Gene Symbol: SYNRG
Description: synergin gamma
Alias: AP1GBP1, SYNG, synergin gamma, AP1 gamma subunit binding protein 1, AP1 subunit gamma-binding protein 1, adaptor-related protein complex 1 gamma subunit-binding protein 1, gamma-synergin
Species: human
Products:     SYNRG

Top Publications

  1. Page L, Sowerby P, Lui W, Robinson M. Gamma-synergin: an EH domain-containing protein that interacts with gamma-adaptin. J Cell Biol. 1999;146:993-1004 pubmed
    ..The presence of an EH domain suggests that gamma-synergin links the AP-1 complex to another protein or proteins. ..
  2. Hirst J, Lui W, Bright N, Totty N, Seaman M, Robinson M. A family of proteins with gamma-adaptin and VHS domains that facilitate trafficking between the trans-Golgi network and the vacuole/lysosome. J Cell Biol. 2000;149:67-80 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the function of the GGAs is to facilitate the trafficking of proteins between the TGN and the vacuole, or its mammalian equivalent, the lysosome. ..
  3. Nogi T, Shiba Y, Kawasaki M, Shiba T, Matsugaki N, Igarashi N, et al. Structural basis for the accessory protein recruitment by the gamma-adaptin ear domain. Nat Struct Biol. 2002;9:527-31 pubmed
  4. Kent H, McMahon H, Evans P, Benmerah A, Owen D. Gamma-adaptin appendage domain: structure and binding site for Eps15 and gamma-synergin. Structure. 2002;10:1139-48 pubmed
    ..This observation explains the demonstrated brefeldinA (BFA)-sensitive colocalization of Eps15 and AP1 at the Golgi complex. ..
  5. Fernandez Chacon R, Achiriloaie M, Janz R, Albanesi J, Sudhof T. SCAMP1 function in endocytosis. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:12752-6 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that one of the functions of SCAMPs is to participate in endocytosis via a mechanism which may involve the recruitment of clathrin coats to the plasma membrane and the trans-Golgi network. ..
  6. Takatsu H, Yoshino K, Nakayama K. Adaptor gamma ear homology domain conserved in gamma-adaptin and GGA proteins that interact with gamma-synergin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000;271:719-25 pubmed
  7. Mills I, Praefcke G, Vallis Y, Peter B, Olesen L, Gallop J, et al. EpsinR: an AP1/clathrin interacting protein involved in vesicle trafficking. J Cell Biol. 2003;160:213-22 pubmed
  8. Lui W, Collins B, Hirst J, Motley A, Millar C, Schu P, et al. Binding partners for the COOH-terminal appendage domains of the GGAs and gamma-adaptin. Mol Biol Cell. 2003;14:2385-98 pubmed
    ..By overexpressing wild-type GGA and gamma appendage domains in cells, we can drive p56 and gamma-synergin, respectively, into the cytosol, suggesting a possible mechanism for selectively disrupting the two pathways. ..
  9. Miller G, Mattera R, Bonifacino J, Hurley J. Recognition of accessory protein motifs by the gamma-adaptin ear domain of GGA3. Nat Struct Biol. 2003;10:599-606 pubmed

More Information


  1. Collins B, Praefcke G, Robinson M, Owen D. Structural basis for binding of accessory proteins by the appendage domain of GGAs. Nat Struct Biol. 2003;10:607-13 pubmed
    ..Isothermal titration calorimetry was used to assess the affinities of different peptides for the GGA and gamma-appendage domains. ..
  2. Theos A, Tenza D, Martina J, Hurbain I, Peden A, Sviderskaya E, et al. Functions of adaptor protein (AP)-3 and AP-1 in tyrosinase sorting from endosomes to melanosomes. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:5356-72 pubmed
  3. Peyrard M, Parveneh S, Lagercrantz S, Ekman M, Fransson I, Sahlén S, et al. Cloning, expression pattern, and chromosomal assignment to 16q23 of the human gamma-adaptin gene (ADTG). Genomics. 1998;50:275-80 pubmed
    ..e., the medium (AP47) and small (AP19) subunits, to chromosomes 19 and 7, respectively. Expression analysis of these genes in human tissues revealed ubiquitously expressed transcripts of approximately 2.5 and 1.5 kb, respectively. ..
  4. Hirst J, Borner G, Harbour M, Robinson M. The aftiphilin/p200/gamma-synergin complex. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:2554-65 pubmed
  5. Inoue M, Shiba T, Ihara K, Yamada Y, Hirano S, Kamikubo H, et al. Molecular basis for autoregulatory interaction between GAE domain and hinge region of GGA1. Traffic. 2007;8:904-13 pubmed
  6. Lui Roberts W, Ferraro F, Nightingale T, Cutler D. Aftiphilin and gamma-synergin are required for secretagogue sensitivity of Weibel-Palade bodies in endothelial cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:5072-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, by also recruiting aftiphilin/gamma-synergin in addition to clathrin, AP-1 coordinates formation of WPBs with their acquisition of a regulated secretory phenotype. ..
  7. Turner S, Bailey K, Schwartz G, Chapman A, Chai H, Boerwinkle E. Genomic association analysis identifies multiple loci influencing antihypertensive response to an angiotensin II receptor blocker. Hypertension. 2012;59:1204-11 pubmed publisher