syntaxin

Summary

Gene Symbol: syntaxin
Description: syntaxin 1A
Alias: HPC-1, P35-1, STX1, SYN1A, syntaxin-1A, neuron-specific antigen HPC-1, syntaxin 1A (brain)
Species: human
Products:     syntaxin

Top Publications

  1. Bennett M, Calakos N, Scheller R. Syntaxin: a synaptic protein implicated in docking of synaptic vesicles at presynaptic active zones. Science. 1992;257:255-9 pubmed
    ..An antibody to p35 immunoprecipitated solubilized N-type calcium channels. The p35 proteins may function in docking synaptic vesicles near calcium channels at presynaptic active zones. ..
  2. Ravichandran V, Chawla A, Roche P. Identification of a novel syntaxin- and synaptobrevin/VAMP-binding protein, SNAP-23, expressed in non-neuronal tissues. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:13300-3 pubmed
    ..a vesicle-associated membrane protein termed synaptobrevin/VAMP with a target compartment membrane protein termed syntaxin. These proteins, together with SNAP-25 (synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa), form a complex which serves as ..
  3. Risinger C, Bennett M. Differential phosphorylation of syntaxin and synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) isoforms. J Neurochem. 1999;72:614-24 pubmed
    ..interaction between SNAP-25 and phosphorylated syntaxin 4 and an enhanced interaction between phosphorylated syntaxin 1A and the synaptic vesicle protein synaptotagmin I, a potential Ca2+ sensor in triggering synaptic vesicle ..
  4. Ilardi J, Mochida S, Sheng Z. Snapin: a SNARE-associated protein implicated in synaptic transmission. Nat Neurosci. 1999;2:119-24 pubmed
    ..of proteins, which include the synaptic vesicle membrane protein VAMP/synaptobrevin and the plasmalemmal proteins syntaxin and SNAP-25. We have now identified another SNAP-25-binding protein, called Snapin...
  5. Saxena S, Quick M, Tousson A, Oh Y, Warnock D. Interaction of syntaxins with the amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:20812-7 pubmed
    ..of these proteins in regulating ENaC activity, we co-expressed rat ENaC cRNA (alpha, beta, gamma subunits) with syntaxin 1A or 3 cRNAs in Xenopus oocytes. Basal ENaC currents were inhibited by syntaxin 1A and stimulated by syntaxin 3...
  6. Barclay J, Craig T, Fisher R, Ciufo L, Evans G, Morgan A, et al. Phosphorylation of Munc18 by protein kinase C regulates the kinetics of exocytosis. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:10538-45 pubmed
    ..Mutation of both phosphorylation sites to glutamate reduces its affinity for syntaxin and so acts as a phosphomimetic mutation...
  7. Foletti D, Lin R, Finley M, Scheller R. Phosphorylated syntaxin 1 is localized to discrete domains along a subset of axons. J Neurosci. 2000;20:4535-44 pubmed
    b>Syntaxin 1 is a SNARE protein that plays a central role in synaptic vesicle (SV) exocytosis. We generated an antibody that specifically recognizes a casein kinase II-mediated phosphorylation on serine-14 of syntaxin 1...
  8. Tomes C, Michaut M, De Blas G, Visconti P, Matti U, Mayorga L. SNARE complex assembly is required for human sperm acrosome reaction. Dev Biol. 2002;243:326-38 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, they indicate that the onset of sperm exocytosis relies on the functional assembly of SNARE complexes. ..
  9. Condliffe S, Carattino M, Frizzell R, Zhang H. Syntaxin 1A regulates ENaC via domain-specific interactions. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:12796-804 pubmed
    ..Previous reports have implicated a role for the t-SNARE protein, syntaxin 1A (S1A), in the regulation of ENaC current (I(Na))...

More Information

Publications109 found, 100 shown here

  1. Berdiev B, Jovov B, Tucker W, Naren A, Fuller C, Chapman E, et al. ENaC subunit-subunit interactions and inhibition by syntaxin 1A. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2004;286:F1100-6 pubmed
    ..In this study, we demonstrate that syntaxin 1A physically interacts with ENaC and functionally regulates ENaC activity...
  2. Nakamura K, Anitha A, Yamada K, Tsujii M, Iwayama Y, Hattori E, et al. Genetic and expression analyses reveal elevated expression of syntaxin 1A ( STX1A) in high functioning autism. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2008;11:1073-84 pubmed publisher
    ..One candidate 5-HTT-regulatory protein is the presynaptic protein, syntaxin 1A (STX1A)...
  3. Hamdan F, Piton A, Gauthier J, Lortie A, Dubeau F, Dobrzeniecka S, et al. De novo STXBP1 mutations in mental retardation and nonsyndromic epilepsy. Ann Neurol. 2009;65:748-53 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that STXBP1 disruption is associated with autosomal dominant mental retardation and nonsyndromic epilepsy. ..
  4. Hanson P, Otto H, Barton N, Jahn R. The N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein and alpha-SNAP induce a conformational change in syntaxin. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:16955-61 pubmed
    ..We find that alpha-SNAP binds directly to syntaxin 1A as well as weakly to SNAP-25, while it does not bind to synaptobrevin II...
  5. Foran P, Lawrence G, Shone C, Foster K, Dolly J. Botulinum neurotoxin C1 cleaves both syntaxin and SNAP-25 in intact and permeabilized chromaffin cells: correlation with its blockade of catecholamine release. Biochemistry. 1996;35:2630-6 pubmed
    ..A good correlation was obtained between degradation of syntaxin 1A/B and reduction in Ca2+- or Ba2+-dependent secretion...
  6. Naren A, Nelson D, Xie W, Jovov B, Pevsner J, Bennett M, et al. Regulation of CFTR chloride channels by syntaxin and Munc18 isoforms. Nature. 1997;390:302-5 pubmed
    ..Here we show that CFTR is regulated by an epithelially expressed syntaxin (syntaxin 1A), a membrane protein that also modulates neurosecretion and calcium-channel gating in brain...
  7. Dulubova I, Sugita S, Hill S, Hosaka M, Fernandez I, Sudhof T, et al. A conformational switch in syntaxin during exocytosis: role of munc18. EMBO J. 1999;18:4372-82 pubmed
    b>Syntaxin 1, an essential protein in synaptic membrane fusion, contains a helical autonomously folded N-terminal domain, a C-terminal SNARE motif and a transmembrane region...
  8. Naren A, Di A, Cormet Boyaka E, Boyaka P, McGhee J, Zhou W, et al. Syntaxin 1A is expressed in airway epithelial cells, where it modulates CFTR Cl(-) currents. J Clin Invest. 2000;105:377-86 pubmed
    ..we showed that CFTR-mediated Cl(-) currents in the Xenopus oocyte expression system are inhibited by syntaxin 1A, a component of the membrane trafficking machinery...
  9. Misura K, Scheller R, Weis W. Three-dimensional structure of the neuronal-Sec1-syntaxin 1a complex. Nature. 2000;404:355-62 pubmed
    b>Syntaxin 1a and neuronal Sec1 (nSec1) form an evolutionarily conserved heterodimer that is essential for vesicle trafficking and membrane fusion. The crystal structure of the nSec1-syntaxin 1a complex, determined at 2...
  10. Cormet Boyaka E, Di A, Chang S, Naren A, Tousson A, Nelson D, et al. CFTR chloride channels are regulated by a SNAP-23/syntaxin 1A complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:12477-82 pubmed
    ..Individual t-SNAREs (e.g., syntaxin 1A) also regulate synaptic calcium channels and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), the ..
  11. Ganeshan R, Di A, Nelson D, Quick M, Kirk K. The interaction between syntaxin 1A and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator Cl- channels is mechanistically distinct from syntaxin 1A-SNARE interactions. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:2876-85 pubmed
    b>Syntaxin 1A binds to and inhibits epithelial cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl(-) channels and synaptic Ca(2+) channels in addition to participating in SNARE complex assembly and membrane fusion...
  12. Rickman C, Medine C, Bergmann A, Duncan R. Functionally and spatially distinct modes of munc18-syntaxin 1 interaction. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:12097-103 pubmed
    ..b>Syntaxin 1a, a core component of the exocytic SNARE complex in neurons and neuroendocrine cells, is regulated directly by ..
  13. Connell E, Darios F, Broersen K, Gatsby N, Peak Chew S, Rickman C, et al. Mechanism of arachidonic acid action on syntaxin-Munc18. EMBO Rep. 2007;8:414-9 pubmed
    b>Syntaxin and Munc18 are, in tandem, essential for exocytosis in all eukaryotes...
  14. Buss S, Leber A, Chapin K, Fey P, Bankowski M, Jones M, et al. Multicenter evaluation of the BioFire FilmArray gastrointestinal panel for etiologic diagnosis of infectious gastroenteritis. J Clin Microbiol. 2015;53:915-25 pubmed publisher
    ..coli, enteropathogenic E. coli, enterotoxigenic E. coli, Shiga-like toxin-producing E. coli (stx1 and stx2) (including specific detection of E. coli O157), Shigella spp./enteroinvasive E. coli, Cryptosporidium spp...
  15. Kennedy N, Mukherjee N, Banerjee P. Escherichia coli O157:H7 Cells Exposed to Lettuce Leaf Lysate in Refrigerated Conditions Exhibit Differential Expression of Selected Virulence and Adhesion-Related Genes with Altered Mammalian Cell Adherence. J Food Prot. 2016;79:1259-65 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of the current study indicate a reduction in the attachment of cold-shocked EcO157 to epithelial cells and higher levels of Shiga toxin gene expression at the molecular level. ..
  16. Nakanishi K, Morikane S, Ichikawa S, Kurohane K, Niwa Y, Akimoto Y, et al. Protection of Human Colon Cells from Shiga Toxin by Plant-based Recombinant Secretory IgA. Sci Rep. 2017;7:45843 pubmed publisher
    ..mAb) consisting of variable regions from a mouse IgG mAb specific for the binding subunit of Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1) and the Fc region of mouse IgA...
  17. Mei G, Tang J, Carey C, Bach S, Kostrzynska M. The effect of oxidative stress on gene expression of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 and non-O157 serotypes. Int J Food Microbiol. 2015;215:7-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Particularly, Shiga toxin gene stx2 was upregulated in O157:H7, but not in O104:H4. Moreover, stx1 was significantly upregulated in STEC O157:H7, but only slightly upregulated Stx1-positive non-O157 serotypes...
  18. du Plessis E, Duvenage F, Korsten L. Determining the potential link between irrigation water quality and the microbiological quality of onions by phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Escherichia coli isolates. J Food Prot. 2015;78:643-51 pubmed publisher
    ..coli isolates from water and onions, 42.2% were resistant to multiple antibiotics. Virulence genes eae, stx1, and stx2 were detected in 2.2, 6.6, and 2.2% of the E. coli isolates, respectively...
  19. Calhau V, Domingues S, Ribeiro G, Mendonça N, da Silva G. Interplay between pathogenicity island carriage, resistance profile and plasmid acquisition in uropathogenic Escherichia coli. J Med Microbiol. 2015;64:828-35 pubmed publisher
    ..determination, detection of PAIs and virulence genes papAH, papC, sfa/foc, afa/dra, iutA, kpsMII, cnf1, eaeA, hlyA, stx1 and stx2, plasmid replicon typing and screening for plasmidic resistance determinants qnr, aac(6')-Ib-cr, qepA and ..
  20. Kohansal M, Ghanbari Asad A. Molecular analysis of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and non-O157 strains isolated from calves. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 2018;85:e1-e7 pubmed publisher
    ..coli and 71 (22.7%) of them were identified as STEC: 41(69.5%) carried the stx2 gene, 21 (35.6%) carried the stx1 gene and 3 (5%) carried both. Twenty-six (44%) of the isolates showed the eaegene...
  21. Divya S, Hatha A. Screening of tropical estuarine water in south-west coast of India reveals emergence of ARGs-harboring hypervirulent Escherichia coli of global significance. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2019;222:235-248 pubmed publisher
    ..tetA, tetB, sul1, sul2, strA, aphA2, catI, dhfr1, and dhfr7), integrase (int1, int2, and int3), Shiga toxin genes (stx1 and stx2) and extraintestinal virulence genes (papAH, papC, sfa/focDE, kpsMT II, and iutA)...
  22. Laarem M, Barguigua A, Nayme K, Akila A, Zerouali K, El Mdaghri N, et al. Occurrence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance and virulence genes in avian Escherichia coli isolates from Algeria. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2017;11:143-151 pubmed publisher
    ..Four (13.8%) isolates carried one of the Shiga toxin E. coli-associated genes stx1, stx2, and ehxA alleles. The high prevalence of NAL-resistant E...
  23. Nakanishi K, Morikane S, Hosokawa N, Kajihara Y, Kurohane K, Niwa Y, et al. Plant-derived secretory component forms secretory IgA with shiga toxin 1-specific dimeric IgA produced by mouse cells and whole plants. Plant Cell Rep. 2019;38:161-172 pubmed publisher
    ..When reacted with Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1)-specific ones, the antigen-binding activity was maintained. When an A...
  24. Legros N, Pohlentz G, Steil D, Kouzel I, Liashkovich I, Mellmann A, et al. Membrane assembly of Shiga toxin glycosphingolipid receptors and toxin refractiveness of MDCK II epithelial cells. J Lipid Res. 2018;59:1383-1401 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that the cellular content of Stx receptor GSLs and their biochemical detection in DRM preparations alone are inadequate to predict cellular sensitivity toward Stxs. ..
  25. Jandhyala D, Ahluwalia A, Schimmel J, Rogers A, Leong J, Thorpe C. Activation of the Classical Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases Is Part of the Shiga Toxin-Induced Ribotoxic Stress Response and May Contribute to Shiga Toxin-Induced Inflammation. Infect Immun. 2016;84:138-48 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that Stx1 activates ERK1/2 in a biphasic manner: the first phase occurs in response to StxB1 subunit, while the second phase ..
  26. Luz D, Chen G, Maranhão A, Rocha L, Sidhu S, Piazza R. Development and characterization of recombinant antibody fragments that recognize and neutralize in vitro Stx2 toxin from Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0120481 pubmed publisher
    ..Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains (STEC) may produce Stx1 and/or Stx2 and variants...
  27. Njoroge S, Muigai A, Njiruh P, Kariuki S. MOLECULAR CHARACTERISATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE PATTERNS OF ESCHERICHIA COLI ISOLATES FROM GOATS SLAUGHTERED IN PARTS OF KENYA. East Afr Med J. 2013;90:72-83 pubmed
    ..Among the isolates 26(48%) were positive for the stx1 gene, 19(35%) had the eae gene, 10(19%) possessed est gene,while 8(15%) harboured elt gene...
  28. Baghel R, Grover S, Kaur H, Jajodia A, Parween S, Sinha J, et al. Synergistic association of STX1A and VAMP2 with cryptogenic epilepsy in North Indian population. Brain Behav. 2016;6:e00490 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, to establish the clinical utility of the results, replication in a large and similar phenotypic group of patients is warranted. ..
  29. Conrady D, Flagler M, Friedmann D, Vander Wielen B, Kovall R, Weiss A, et al. Molecular basis of differential B-pentamer stability of Shiga toxins 1 and 2. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15153 pubmed publisher
    ..There are two major isoforms, Stx1 and Stx2, which differ dramatically in potency despite having 57% sequence identity...
  30. Harada T, Iguchi A, Iyoda S, Seto K, Taguchi M, Kumeda Y. Multiplex Real-Time PCR Assays for Screening of Shiga Toxin 1 and 2 Genes, Including All Known Subtypes, and Escherichia coli O26-, O111-, and O157-Specific Genes in Beef and Sprout Enrichment Cultures. J Food Prot. 2015;78:1800-11 pubmed publisher
    Shiga toxin family members have recently been classified using a new nomenclature into three Stx1 subtypes (Stx1a, Stx1c, and Stx1d) and seven Stx2 subtypes (Stx2a, Stx2b, Stx2c, Stx2d, Stx2e, Stx2f, and Stx2g)...
  31. Fakih I, Thiry D, Duprez J, Saulmont M, Iguchi A, Piérard D, et al. Identification of Shiga toxin-producing (STEC) and enteropathogenic (EPEC) Escherichia coli in diarrhoeic calves and comparative genomics of O5 bovine and human STEC. Vet Microbiol. 2017;202:16-22 pubmed publisher
    ..between 2009 and 2013 on EHLY agar from less than 2 month-old diarrhoeic calves with a triplex PCR targeting the stx1, stx2, eae virulence genes; (ii) to serotype the positive isolates with PCR targeting the genes coding for ten most ..
  32. Barbosa L, Ribeiro L, Lavezzo L, Barbosa M, Rossi G, do Amaral L. Detection of pathogenic Escherichia coli and microbiological quality of chilled shrimp sold in street markets. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2016;62:372-8 pubmed publisher
    ..EPEC and ETEC strains were detected in whole shrimp. These findings provide useful information for public health authorities to improve the food safety and health of the Brazilian population. ..
  33. Su Q, Cai Q, Gerwin C, Smith C, Sheng Z. Syntabulin is a microtubule-associated protein implicated in syntaxin transport in neurons. Nat Cell Biol. 2004;6:941-53 pubmed
    ..Here, we report the identification of a syntaxin-1-binding protein named syntabulin...
  34. Iweriebor B, Iwu C, Obi L, Nwodo U, Okoh A. Multiple antibiotic resistances among Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli O157 in feces of dairy cattle farms in Eastern Cape of South Africa. BMC Microbiol. 2015;15:213 pubmed publisher
    ..subjected to polymerase chain reactions (PCR) for identification of O157 serogroup and Shiga toxin producing genes (stx1, stx2) on genomic DNA extracted by boiling method...
  35. Lee M, Kwon H, Nguyen L, Lee E, Lee C, Choi S, et al. Shiga Toxins Trigger the Secretion of Lysyl-tRNA Synthetase to Enhance Proinflammatory Responses. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2016;26:432-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Although numerous studies report proinflammatory responses to Stx type 1 (Stx1) or Stx type 2 (Stx2) both in vivo and in vitro, none have examined dynamic immune regulation involving cytokines ..
  36. Lamba K, Nelson J, Kimura A, Poe A, Collins J, Kao A, et al. Shiga Toxin 1-Producing Shigella sonnei Infections, California, United States, 2014-2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22:679-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Stx production by other shigellae is uncommon, but in 2014, Stx1-producing S. sonnei infections were detected in California. Surveillance was enhanced to test S...
  37. Golshani M, Oloomi M, Bouzari S. In silico analysis of Shiga toxins (Stxs) to identify new potential vaccine targets for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. In Silico Pharmacol. 2016;5:2 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the present study was to find conserved regions within the amino acid sequences of Stx1, Stx2 (Shiga toxin) and their variants...
  38. Shao X, Li C, Fernandez I, Zhang X, Sudhof T, Rizo J. Synaptotagmin-syntaxin interaction: the C2 domain as a Ca2+-dependent electrostatic switch. Neuron. 1997;18:133-42 pubmed
    ..I (C2A domain) contains a bipartite Ca2+-binding motif and interacts in a Ca2+-dependent manner with syntaxin, a central component of the membrane fusion complex...
  39. Okamoto M, Sudhof T. Mints, Munc18-interacting proteins in synaptic vesicle exocytosis. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:31459-64 pubmed
    Munc18-1 is a neuronal protein that interacts with syntaxin 1 and is required for synaptic vesicle exocytosis. We have now identified two Munc18-1-interacting proteins called Mint1 and Mint2 that may mediate the function of Munc18-1...
  40. Gonelle Gispert C, Molinete M, Halban P, Sadoul K. Membrane localization and biological activity of SNAP-25 cysteine mutants in insulin-secreting cells. J Cell Sci. 2000;113 ( Pt 18):3197-205 pubmed
    ..The mutant SNAP-25 forms were all found to bind syntaxin 1A with equal efficacy...
  41. Hu K, Carroll J, Rickman C, Davletov B. Action of complexin on SNARE complex. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:41652-6 pubmed
    ..protein receptor) proteins: synaptobrevin/vesicle-associated membrane protein in the vesicular membrane and syntaxin and SNAP-25 in the presynaptic membrane...
  42. Imai A, Nashida T, Yoshie S, Shimomura H. Intracellular localisation of SNARE proteins in rat parotid acinar cells: SNARE complexes on the apical plasma membrane. Arch Oral Biol. 2003;48:597-604 pubmed
    ..Syntaxins 2 and 3 were localised in the apical plasma membrane (APM), and syntaxin 4 was localised in the plasma membrane. SNAP-23 was localised in the APM and intracellular membrane (ICM)...
  43. Lemos C, Pereira Monteiro J, Mendonça D, Ramos E, Barros J, Sequeiros J, et al. Evidence of syntaxin 1A involvement in migraine susceptibility: a Portuguese study. Arch Neurol. 2010;67:422-7 pubmed publisher
    To confirm syntaxin 1A as a risk factor for migraine, given that syntaxin 1A interacts with several factors in migraine pathophysiology. Case-control approach. An outpatient clinic...
  44. Sumbana J, Taviani E, Manjate A, Paglietti B, Santona A, Colombo M. Genetic determinants of pathogenicity of Escherichia coli isolated from children with acute diarrhea in Maputo, Mozambique. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2015;9:661-4 pubmed publisher
    ..All isolates were PCR tested for species-specific genes and for 11 molecular markers: stx1, stx2, eae, bfpA, lt, st, ipaH, aap, aggR CVD432 and daaE. Of the 80 E...
  45. Xu H, Gong L, Xia Y, Qu L, Li Q, Pang L, et al. Frizzled-7 promoter is highly active in tumors and promoter-driven Shiga-like toxin I inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma growth. Oncotarget. 2015;6:39908-23 pubmed publisher
    ..the Frizzled-7 promoter was used to drive the expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and Shiga-like toxin I (Stx1) (pFZD7-GFP/Stx1) genes...
  46. Saxena S, Singh M, Kaur S, George C. Distinct domain-dependent effect of syntaxin1A on amiloride-sensitive sodium channel (ENaC) currents in HT-29 colonic epithelial cells. Int J Biol Sci. 2006;3:47-56 pubmed
    ..is the consequence of the physical enhancement of ENaC at the cell surface in cells over-expressed with syntaxin(s)...
  47. Soldovieri M, Boutry Kryza N, Milh M, Doummar D, Heron B, Bourel E, et al. Novel KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 mutations in a large cohort of families with benign neonatal epilepsy: first evidence for an altered channel regulation by syntaxin-1A. Hum Mutat. 2014;35:356-67 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we describe, for the first time, that some mutations impair channel regulation by syntaxin-1A, highlighting a novel pathogenetic mechanism for KCNQ2-related epilepsies.
  48. Cupertino R, Kappel D, Bandeira C, Schuch J, da Silva B, Müller D, et al. SNARE complex in developmental psychiatry: neurotransmitter exocytosis and beyond. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2016;123:867-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Such perspective should be considered in future studies regarding SNARE complex genes. ..
  49. Wang J, Katani R, Li L, Hegde N, Roberts E, Kapur V, et al. Rapid Detection of Escherichia coli O157 and Shiga Toxins by Lateral Flow Immunoassays. Toxins (Basel). 2016;8:92 pubmed publisher
    ..STEC strains enumerate two types of potent Shiga toxins (Stx1 and Stx2) that are responsible for causing diseases. It is important to detect the E...
  50. Khalil R, Skinner C, Patfield S, He X. Phage-mediated Shiga toxin (Stx) horizontal gene transfer and expression in non-Shiga toxigenic Enterobacter and Escherichia coli strains. Pathog Dis. 2016;74: pubmed publisher
    Enterobacter cloacae M12X01451 strain recently identified from a clinical specimen produces a new Stx1 subtype (Stx1e) that was not neutralized by existing anti-Stx1 monoclonal antibodies. Acquisition of stx by Ent...
  51. Nobili G, Franconieri I, Basanisi M, La Bella G, Tozzoli R, Caprioli A, et al. Short communication: Isolation of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in raw milk and mozzarella cheese in southern Italy. J Dairy Sci. 2016;99:7877-7880 pubmed publisher
    ..In 2015, 95 food and environmental samples were examined for the presence of Shiga toxin genes (stx1 and stx2)...
  52. Puri Giri R, Ghosh A, Thomson J, Zurek L. House Flies in the Confined Cattle Environment Carry Non-O157 Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli. J Med Entomol. 2017;54:726-732 pubmed publisher
    ..However, STEC was found in 1.5% of house flies from feedlots only. These were E. coli O103 and O104 harboring stx1 and ehxA and E. coli O45 with stx1, eae, and ehxA...
  53. Hata Y, Sudhof T. A novel ubiquitous form of Munc-18 interacts with multiple syntaxins. Use of the yeast two-hybrid system to study interactions between proteins involved in membrane traffic. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:13022-8 pubmed
    Munc-18-1 is a 67-kDa neuronal protein that binds tightly to syntaxin 1 and functions in synaptic vesicle exocytosis (Hata, Y., Slaughter, C.A., and Südhof, T.C. (1993a) Nature 366, 347-351)...
  54. Dierks H, Kolanus J, Kolanus W. Actin cytoskeletal association of cytohesin-1 is regulated by specific phosphorylation of its carboxyl-terminal polybasic domain. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:37472-81 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that both phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and protein kinase C-dependent intracellular pathways that stimulate beta(2)-integrin-mediated adhesion of T lymphocytes converge on cytohesin-1 as functional integrator. ..
  55. Skinner C, Zhang G, Patfield S, He X. An in vitro combined antibiotic-antibody treatment eliminates toxicity from Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015;59:5435-44 pubmed publisher
    ..In combination with neutralizing antibodies to Stx1 and Stx2, the tigecycline-antibody treatment fully protected Vero cells from Stx toxicity, even when the STEC ..
  56. Terao Y, Takeshita K, Nishiyama Y, Morishita N, Matsumoto T, Morimatsu F. Promising Nucleic Acid Lateral Flow Assay Plus PCR for Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli. J Food Prot. 2015;78:1560-8 pubmed publisher
    ..1 to 1 pg of genomic DNA (about 20 to 200 CFU) per test, and the NALFA plus PCR was able to detect Stx1- and Stx2-producing E. coli strains with similar sensitivities...
  57. Ercoli L, Farneti S, Zicavo A, Mencaroni G, Blasi G, Striano G, et al. Prevalence and characteristics of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from pigs and pork products in Umbria and Marche regions of Italy. Int J Food Microbiol. 2016;232:7-14 pubmed publisher
    ..coli (VTEC). After an enrichment step, each sample was analysed by real-time PCR to detect the stx1, stx2, and eae genes...
  58. Matussek A, Jernberg C, Einemo I, Monecke S, Ehricht R, Engelmann I, et al. Genetic makeup of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in relation to clinical symptoms and duration of shedding: a microarray analysis of isolates from Swedish children. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2017;36:1433-1441 pubmed publisher
    ..Seven genes were associated with prolonged stx shedding; the presence of three genes (lpfA, senB, and stx1) and the absence of four genes (espB_O157, espF, astA, and intI1)...
  59. Quick M. Substrates regulate gamma-aminobutyric acid transporters in a syntaxin 1A-dependent manner. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:5686-91 pubmed
    Several ion channels and pumps are regulated by syntaxin 1A, a component of the synaptic vesicle docking and fusion apparatus. One such regulated protein is the rat brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter GAT1...
  60. Wei S, Ma Y, Luo J, He X, Yue P, Guan Z, et al. Hydroxypropylcellulose as matrix carrier for novel cage-like microparticles prepared by spray-freeze-drying technology. Carbohydr Polym. 2017;157:953-961 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the prepared cage-like microparticles is a promising basis for further formulation development. ..
  61. Reed G, Houng A, Fitzgerald M. Human platelets contain SNARE proteins and a Sec1p homologue that interacts with syntaxin 4 and is phosphorylated after thrombin activation: implications for platelet secretion. Blood. 1999;93:2617-26 pubmed
    ..We found that platelet membranes contain a full complement of interacting proteins-VAMP, SNAP-25, and syntaxin 4-that are necessary for vesicle docking and fusion with the plasma membrane...
  62. Sung U, Apparsundaram S, Galli A, Kahlig K, Savchenko V, Schroeter S, et al. A regulated interaction of syntaxin 1A with the antidepressant-sensitive norepinephrine transporter establishes catecholamine clearance capacity. J Neurosci. 2003;23:1697-709 pubmed
    ..b>Syntaxin 1A, a presynaptic soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) protein, interacts ..
  63. Blackmer T, Larsen E, Bartleson C, Kowalchyk J, Yoon E, Preininger A, et al. G protein betagamma directly regulates SNARE protein fusion machinery for secretory granule exocytosis. Nat Neurosci. 2005;8:421-5 pubmed
    ..Here we show inhibitory coupling between GPCRs and vesicle exocytosis mediated directly by Gbetagamma interactions with the Ca(2+)-dependent fusion machinery. ..
  64. Kawashima K, Kishi T, Ikeda M, Kitajima T, Yamanouchi Y, Kinoshita Y, et al. No association between tagging SNPs of SNARE complex genes (STX1A, VAMP2 and SNAP25) and schizophrenia in a Japanese population. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2008;147B:1327-31 pubmed publisher
    ..However, these associations could not be confirmed in the second-set analysis. These results suggest that the SNARE complex-related genes do not play a major role in susceptibility to schizophrenia in the Japanese population. ..
  65. Gil Pisa I, Munarriz Cuezva E, Ramos Miguel A, Urigüen L, Meana J, Garcia Sevilla J. Regulation of munc18-1 and syntaxin-1A interactive partners in schizophrenia prefrontal cortex: down-regulation of munc18-1a isoform and 75 kDa SNARE complex after antipsychotic treatment. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2012;15:573-88 pubmed publisher
    Munc18-1 and syntaxin-1 are crucial interacting molecules for synaptic membrane fusion and neurotransmitter release...
  66. Yilmaz M, Edgünlü T, Yilmaz N, Cetin E, Çelik S, Emir G, et al. Genetic variants of synaptic vesicle and presynaptic plasma membrane proteins in idiopathic generalized epilepsy. J Recept Signal Transduct Res. 2014;34:38-43 pubmed publisher
    ..of two synaptic vesicle proteins (VAMP2 and Synaptotagmin XI) and two presynaptic plasma membrane proteins (Syntaxin 1A and SNAP-25) in patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE)...
  67. Kuster A, Nola S, Dingli F, Vacca B, Gauchy C, Beaujouan J, et al. The Q-soluble N-Ethylmaleimide-sensitive Factor Attachment Protein Receptor (Q-SNARE) SNAP-47 Regulates Trafficking of Selected Vesicle-associated Membrane Proteins (VAMPs). J Biol Chem. 2015;290:28056-69 pubmed publisher
    ..SNAP-47 also interacted with ER and Golgi syntaxin 5 and with syntaxin 1 in the absence of Munc18a, when syntaxin 1 is retained in the ER...
  68. Nakayama T, Akagawa K. Transcription regulation mechanism of the syntaxin 1A gene via protein kinase A. Biochem J. 2017;474:2465-2473 pubmed publisher
    b>Syntaxin 1A (Stx1a) is primarily involved in the docking of synaptic vesicles at active zones in neurons...
  69. Riveros M, García W, Garcia C, Durand D, Mercado E, Ruiz J, et al. Molecular and Phenotypic Characterization of Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Bacteremic Children. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017;97:1329-1336 pubmed publisher
    ..with DEC [enterotoxigenic (lt and st), enteropathogenic (eaeA), shiga toxin-producing (stx1and stx2), enteroinvasive (ipaH), enteroaggregative (aggR), and diffusely adherent (daaD<..
  70. Usein C, Ciontea A, Militaru C, Condei M, Dinu S, Oprea M, et al. Molecular characterisation of human Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O26 strains: results of an outbreak investigation, Romania, February to August 2016. Euro Surveill. 2017;22: pubmed publisher
    ..The virulence content of most strains highlighted a high risk for severe outcome in infected patients. Improving the national surveillance strategy for STEC infections in Romania needs to be further considered...
  71. Jagadish M, Tellam J, Macaulay S, Gough K, James D, Ward C. Novel isoform of syntaxin 1 is expressed in mammalian cells. Biochem J. 1997;321 ( Pt 1):151-6 pubmed
    b>Syntaxin 1A has been identified previously as a neural-cell-specific, membrane-anchored receptor protein required for docking and fusion of synaptic vesicles with the presynaptic plasma membrane...
  72. Shuang R, Zhang L, Fletcher A, Groblewski G, Pevsner J, Stuenkel E. Regulation of Munc-18/syntaxin 1A interaction by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 in nerve endings. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:4957-66 pubmed
    The Munc-18-syntaxin 1A complex has been postulated to act as a negative control on the regulated exocytotic process because its formation blocks the interaction of syntaxin with vesicle SNARE proteins...
  73. Martin Martin B, Nabokina S, Lazo P, Mollinedo F. Co-expression of several human syntaxin genes in neutrophils and differentiating HL-60 cells: variant isoforms and detection of syntaxin 1. J Leukoc Biol. 1999;65:397-406 pubmed
    ..in human peripheral blood lymphocytes and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, which, unlike neutrophils, also expressed syntaxin 10. We have identified two isoforms of syntaxin 3...
  74. Kauppi M, Wohlfahrt G, Olkkonen V. Analysis of the Munc18b-syntaxin binding interface. Use of a mutant Munc18b to dissect the functions of syntaxins 2 and 3. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:43973-9 pubmed
    ..b>syntaxin 1A complex...
  75. Nogami S, Satoh S, Nakano M, Shimizu H, Fukushima H, Maruyama A, et al. Taxilin; a novel syntaxin-binding protein that is involved in Ca2+-dependent exocytosis in neuroendocrine cells. Genes Cells. 2003;8:17-28 pubmed
    The syntaxin family is a central coordinator and participates in multiple protein-protein interactions in the soluble N-ethyl maleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor machinery, which is involved in intracellular vesicle ..
  76. Graham M, Barclay J, Burgoyne R. Syntaxin/Munc18 interactions in the late events during vesicle fusion and release in exocytosis. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:32751-60 pubmed
    ..the kinetics of single vesicle fusion/release events in adrenal chromaffin cells, the effect of expression of syntaxin 1A mutants was examined...
  77. DeGiorgis J, Jaffe H, Moreira J, Carlotti C, Leite J, Pant H, et al. Phosphoproteomic analysis of synaptosomes from human cerebral cortex. J Proteome Res. 2005;4:306-15 pubmed
    ..of residues on synaptic proteins that were presumably phosphorylated in the intact cell, including synapsin 1, syntaxin 1, and SNIP, PSD-93, NCAM, GABA-B receptor, chaperone molecules, and protein kinases...
  78. Kang Y, Ng B, Leung Y, He Y, Xie H, Lodwick D, et al. Syntaxin-1A actions on sulfonylurea receptor 2A can block acidic pH-induced cardiac K(ATP) channel activation. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:19019-28 pubmed
    ..2 subunit of K(ATP) channels to reduce its sensitivity to ATP, causing channel opening. We recently reported that syntaxin-1A (Syn-1A) binds nucleotide binding folds (NBF)-1 and NBF2 of sulfonylurea receptor 2A (SUR2A) to inhibit ..
  79. Petkovic M, Jemaiel A, Daste F, Specht C, Izeddin I, Vorkel D, et al. The SNARE Sec22b has a non-fusogenic function in plasma membrane expansion. Nat Cell Biol. 2014;16:434-44 pubmed publisher
  80. Moxley R, Francis D, Tamura M, Marx D, Santiago Mateo K, Zhao M. Efficacy of Urtoxazumab (TMA-15 Humanized Monoclonal Antibody Specific for Shiga Toxin 2) Against Post-Diarrheal Neurological Sequelae Caused by Escherichia coli O157:H7 Infection in the Neonatal Gnotobiotic Piglet Model. Toxins (Basel). 2017;9: pubmed publisher
    ..gnotobiotic piglets were inoculated orally with 3 × 10? colony-forming units of EHEC O157:H7 strain EDL933 (Stx1?, Stx2?) when 22-24 h old...
  81. Merklinger E, Schloetel J, Weber P, Batoulis H, Holz S, Karnowski N, et al. The packing density of a supramolecular membrane protein cluster is controlled by cytoplasmic interactions. elife. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
    ..Using clustered syntaxin molecules as an example, we study the influence of a cytoplasmic protein domain on the clustering behaviour...
  82. Gomes B, de Brito M, Sarmento V, Yi D, Soares D, Fernandes J, et al. Valuing Attributes of Home Palliative Care With Service Users: A Pilot Discrete Choice Experiment. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2017;54:973-985 pubmed publisher
    ..The DCE method is feasible and acceptable but not all patients are able to participate. In the main study phase, we will give more attention to the explanation of the waiting time attribute. ..
  83. Razaghi M, Tajeddin E, Ganji L, Alebouyeh M, Alizadeh A, Sadeghi A, et al. Colonization, resistance to bile, and virulence properties of Escherichia coli strains: Unusual characteristics associated with biliary tract diseases. Microb Pathog. 2017;111:262-268 pubmed publisher
    ..to deoxycholate sodium (0-7%) and nineteen antibiotics was determined and PCR using 16 pairs of primers targeting stx1, stx2, exhA, eae, bfp, agg, pcvd432, lt, st, ipaH, pic, pet, ast, set, sen, and cdtB genes was done...
  84. Lima C, Souza I, Dos Santos Alves T, Leite C, Evangelista Barreto N, de Castro Almeida R. Antimicrobial resistance in diarrheagenic Escherichia coli from ready-to-eat foods. J Food Sci Technol. 2017;54:3612-3619 pubmed publisher
    ..4%. PCR assays showed that none of the isolates had the virulence genes cnf1, cnf2, eae, sta, lt1, stx1, stx2 or cdtB...
  85. Byrd W, Ruiz Perez F, Setty P, Zhu C, Boedeker E. Secretion of the Shiga toxin B subunit (Stx1B) via an autotransporter protein optimizes the protective immune response to the antigen expressed in an attenuated E. coli (rEPEC E22?ler) vaccine strain. Vet Microbiol. 2017;211:180-188 pubmed publisher
    ..as orally administered vectors to deliver other antigens we incorporated the B subunit of shiga-like toxin 1(Stx1) into the passenger domain of the autotransporter EspP expressed on a plasmid...
  86. Deken S, Beckman M, Boos L, Quick M. Transport rates of GABA transporters: regulation by the N-terminal domain and syntaxin 1A. Nat Neurosci. 2000;3:998-1003 pubmed
    ..This domain directly interacted with syntaxin 1A, a SNARE protein involved in both neurotransmitter release and modulation of calcium channels and cystic ..
  87. Nagamatsu S, Nakamichi Y, Watanabe T, Matsushima S, Yamaguchi S, Ni J, et al. Localization of cellubrevin-related peptide, endobrevin, in the early endosome in pancreatic beta cells and its physiological function in exo-endocytosis of secretory granules. J Cell Sci. 2001;114:219-227 pubmed
    ..Both in vitro and in vivo binding studies showed that endobrevin binds to syntaxin 1...
  88. Torii S, Zhao S, Yi Z, Takeuchi T, Izumi T. Granuphilin modulates the exocytosis of secretory granules through interaction with syntaxin 1a. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:5518-26 pubmed
    ..Here we demonstrate that granuphilin directly binds to syntaxin 1a on the plasma membrane, and this interaction is regulated by Rab27a...
  89. Martinez Arca S, Rudge R, Vacca M, Raposo G, Camonis J, Proux Gillardeaux V, et al. A dual mechanism controlling the localization and function of exocytic v-SNAREs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:9011-6 pubmed
    ..Moreover, they point to the amino-terminal domains of SNARE proteins as multifunctional modules responsible for the fine tuning of SNARE function. ..
  90. Dipace C, Sung U, Binda F, Blakely R, Galli A. Amphetamine induces a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-dependent reduction in norepinephrine transporter surface expression linked to changes in syntaxin 1A/transporter complexes. Mol Pharmacol. 2007;71:230-9 pubmed
    ..Recently, we demonstrated that syntaxin 1A (SYN1A) regulates NET surface expression and, through binding to the transporter's NH(2) terminus, regulates ..
  91. Fan J, Yang X, Lu J, Chen L, Xu P. Role of H(abc) domain in membrane trafficking and targeting of syntaxin 1A. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;359:245-50 pubmed
    ..Our previous study showed H(abc) domain was necessary for the trafficking and cluster distribution of syntaxin 1A on the plasma membrane...
  92. Romeo S, Sentinelli F, Cavallo M, Leonetti F, Fallarino M, Mariotti S, et al. Search for genetic variants of the SYNTAXIN 1A (STX1A) gene: the -352 A>T variant in the STX1A promoter associates with impaired glucose metabolism in an Italian obese population. Int J Obes (Lond). 2008;32:413-20 pubmed
    To test if sequence variations of the SYNTAXIN 1A (STX1A) gene contribute to the susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in a cohort of overweight/obese subjects...