Gene Symbol: SYN2
Description: synapsin II
Alias: SYNII, synapsin-2
Species: human
Products:     SYN2

Top Publications

  1. Cavalleri G, Weale M, Shianna K, Singh R, Lynch J, Grinton B, et al. Multicentre search for genetic susceptibility loci in sporadic epilepsy syndrome and seizure types: a case-control study. Lancet Neurol. 2007;6:970-80 pubmed
    ..Variations in the genes KCNAB1, GABRR2, KCNMB4, SYN2, and ALDH5A1 were most notable. The underlying genetic component to sporadic epilepsy is clearly complex...
  2. Medrihan L, Cesca F, Raimondi A, Lignani G, Baldelli P, Benfenati F. Synapsin II desynchronizes neurotransmitter release at inhibitory synapses by interacting with presynaptic calcium channels. Nat Commun. 2013;4:1512 pubmed publisher
    ..Synapsin II (SYN2) is a member of the multigene synapsin family (SYN1/2/3) of synaptic vesicle phosphoproteins that modulate synaptic ..
  3. Cruceanu C, Alda M, Nagy C, Freemantle E, Rouleau G, Turecki G. H3K4 tri-methylation in synapsin genes leads to different expression patterns in bipolar disorder and major depression. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2013;16:289-99 pubmed publisher
    The synapsin family of neuronal phosphoproteins is composed of three genes (SYN1, SYN2 and SYN3) with alternative splicing resulting in a number of variants with various levels of homology...
  4. Haerian B, Lim K, Tan H, Wong C, Wong S, Tan C, et al. Lack of association between synapsin II (SYN2) gene polymorphism and susceptibility epilepsy: a case-control study and meta-analysis. Synapse. 2011;65:1073-9 pubmed publisher
    The SYN2 rs3773364 A>G polymorphism has been proposed to be involved in susceptibility to epilepsy, but research results have been inconclusive...
  5. Lakhan R, Kalita J, Misra U, Kumari R, Mittal B. Association of intronic polymorphism rs3773364 A>G in synapsin-2 gene with idiopathic epilepsy. Synapse. 2010;64:403-8 pubmed publisher
    ..One such gene, Synapsin-2 (SYN2), involved in synaptogenesis is also reported to regulate the neurotransmitter release...
  6. Hosaka M, Sudhof T. Synapsins I and II are ATP-binding proteins with differential Ca2+ regulation. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:1425-9 pubmed
    ..Our studies suggest that synapsins I and II function on synaptic vesicles as ATP-binding proteins that are differentially regulated by Ca2+. ..
  7. Wang Y, Yu L, Zhao T, Xu J, Liu Z, Liu Y, et al. No association between bipolar disorder and syngr1 or synapsin II polymorphisms in the Han Chinese population. Psychiatry Res. 2009;169:167-8 pubmed publisher
    Polymorphisms of the SYNAPTOGYRIN1 (SYNGR1) and SYNASINII (SYNII) genes have been shown to be a risk factor for bipolar disorder or schizophrenia...
  8. Saviouk V, Moreau M, Tereshchenko I, Brzustowicz L. Association of synapsin 2 with schizophrenia in families of Northern European ancestry. Schizophr Res. 2007;96:100-11 pubmed
    The synapsin 2 (Syn2) gene (3p25) is implicated in synaptogenesis, neurotransmitter release, and the localization of nitric oxide synthase to the proximity of its targets...
  9. Chen Q, He G, Qin W, Chen Q, Zhao X, Duan S, et al. Family-based association study of synapsin II and schizophrenia. Am J Hum Genet. 2004;75:873-7 pubmed
    ..6%; chi (2) = 20.8; P =.0000051). This confirms our previous study and provides further support for the role of synapsin II variants in susceptibility to schizophrenia. ..

More Information


  1. Chen Q, He G, Wang X, Chen Q, Liu X, Gu Z, et al. Positive association between synapsin II and schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry. 2004;56:177-81 pubmed
    ..000001). This study suggests a positive association between synapsin II and schizophrenia, implying that synapsin II is involved in the etiology of schizophrenia. ..
  2. Petersohn D, Schoch S, Brinkmann D, Thiel G. The human synapsin II gene promoter. Possible role for the transcription factor zif268/egr-1, polyoma enhancer activator 3, and AP2. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:24361-9 pubmed
    ..We postulate that zif268/egr-1 and PEA3 couple extracellular signals to long-term responses by regulating synapsin II gene expression. ..
  3. Plumel M, Dumont S, Maes P, Sandu C, Felder Schmittbuhl M, Challet E, et al. Circadian Analysis of the Mouse Cerebellum Proteome. Int J Mol Sci. 2019;20: pubmed publisher
    ..also known to oscillate in the suprachiasmatic nuclei, including two proteins involved in the synapse activity (Synapsin 2 [SYN2] and vesicle-fusing ATPase [NSF]), two others participating in carbohydrate metabolism (triosephosphate ..
  4. Matos H, Quiles R, Andrade R, Bykhovskaia M. Growth and excitability at synapsin II deficient hippocampal neurons. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2019;96:25-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Synapsin II (SynII) deletion produces epileptic seizures and overexcitability in neuronal networks...
  5. Stefaniak T, Madej J, Graczyk S, Siwek M, Łukaszewicz E, Kowalczyk A, et al. Selected prebiotics and synbiotics administered in ovo can modify innate immunity in chicken broilers. BMC Vet Res. 2019;15:105 pubmed publisher
    ..lactis IBB SL1 - Syn1 and Bi2tos + L. lactis subsp. cremoris IBB SC1 - Syn2) influences the innate immune system...
  6. Tavaniello S, Mucci R, Stadnicka K, Acaye O, Bednarczyk M, Maiorano G. Effect of in ovo administration of different synbiotics on carcass and meat quality traits in broiler chickens. Poult Sci. 2019;98:464-472 pubmed publisher
    ..control, C) and 2 different synbiotic formulations (SYN1: Lactobacillus salivarius + galactooligosaccharides; SYN2: Lactobacillus plantarum + raffinose family oligosaccharides)...
  7. Soon G, Chang K, Kuick C, Petersson F. A case of nasal low-grade non-intestinal-type adenocarcinoma with aberrant CDX2 expression and a novel SYN2-PPARG gene fusion in a 13-year-old girl. Virchows Arch. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    ..CDX2 expression both within morular areas and in the tubular component and demonstrate for the first time a SYN2-PPARG gene fusion in this tumor type...
  8. Meng X, Chen X, Greenbaum J, Zeng Q, You S, Xiao H, et al. Integration of summary data from GWAS and eQTL studies identified novel causal BMD genes with functional predictions. Bone. 2018;113:41-48 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified two potentially causal genes (ASB16-AS1 and SYN2) associated with BMD...
  9. Madej J, Stefaniak T, Bednarczyk M. Effect of in ovo-delivered prebiotics and synbiotics on lymphoid-organs' morphology in chickens. Poult Sci. 2015;94:1209-19 pubmed publisher
    ..lactis IBB SL1 (Syn1), a synbiotic composed of Bi2tos and L. lactis subsp. cremoris IBB SC1 (Syn2), or physiological saline (control group, C)...
  10. Kaczmarczyk A, Vorholt J, Francez Charlot A. Synthetic vanillate-regulated promoter for graded gene expression in Sphingomonas. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6453 pubmed publisher
    ..This promoter has been engineered by combining a synthetic minimal promoter, P(syn2), and operator sites and the repressor of the Pseudomonas putida F1 cym/cmt system...
  11. Schmidt U, Buell D, Ionescu I, Gassen N, Holsboer F, Cox M, et al. A role for synapsin in FKBP51 modulation of stress responsiveness: Convergent evidence from animal and human studies. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2015;52:43-58 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we compared and correlated the gene expression levels of SYN1, SYN2 and FKBP5 in three different online datasets comprising expression data of human healthy subjects as well as of ..
  12. Haerian B, Sha ari H, Fong C, Tan H, Wong S, Ong L, et al. Contribution of TIMP4 rs3755724 polymorphism to susceptibility to focal epilepsy in Malaysian Chinese. J Neuroimmunol. 2015;278:137-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Evidence has shown linkage disequilibrium between rs3755724 (-55C/T) of this gene with synapsin 2 (SYN2) rs3773364 and peroxisome proliferator-activated G receptor (PPARG) rs2920502 loci, which contribute to ..
  13. Tamási V, Petschner P, Adori C, Kirilly E, Ando R, Tothfalusi L, et al. Transcriptional evidence for the role of chronic venlafaxine treatment in neurotrophic signaling and neuroplasticity including also Glutamatergic [corrected] - and insulin-mediated neuronal processes. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e113662 pubmed publisher
    ..regulation of genes involved in vesicular exocytosis and receptor endocytosis (such as Kif proteins, Myo5a, Sv2b, Syn2 or Synj2)...
  14. Nikolaev M, Heggelund P. Functions of synapsins in corticothalamic facilitation: important roles of synapsin I. J Physiol. 2015;593:4499-510 pubmed publisher
    ..The synaptic vesicle associated proteins synapsin I (SynI) and synapsin II (SynII) have important functions in several types of synaptic short-term plasticity in the brain, but their separate ..
  15. Schneider E, El Hajj N, Müller F, Navarro B, Haaf T. Epigenetic Dysregulation in the Prefrontal Cortex of Suicide Completers. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2015;146:19-27 pubmed publisher
    ..DMRs and published data sets, our methylation screen strengthens a number of candidate genes (APLP2, BDNF, HTR1A, NUAK1, PHACTR3, MSMP, SLC6A4, SYN2, and SYNE2) and supports a role for epigenetics in the pathophysiology of suicide.
  16. Madej J, Bednarczyk M. Effect of in ovo-delivered prebiotics and synbiotics on the morphology and specific immune cell composition in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Poult Sci. 2016;95:19-29 pubmed publisher
    ..lactis IBB SL1 (Syn1) or Bi(2)tos and Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris IBB SC1 (Syn2); or physiological saline as a control group...
  17. Acquaah Mensah G, Taylor R. Brain in situ hybridization maps as a source for reverse-engineering transcriptional regulatory networks: Alzheimer's disease insights. Gene. 2016;586:77-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Nfe2l1, Egr1 and Usf2 emerge among regulators of genes involved in AD (e.g. Dhcr24, Aplp2, Tia1, Pdrx1, Vdac1, and Syn2)...
  18. Feliciano P, Matos H, Andrade R, Bykhovskaia M. Synapsin II Regulation of GABAergic Synaptic Transmission Is Dependent on Interneuron Subtype. J Neurosci. 2017;37:1757-1771 pubmed publisher
    ..Synapsin II (SynII) gene deletion produces a deficit in inhibitory synaptic transmission, and this defect is thought to cause ..
  19. Kobayashi K, Yamaguchi M, Miyazaki K, Imai H, Yokoe K, Ono R, et al. Expressions of SH3BP5, LMO3, and SNAP25 in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cells and their association with clinical features. Cancer Med. 2016;5:1802-9 pubmed publisher
    ..DLBCL, not otherwise specified (NOS), 10 genes (SH3BP5, LMO3, SNAP25, SYT5, SV2C, CABP1, FGF1, FGFR2, NEUROD1, and SYN2) were selected and examined immunohistochemically with samples from 28 patients with DLBCL, NOS...
  20. Devaney J, Wang S, Funda S, Long J, Taghipour D, Tbaishat R, et al. Identification of novel DNA-methylated genes that correlate with human prostate cancer and high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2013;16:292-300 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, candidate gene-based studies have shown an association between specific gene methylation and alterations and clinicopathologic indicators of poor prognosis in PCa...
  21. Hosaka M, Sudhof T. Homo- and heterodimerization of synapsins. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:16747-53 pubmed
    ..The data also imply that synapsin III does not compensate for the loss of synapsins I and II in the double knockout mice. ..
  22. Hu W, Guan F, Li Y, Tang Y, Yang F, Yang B. New methods for inducing the differentiation of amniotic-derived mesenchymal stem cells into motor neuron precursor cells. Tissue Cell. 2013;45:295-305 pubmed publisher
    ..After 2 days, the cells expressed Nestin, OCT4 and SYNIII, and after 3 days, they expressed Olig2, OCT4, Nestin, SYNII and Islet1 (ISL1)...
  23. Li L, Chin L, Greengard P, Copeland N, Gilbert D, Jenkins N. Localization of the synapsin II (SYN2) gene to human chromosome 3 and mouse chromosome 6. Genomics. 1995;28:365-6 pubmed
  24. Porton B, Kao H, Greengard P. Cloning of cDNAs encoding human synapsins IIa and IIb. DNA Seq. 1999;10:49-54 pubmed
    ..Human synapsins IIa and IIb conform to the previously described domain model of the synapsins, and the most conserved protein domains are A, C, and E. ..
  25. Lee H, Song J, Kim J, Jin S, Hong M, Park J, et al. Association study of polymorphisms in synaptic vesicle-associated genes, SYN2 and CPLX2, with schizophrenia. Behav Brain Funct. 2005;1:15 pubmed
    ..Previous studies have reported that the protein and mRNA levels of the synapsin 2 (SYN2) and complexin 2 (CPLX2) genes were decreased in patients with schizophrenia...
  26. Ghee M, Fournier A, Mallet J. Rat alpha-synuclein interacts with Tat binding protein 1, a component of the 26S proteasomal complex. J Neurochem. 2000;75:2221-4 pubmed
  27. Cruceanu C, Kutsarova E, Chen E, Checknita D, Nagy C, Lopez J, et al. DNA hypomethylation of Synapsin II CpG islands associates with increased gene expression in bipolar disorder and major depression. BMC Psychiatry. 2016;16:286 pubmed publisher
    The Synapsins (SYN1, SYN2, and SYN3) are important players in the adult brain, given their involvement in synaptic transmission and plasticity, as well as in the developing brain through roles in axon outgrowth and synaptogenesis...
  28. Larson M, Greimel S, Amar F, LaCroix M, Boyle G, Sherman M, et al. Selective lowering of synapsins induced by oligomeric α-synuclein exacerbates memory deficits. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:E4648-E4657 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, at a molecular level, the expression of synapsin genes SYN1 and SYN2 was down-regulated in vivo and in vitro by αSyn oligomers, which decreased two transcription factors, cAMP ..
  29. Shiwaku H, Umino A, Umino M, Nishikawa T. Phencyclidine-induced dysregulation of primary cilia in the rodent brain. Brain Res. 2017;1674:62-69 pubmed publisher
    ..kif3a, 5-HTR6, RPGRIP1L, and TMEM67, and of genes composing the cilial Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway, ?-catenin, syn2 and Bcl-2, in the hippocampus, but not in the cerebral cortex of rats...
  30. Nie L, Xia J, Li H, Zhang Z, Yang Y, Huang X, et al. Ginsenoside Rg1 Ameliorates Behavioral Abnormalities and Modulates the Hippocampal Proteomic Change in Triple Transgenic Mice of Alzheimer's Disease. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2017;2017:6473506 pubmed publisher
    ..Among these proteins, complexin-2 (CPLX2), synapsin-2 (SYN2), and synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNP25) were significantly downregulated in the hippocampus of 3xTg-AD ..
  31. Zeggini E, Scott L, Saxena R, Voight B, Marchini J, Hu T, et al. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association data and large-scale replication identifies additional susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes. Nat Genet. 2008;40:638-45 pubmed publisher
    ..1 x 10(-9)), ADAMTS9 (P = 1.2 x 10(-8)) and NOTCH2 (P = 4.1 x 10(-8)) gene regions. Our results illustrate the value of large discovery and follow-up samples for gaining further insights into the inherited basis of T2D. ..
  32. Greengard P, Valtorta F, Czernik A, Benfenati F. Synaptic vesicle phosphoproteins and regulation of synaptic function. Science. 1993;259:780-5 pubmed
    ..This article describes current understanding of the mechanism by which synapsin I modulates communication between nerve cells and reviews the properties and putative functions of other phosphoproteins associated with synaptic vesicles. ..
  33. Renga B, Francisci D, D Amore C, Schiaroli E, Mencarelli A, Cipriani S, et al. The HIV matrix protein p17 subverts nuclear receptors expression and induces a STAT1-dependent proinflammatory phenotype in monocytes. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e35924 pubmed publisher
    ..The present work identifies p17 as a novel target in HIV therapy and grounds the development of anti-p17 small molecules or vaccines. ..
  34. Xie Y. Cloning and sequencing analysis of a human synapsin IIb-encoding brain cDNA. Gene. 1996;173:289-90 pubmed
    ..Cloning and sequencing of the gene encoding human synapsin IIb, an abundant peripheral membrane protein of synaptic vesicles, is described. The human and rat coding sequences showed 89% nucleotide and 94% amino acid sequence homology. ..
  35. Corradi A, Fadda M, Piton A, Patry L, Marte A, Rossi P, et al. SYN2 is an autism predisposing gene: loss-of-function mutations alter synaptic vesicle cycling and axon outgrowth. Hum Mol Genet. 2014;23:90-103 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we show that nonsense (A94fs199X) and missense (Y236S and G464R) mutations in SYN2 are associated with ASD in humans. The phenotype is apparent in males...
  36. Sudhof T, Czernik A, Kao H, Takei K, Johnston P, Horiuchi A, et al. Synapsins: mosaics of shared and individual domains in a family of synaptic vesicle phosphoproteins. Science. 1989;245:1474-80 pubmed
  37. Cruceanu C, Alda M, Grof P, Rouleau G, Turecki G. Synapsin II is involved in the molecular pathway of lithium treatment in bipolar disorder. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32680 pubmed publisher
    ..One of the most common treatments is lithium (Li), with successful response in 30-60% of patients. Synapsin II (SYN2) is a neuronal phosphoprotein that we have previously identified as a possible candidate gene for the etiology of ..
  38. Hosaka M, Hammer R, Sudhof T. A phospho-switch controls the dynamic association of synapsins with synaptic vesicles. Neuron. 1999;24:377-87 pubmed
    ..The dynamic association of synapsins with synaptic vesicles correlates with their role in activity-dependent plasticity. ..
  39. Kao H, Porton B, Hilfiker S, Stefani G, Pieribone V, DeSalle R, et al. Molecular evolution of the synapsin gene family. J Exp Zool. 1999;285:360-77 pubmed
    ..This was accompanied by the emergence of an additional conserved domain, termed A. J. Exp. Zool. ( Mol. Dev. Evol. ) 285:360-377, 1999. ..
  40. Witke W, Podtelejnikov A, Di Nardo A, Sutherland J, Gurniak C, Dotti C, et al. In mouse brain profilin I and profilin II associate with regulators of the endocytic pathway and actin assembly. EMBO J. 1998;17:967-76 pubmed
    ..Our findings strongly suggest that in brain profilin I and profilin II complexes link the actin cytoskeleton and endocytic membrane flow, directing actin and clathrin assembly to distinct membrane domains. ..
  41. Paumet F, Le Mao J, Martin S, Galli T, David B, Blank U, et al. Soluble NSF attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) in RBL-2H3 mast cells: functional role of syntaxin 4 in exocytosis and identification of a vesicle-associated membrane protein 8-containing secretory compartment. J Immunol. 2000;164:5850-7 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, these results are the first demonstration that the nonneuronal VAMP8 isoform, originally localized on early endosomes, is present in a regulated secretory compartment. ..
  42. Prasad D, Shaheen U, Satyanarayana U, Prabha T, Jyothy A, Munshi A. Association of GABRA6 1519 T>C (rs3219151) and Synapsin II (rs37733634) gene polymorphisms with the development of idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Epilepsy Res. 2014;108:1267-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Synapsin II (SynII), a neuron specific phosphoprotein plays a major role in synaptogenesis and neurotransmitter release...
  43. Sugimoto J, Sugimoto M, BERNSTEIN H, Jinno Y, Schust D. A novel human endogenous retroviral protein inhibits cell-cell fusion. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1462 pubmed publisher
    ..In vitro, suppressyn binds to the syn1 receptor and inhibits syn1-, but not syn2-mediated trophoblast syncytialization...
  44. Michetti C, Caruso A, Pagani M, Sabbioni M, Medrihan L, David G, et al. The Knockout of Synapsin II in Mice Impairs Social Behavior and Functional Connectivity Generating an ASD-like Phenotype. Cereb Cortex. 2017;27:5014-5023 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we analyzed social behavior and ultrasonic vocalizations emitted in 2 social contexts by SynI, SynII, or SynIII mutants and show that SynII mutants display the most severe ASD-like phenotype...
  45. Jaffrey S, Benfenati F, Snowman A, Czernik A, Snyder S. Neuronal nitric-oxide synthase localization mediated by a ternary complex with synapsin and CAPON. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:3199-204 pubmed
    ..These results suggest a mechanism for specific actions of NO at presynaptic sites. ..
  46. Spielhaupter C, Schätzl H. PrPC directly interacts with proteins involved in signaling pathways. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:44604-12 pubmed
    ..The binding regions were mapped using truncated PrP constructs. As both synapsin Ib and Grb2 are implicated in neuronal signaling processes, our findings further strengthen the putative role of the prion protein in signal transduction. ..