Interactive role of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) clade-specific Tat protein and cocaine in blood-brain barrier dysfunction: implications for HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorder. J Neurovirol. 2010;16:294-305 pubmed publisher
    ..In the current study, we hypothesize that HIV-1 clade-specific Tat proteins exert differential effects on blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity and cocaine further differentially ..
  44. Pagans S, Kauder S, Kaehlcke K, Sakane N, Schroeder S, Dormeyer W, et al. The Cellular lysine methyltransferase Set7/9-KMT7 binds HIV-1 TAR RNA, monomethylates the viral transactivator Tat, and enhances HIV transcription. Cell Host Microbe. 2010;7:234-44 pubmed publisher
    The Tat protein of HIV-1 plays an essential role in HIV gene expression by promoting efficient elongation of viral transcripts...
  45. Coiras M, Lopez Huertas M, Sánchez del Cojo M, Mateos E, Alcami J. Dual role of host cell factors in HIV-1 replication: restriction and enhancement of the viral cycle. AIDS Rev. 2010;12:103-12 pubmed
    ..One main instigator of HIV-1 replication is the viral regulator Tat, which is absolutely required for efficient transcription and elongation of viral transcripts...
  46. Samikkannu T, Rao K, Gandhi N, Saxena S, Nair M. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 clade B and C Tat differentially induce indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and serotonin in immature dendritic cells: Implications for neuroAIDS. J Neurovirol. 2010;16:255-63 pubmed publisher
    ..HIV-1 transactivator regulatory protein (Tat) is known to play a major role in immune dysfunction...
  47. Deshmane S, Mukerjee R, Fan S, Sawaya B. High-performance capillary electrophoresis for determining HIV-1 Tat protein in neurons. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16148 pubmed publisher
    The HIV-1 protein, Tat has been implicated in AIDS pathogenesis however, the amount of circulating Tat is believed to be very low and its quantification has been difficult...
  48. Cowley D, Gray L, Wesselingh S, Gorry P, Churchill M. Genetic and functional heterogeneity of CNS-derived tat alleles from patients with HIV-associated dementia. J Neurovirol. 2011;17:70-81 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Tat-encoding mRNA has been detected in the CNS of HIV-1 infected individuals and its neurotoxic effects in the CNS are ..
  49. Debaisieux S, Rayne F, Yezid H, Beaumelle B. The ins and outs of HIV-1 Tat. Traffic. 2012;13:355-63 pubmed publisher
    HIV-1 encodes for the small basic protein Tat (86-101 residues) that drastically enhances the efficiency of viral transcription...
  50. Pagans S, Sakane N, Schnolzer M, Ott M. Characterization of HIV Tat modifications using novel methyl-lysine-specific antibodies. Methods. 2011;53:91-6 pubmed publisher
    ..of polyclonal antibodies specific for mono-, di-, and trimethylated lysine 51 within the HIV transactivator Tat. Lysine 51 is a highly conserved residue located in the RNA-binding region of Tat and the target of lysine ..
  51. Rao V, Neogi U, Talboom J, Padilla L, Rahman M, Fritz French C, et al. Clade C HIV-1 isolates circulating in Southern Africa exhibit a greater frequency of dicysteine motif-containing Tat variants than those in Southeast Asia and cause increased neurovirulence. Retrovirology. 2013;10:61 pubmed publisher
    ..HIV-1 Tat protein is a viral determinant of neurocognitive dysfunction...
  52. Liu J, Xu P, Collins C, Liu H, Zhang J, Keblesh J, et al. HIV-1 Tat protein increases microglial outward K(+) current and resultant neurotoxic activity. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e64904 pubmed publisher
    ..To test this hypothesis, we investigated the involvement of Kv channels in the response of microglia to HIV-1 Tat protein...
  53. Wires E, Alvarez D, Dobrowolski C, Wang Y, Morales M, Karn J, et al. Methamphetamine activates nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and induces human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transcription in human microglial cells. J Neurovirol. 2012;18:400-10 pubmed publisher
    ..cells immortalized with SV40 T antigen (CHME-5 cells) were cotransfected with an HIV LTR reporter and the HIV Tat gene, a key regulator of viral replication and gene expression, and exposed to METH...
  54. Lu H, Li Z, Xue Y, Schulze Gahmen U, Johnson J, Krogan N, et al. AFF1 is a ubiquitous P-TEFb partner to enable Tat extraction of P-TEFb from 7SK snRNP and formation of SECs for HIV transactivation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:E15-24 pubmed publisher
    ..By increasing the affinity of the HIV-encoded transactivating (Tat) protein for CycT1, AFF1 facilitates Tat's extraction of P-TEFb from 7SK snRNP and the formation of Tat-SECs for ..
  55. Huo L, Li D, Sun L, Liu M, Shi X, Sun X, et al. Tat acetylation regulates its actions on microtubule dynamics and apoptosis in T lymphocytes. J Pathol. 2011;223:28-36 pubmed publisher
    The transactivator protein Tat of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is known to suppress microtubule dynamics and thereby trigger apoptosis in T lymphocytes...
  56. Wilhelm E, Doyle M, Nzaramba I, Magdzinski A, Dumais N, Bell B. CTGC motifs within the HIV core promoter specify Tat-responsive pre-initiation complexes. Retrovirology. 2012;9:62 pubmed publisher
    ..The HIV trans-activating protein, Tat, plays a key function in enhancing HIV transcriptional elongation...
  57. Ju S, Goh A, Kwon D, Youn G, Kwon H, Bae Y, et al. Extracellular HIV-1 Tat induces human beta-defensin-2 production via NF-kappaB/AP-1 dependent pathways in human B cells. Mol Cells. 2012;33:335-41 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we examined the effect of HIV-1 Tat on the expression of hBD in B cells...
  58. De Marco A, Dans P, Knezevich A, Maiuri P, Pantano S, Marcello A. Subcellular localization of the interaction between the human immunodeficiency virus transactivator Tat and the nucleosome assembly protein 1. Amino Acids. 2010;38:1583-93 pubmed publisher
    ..hNAP-1, is a host cofactor for the activity of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transactivator Tat. The interaction between these two proteins has been shown to be important for Tat-mediated transcriptional ..
  59. Krueger B, Varzavand K, Cooper J, Price D. The mechanism of release of P-TEFb and HEXIM1 from the 7SK snRNP by viral and cellular activators includes a conformational change in 7SK. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12335 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of HIV-1 Tat leads to release of P-TEFb and HEXIM1 from the 7SK snRNP in vivo, but the release mechanisms are unclear...
  60. Czudnochowski N, Bösken C, Geyer M. Serine-7 but not serine-5 phosphorylation primes RNA polymerase II CTD for P-TEFb recognition. Nat Commun. 2012;3:842 pubmed publisher
    ..HIV-1 Tat/TAR abrogates Hexim1 inhibition to stimulate transcription of viral genes but does not change the substrate ..
  61. Muniz L, Egloff S, Ughy B, Jady B, Kiss T. Controlling cellular P-TEFb activity by the HIV-1 transcriptional transactivator Tat. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1001152 pubmed publisher
    The human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) transcriptional transactivator (Tat) is essential for synthesis of full-length transcripts from the integrated viral genome by RNA polymerase II (Pol II)...
  62. Brès V, Yoshida T, Pickle L, Jones K. SKIP interacts with c-Myc and Menin to promote HIV-1 Tat transactivation. Mol Cell. 2009;36:75-87 pubmed publisher
    ..associates with c-Myc and Menin, a subunit of the MLL1 histone methyltransferase (H3K4me3) complex and that HIV-1 Tat transactivation requires c-Myc and Menin, but not MLL1 or H3K4me3...
  63. Kuzmina A, Hadad U, Fujinaga K, Taube R. Functional characterization of a human cyclin T1 mutant reveals a different binding surface for Tat and HEXIM1. Virology. 2012;426:152-61 pubmed publisher
    HIV transcription is regulated at the step of elongation by the viral Tat protein and the cellular positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb; Cdk9/cyclin T1)...
  64. Mishra M, Taneja M, Malik S, Khalique H, Seth P. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat modulates proliferation and differentiation of human neural precursor cells: implication in NeuroAIDS. J Neurovirol. 2010;16:355-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Human neural precursor cells were cultured in presence and absence of HIV-1B transactivating protein Tat to investigate if HIV-1 viral protein alters the properties of human neural precursor cells...
  65. Meredith L, Sivakumaran H, Major L, Suhrbier A, Harrich D. Potent inhibition of HIV-1 replication by a Tat mutant. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7769 pubmed publisher
    Herein we describe a mutant of the two-exon HIV-1 Tat protein, termed Nullbasic, that potently inhibits multiple steps of the HIV-1 replication cycle...
  66. Swaminathan S, Murray D, Kelleher A. miRNAs and HIV: unforeseen determinants of host-pathogen interaction. Immunol Rev. 2013;254:265-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, we discuss whether miRNAs may be used as novel biomarkers in serum and the potential to modulate miRNA levels as a unique approach to combating this pathogen. ..
  67. King J, Eugenin E, Hazleton J, Morgello S, Berman J. Mechanisms of HIV-tat-induced phosphorylation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 2A in human primary neurons: implications for neuroAIDS pathogenesis. Am J Pathol. 2010;176:2819-30 pubmed publisher
    ..through elaboration of inflammatory factors and neurotoxic viral proteins, including the viral transactivator, tat. We previously demonstrated that HIV-tat-induced apoptosis in human primary neurons is dependent on N-methyl-D-..
  68. Cardarelli F, Serresi M, Albanese A, Bizzarri R, Beltram F. Quantitative analysis of Tat peptide binding to import carriers reveals unconventional nuclear transport properties. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:12292-9 pubmed publisher
    A detailed study of nuclear import mediated by the HIV-1 Tat peptide (47YGRKKRRQRRR57, TatRRR) is reported...
  69. Faller E, Sugden S, McVey M, Kakal J, MacPherson P. Soluble HIV Tat protein removes the IL-7 receptor alpha-chain from the surface of resting CD8 T cells and targets it for degradation. J Immunol. 2010;185:2854-66 pubmed publisher
    ..CD127) on CD8 T cells in HIV(+) patients and that this downregulation is mediated at least in part by the HIV Tat protein...
  70. Song H, Ju S, Seo W, Goh A, Lee J, Bae Y, et al. Nox2-based NADPH oxidase mediates HIV-1 Tat-induced up-regulation of VCAM-1/ICAM-1 and subsequent monocyte adhesion in human astrocytes. Free Radic Biol Med. 2011;50:576-84 pubmed publisher
    ..molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) by the HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (Tat) in activated microglia and astrocytes may play a pivotal role during the development of AIDS-related encephalitis ..
  71. Verstraete N, Kuzmina A, Diribarne G, Nguyen V, Kobbi L, Ludanyi M, et al. A Cyclin T1 point mutation that abolishes positive transcription elongation factor (P-TEFb) binding to Hexim1 and HIV tat. Retrovirology. 2014;11:50 pubmed publisher
    ..It is recruited to the HIV LTR promoter through an interaction between the Tat viral protein and its Cyclin T1 subunit...
  72. Easley R, Van Duyne R, Coley W, Guendel I, Dadgar S, Kehn Hall K, et al. Chromatin dynamics associated with HIV-1 Tat-activated transcription. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1799:275-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we focus on chromatin remodeling, especially in relation to the transactivator Tat, and review the most important and newly emerging studies that investigate remodeling mechanisms...
  73. Roesch F, Meziane O, Kula A, Nisole S, Porrot F, Anderson I, et al. Hyperthermia stimulates HIV-1 replication. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002792 pubmed publisher
    ..Hyperthermia did not facilitate viral entry nor reverse transcription, but increased Tat transactivation of the LTR viral promoter...
  74. Ott M, Geyer M, Zhou Q. The control of HIV transcription: keeping RNA polymerase II on track. Cell Host Microbe. 2011;10:426-35 pubmed publisher
    ..positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) and the long-sought host cofactor for the HIV-1 transactivator Tat. Recent years have brought new insights into the intricate regulation of P-TEFb function and its relationship with ..
  75. Le Douce V, Colin L, Redel L, Cherrier T, Herbein G, Aunis D, et al. LSD1 cooperates with CTIP2 to promote HIV-1 transcriptional silencing. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:1904-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, our data suggest that LSD1-induced H3K4 trimethylation is linked to hSET1 recruitment at the integrated provirus. ..
  76. El Hage N, Podhaizer E, Sturgill J, Hauser K. Toll-like receptor expression and activation in astroglia: differential regulation by HIV-1 Tat, gp120, and morphine. Immunol Invest. 2011;40:498-522 pubmed publisher
    In this study, we aimed to determine whether morphine alone or in combination with HIV-1 Tat or gp120 affects the expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) by astrocytes and to assess whether TLRs expressed by astrocytes function in the ..
  77. Mizutani T, Ishizaka A, Tomizawa M, Okazaki T, Yamamichi N, Kawana Tachikawa A, et al. Loss of the Brm-type SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex is a strong barrier to the Tat-independent transcriptional elongation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transcripts. J Virol. 2009;83:11569-80 pubmed publisher
    To elucidate the epigenetic regulation of Tat-independent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transcription following proviral integration, we constructed an HIV type 1 (HIV-1)-based replication-defective viral vector that expresses a ..
  78. Mbonye U, Karn J. Control of HIV latency by epigenetic and non-epigenetic mechanisms. Curr HIV Res. 2011;9:554-67 pubmed
    ..HIV transcription encoded by the virus, instead latency arises when the regulatory feedback mechanism driven by HIV Tat expression is disrupted...
  79. Mermis J, Gu H, Xue B, Li F, Tawfik O, Buch S, et al. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 ?/platelet derived growth factor axis in HIV-associated pulmonary vascular remodeling. Respir Res. 2011;12:103 pubmed publisher
    ..Supporting our in-vivo findings, HPAECs treated with HIV-proteins: Tat and gp120, demonstrated increased ROS and parallel increase of PDGF-BB expression with the maximum induction ..
  80. Ensoli B, Bellino S, Tripiciano A, Longo O, Francavilla V, Marcotullio S, et al. Therapeutic immunization with HIV-1 Tat reduces immune activation and loss of regulatory T-cells and improves immune function in subjects on HAART. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13540 pubmed publisher
    ..Among them, Tat is essential for virus gene expression and replication, either in primary infection or for virus reactivation ..
  81. Schulze Gahmen U, Upton H, Birnberg A, Bao K, Chou S, Krogan N, et al. The AFF4 scaffold binds human P-TEFb adjacent to HIV Tat. elife. 2013;2:e00327 pubmed publisher
    ..The HIV-1 Tat protein selectively recruits P-TEFb as part of a super elongation complex (SEC) organized on a flexible AFF1 or ..
  82. Cotter E, Chew N, Powderly W, Doran P. HIV type 1 alters mesenchymal stem cell differentiation potential and cell phenotype ex vivo. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2011;27:187-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, inhibition of COUP TF-1 by HIV-1 TAT was identified as a potential molecular mechanism for these effects...
  83. Gu J, Babayeva N, Suwa Y, Baranovskiy A, Price D, Tahirov T. Crystal structure of HIV-1 Tat complexed with human P-TEFb and AFF4. Cell Cycle. 2014;13:1788-97 pubmed publisher
    ..HIV-1 hijacks the cellular machinery that controls RNA polymerase II elongation through an interaction of HIV-1 Tat with the positive transcription elongation factor P-TEFb, which interacts with an AF4 family member (AFF1/2/3/4) in ..