Syk

Summary

Gene Symbol: Syk
Description: spleen associated tyrosine kinase
Alias: p72-Syk, tyrosine-protein kinase SYK, spleen tyrosine kinase
Species: human
Products:     Syk

Top Publications

  1. Lupher M, Rao N, Lill N, Andoniou C, Miyake S, Clark E, et al. Cbl-mediated negative regulation of the Syk tyrosine kinase. A critical role for Cbl phosphotyrosine-binding domain binding to Syk phosphotyrosine 323. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:35273-81 pubmed
    The proto-oncogene product Cbl has emerged as a potential negative regulator of the Syk tyrosine kinase; however, the nature of physical interactions between Cbl and Syk that are critical for this negative regulation remains unclear...
  2. Negro A, Brunati A, Donella Deana A, Massimino M, Pinna L. Multiple phosphorylation of alpha-synuclein by protein tyrosine kinase Syk prevents eosin-induced aggregation. FASEB J. 2002;16:210-2 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that alpha-synuclein (alpha-syn) is an outstanding substrate for the protein tyrosine kinase p72syk (Syk), which phosphorylates three tyrosyl residues in its C-terminal domain (Y-125, Y-133, and Y-136), as revealed from ..
  3. Sohn H, Gu H, Pierce S. Cbl-b negatively regulates B cell antigen receptor signaling in mature B cells through ubiquitination of the tyrosine kinase Syk. J Exp Med. 2003;197:1511-24 pubmed
    ..In B cells from Cbl-b-deficient mice cross-linking the BCRs resulted in sustained phosphorylation of Igalpha, Syk, and phospholipase C (PLC)-gamma2, leading to prolonged Ca2+ mobilization, and increases in extracellular signal-..
  4. Gobessi S, Laurenti L, Longo P, Carsetti L, Berno V, Sica S, et al. Inhibition of constitutive and BCR-induced Syk activation downregulates Mcl-1 and induces apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells. Leukemia. 2009;23:686-97 pubmed publisher
    The protein kinase Syk is a key mediator of proximal B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling. Following antigen stimulation, Syk is recruited to the BCR and becomes activated by phosphorylation at Y352...
  5. Deckert M, Elly C, Altman A, Liu Y. Coordinated regulation of the tyrosine phosphorylation of Cbl by Fyn and Syk tyrosine kinases. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:8867-74 pubmed
    ..antigen receptor (TCR)-CD3 complex induces rapid tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of Src (Lck and Fyn) and Syk (Syk and Zap-70) family protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) which, in turn, phosphorylate multiple intracellular ..
  6. Mukherjee S, Zhu J, Zikherman J, Parameswaran R, Kadlecek T, Wang Q, et al. Monovalent and multivalent ligation of the B cell receptor exhibit differential dependence upon Syk and Src family kinases. Sci Signal. 2013;6:ra1 pubmed publisher
    The Src and Syk families of kinases are two distinct sets of kinases that play critical roles in initiating membrane-proximal B cell receptor (BCR) signaling...
  7. Mahabeleshwar G, Kundu G. Syk, a protein-tyrosine kinase, suppresses the cell motility and nuclear factor kappa B-mediated secretion of urokinase type plasminogen activator by inhibiting the phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase activity in breast cancer cells. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:6209-21 pubmed
    ..b>Syk is a member of a tyrosine kinase family that is expressed mostly in hematopoietic cells...
  8. Brunati A, Donella Deana A, James P, Quadroni M, Contri A, Marin O, et al. Molecular features underlying the sequential phosphorylation of HS1 protein and its association with c-Fgr protein-tyrosine kinase. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:7557-64 pubmed
    ..to undergo a process of sequential phosphorylation both in vitro and in vivo, which is synergistically mediated by Syk and Src family protein-tyrosine kinases and essential for B cell antigen receptor-mediated apoptosis...
  9. Keshvara L, Isaacson C, Yankee T, Sarac R, Harrison M, Geahlen R. Syk- and Lyn-dependent phosphorylation of Syk on multiple tyrosines following B cell activation includes a site that negatively regulates signaling. J Immunol. 1998;161:5276-83 pubmed
    The Syk protein tyrosine kinase is an essential component of the B cell Ag receptor signaling pathway. Syk is phosphorylated on tyrosine following B cell activation...

More Information

Publications90

  1. Coopman P, Do M, Barth M, Bowden E, Hayes A, Basyuk E, et al. The Syk tyrosine kinase suppresses malignant growth of human breast cancer cells. Nature. 2000;406:742-7 pubmed
    b>Syk is a protein tyrosine kinase that is widely expressed in haematopoietic cells...
  2. Bijli K, Fazal F, Minhajuddin M, Rahman A. Activation of Syk by protein kinase C-delta regulates thrombin-induced intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression in endothelial cells via tyrosine phosphorylation of RelA/p65. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:14674-84 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we show that PKC-delta-mediated activation of protein-tyrosine kinase Syk plays an important role in thrombin signaling of NF-kappaB activation and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1)..
  3. Ghosh D, Tsokos G, Kyttaris V. c-Jun and Ets2 proteins regulate expression of spleen tyrosine kinase in T cells. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:11833-41 pubmed publisher
    ..T cells and T cells from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) express increased levels of the spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk)...
  4. Ruschel A, Ullrich A. Protein tyrosine kinase Syk modulates EGFR signalling in human mammary epithelial cells. Cell Signal. 2004;16:1249-61 pubmed
    ..We investigated the function of the PTK spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) in the regulation of growth factor signalling pathways in human mammary epithelial cells...
  5. Saïd Sadier N, Padilla E, Langsley G, Ojcius D. Aspergillus fumigatus stimulates the NLRP3 inflammasome through a pathway requiring ROS production and the Syk tyrosine kinase. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10008 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, our data show that NLRP3 inflammasome activation as well as pro-IL-1beta expression relies on the Syk tyrosine kinase, which is downstream from the pathogen recognition receptor Dectin-1, reinforcing the importance of ..
  6. Rowley R, Burkhardt A, Chao H, Matsueda G, Bolen J. Syk protein-tyrosine kinase is regulated by tyrosine-phosphorylated Ig alpha/Ig beta immunoreceptor tyrosine activation motif binding and autophosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:11590-4 pubmed
    b>Syk is a cytoplasmic protein-tyrosine kinase containing two amino-terminal Src homology 2 domains that is activated following ligation of the B cell antigen receptor...
  7. Ma L, Dong S, Zhang P, Xu N, Yan H, Liu H, et al. The relationship between methylation of the Syk gene in the promoter region and the genesis of lung cancer. Clin Lab. 2010;56:407-16 pubmed
    To study the expression of the Syk (Spleen Tyrosine Kinase) gene and methylation in its promoter region in lung cancer. To investigate the relationship between silencing of the Syk gene and DNA methylation of the Syk promoter region.
  8. Atwell S, Adams J, Badger J, Buchanan M, Feil I, Froning K, et al. A novel mode of Gleevec binding is revealed by the structure of spleen tyrosine kinase. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:55827-32 pubmed
    b>Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase required for signaling from immunoreceptors in various hematopoietic cells...
  9. Pula G, Crosby D, Baker J, Poole A. Functional interaction of protein kinase Calpha with the tyrosine kinases Syk and Src in human platelets. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:7194-205 pubmed
    ..the classical protein kinase C isoform (cPKC), PKCalpha, and two major nonreceptor tyrosine kinases in platelets, Syk and Src...
  10. Marie Cardine A, Kirchgessner H, Bruyns E, Shevchenko A, Mann M, Autschbach F, et al. SHP2-interacting transmembrane adaptor protein (SIT), a novel disulfide-linked dimer regulating human T cell activation. J Exp Med. 1999;189:1181-94 pubmed
    ..After tyrosine phosphorylation by src and possibly syk protein tyrosine kinases SIT recruits the SH2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 via an immunoreceptor ..
  11. Panchamoorthy G, Fukazawa T, Miyake S, Soltoff S, Reedquist K, Druker B, et al. p120cbl is a major substrate of tyrosine phosphorylation upon B cell antigen receptor stimulation and interacts in vivo with Fyn and Syk tyrosine kinases, Grb2 and Shc adaptors, and the p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:3187-94 pubmed
    ..B cell activation also induced a prominent association of Cbl with Syk tyrosine kinase...
  12. Feldman A, Sun D, Law M, Novak A, Attygalle A, Thorland E, et al. Overexpression of Syk tyrosine kinase in peripheral T-cell lymphomas. Leukemia. 2008;22:1139-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The recent finding of SYK/ITK translocations in rare PTCLs led us to examine the expression of Syk PTK in 141 PTCLs...
  13. Turner M, Schweighoffer E, Colucci F, Di Santo J, Tybulewicz V. Tyrosine kinase SYK: essential functions for immunoreceptor signalling. Immunol Today. 2000;21:148-54 pubmed
    The tyrosine kinase SYK plays critical roles in signalling through immune receptors...
  14. Tsang E, Giannetti A, Shaw D, Dinh M, Tse J, Gandhi S, et al. Molecular mechanism of the Syk activation switch. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:32650-9 pubmed publisher
    Many immune signaling pathways require activation of the Syk tyrosine kinase to link ligation of surface receptors to changes in gene expression...
  15. Buchner M, Fuchs S, Prinz G, Pfeifer D, Bartholomé K, Burger M, et al. Spleen tyrosine kinase is overexpressed and represents a potential therapeutic target in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Cancer Res. 2009;69:5424-32 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we investigated the expression of spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK), a key component of the B-cell receptor signaling pathway, in CLL and its role in apoptosis...
  16. Urzainqui A, Serrador J, Viedma F, Yanez Mo M, Rodriguez A, Corbi A, et al. ITAM-based interaction of ERM proteins with Syk mediates signaling by the leukocyte adhesion receptor PSGL-1. Immunity. 2002;17:401-12 pubmed
    ..Our work shows that PSGL-1 associates with Syk. This association is mediated by the actin-linking proteins moesin and ezrin, which directly interact with Syk in ..
  17. Toyama T, Iwase H, Yamashita H, Hara Y, Omoto Y, Sugiura H, et al. Reduced expression of the Syk gene is correlated with poor prognosis in human breast cancer. Cancer Lett. 2003;189:97-102 pubmed
    b>Syk is a non-receptor type of protein-tyrosine kinase that is widely expressed in hematopoietic cells. Syk expression has been reported in breast tissue. However, the function of Syk in breast tissue remains unclear...
  18. Krishnan S, Juang Y, Chowdhury B, Magilavy A, Fisher C, Nguyen H, et al. Differential expression and molecular associations of Syk in systemic lupus erythematosus T cells. J Immunol. 2008;181:8145-52 pubmed
    ..In this study we explored whether differential molecular associations of the spleen tyrosine kinase Syk that preferentially binds to FcRgamma contribute to pathological amplification of signals downstream ..
  19. Ulanova M, Puttagunta L, Marcet Palacios M, Duszyk M, Steinhoff U, Duta F, et al. Syk tyrosine kinase participates in beta1-integrin signaling and inflammatory responses in airway epithelial cells. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2005;288:L497-507 pubmed
    The protein tyrosine kinase Syk is critically involved in immunoreceptor signaling in hematopoietic cells...
  20. Jakus Z, Simon E, Balázs B, Mócsai A. Genetic deficiency of Syk protects mice from autoantibody-induced arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2010;62:1899-910 pubmed publisher
    The Syk tyrosine kinase plays an important role in diverse functions in hematopoietic lineage cells...
  21. Siegel R, Kim U, Patke A, Yu X, Ren X, Tarakhovsky A, et al. Nontranscriptional regulation of SYK by the coactivator OCA-B is required at multiple stages of B cell development. Cell. 2006;125:761-74 pubmed
    ..also functions in the pre-B1-to-pre-B2 cell transition and, most surprisingly, that it directly interacts with SYK, a tyrosine kinase critical for pre-BCR and BCR signaling...
  22. Chen L, Monti S, Juszczynski P, Daley J, Chen W, Witzig T, et al. SYK-dependent tonic B-cell receptor signaling is a rational treatment target in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Blood. 2008;111:2230-7 pubmed
    ..Igalpha/beta immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) phosphorylation, and activation of the spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK), which initiates downstream events and amplifies the initial BCR signal...
  23. Rao N, Ghosh A, Ota S, Zhou P, Reddi A, Hakezi K, et al. The non-receptor tyrosine kinase Syk is a target of Cbl-mediated ubiquitylation upon B-cell receptor stimulation. EMBO J. 2001;20:7085-95 pubmed
    ..Cbl ubiquitin ligase activity mediates its negative regulatory effects on cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases of the Syk/ZAP-70 family has not been addressed, nor is it known whether these kinases are regulated via ubiquitylation during ..
  24. Layton T, Stalens C, Gunderson F, Goodison S, Silletti S. Syk tyrosine kinase acts as a pancreatic adenocarcinoma tumor suppressor by regulating cellular growth and invasion. Am J Pathol. 2009;175:2625-36 pubmed publisher
    We have identified the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase syk as a marker of differentiation/tumor suppressor in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC)...
  25. Ishiai M, Kurosaki M, Pappu R, Okawa K, Ronko I, Fu C, et al. BLNK required for coupling Syk to PLC gamma 2 and Rac1-JNK in B cells. Immunity. 1999;10:117-25 pubmed
    ..Signaling through the B cell receptor (BCR) is essential for B cell function and development. Despite the key role of Syk in BCR signaling, little is known about the mechanism by which Syk transmits downstream effectors...
  26. Ogane S, Onda T, Takano N, Yajima T, Uchiyama T, Shibahara T. Spleen tyrosine kinase as a novel candidate tumor suppressor gene for human oral squamous cell carcinoma. Int J Cancer. 2009;124:2651-7 pubmed publisher
    We analyzed the mutational and methylation status of the spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) gene and both mRNA and protein levels in primary oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and OSCC-derived cell lines and examined the function of the Syk ..
  27. Kurosaki T, Takata M, Yamanashi Y, Inazu T, Taniguchi T, Yamamoto T, et al. Syk activation by the Src-family tyrosine kinase in the B cell receptor signaling. J Exp Med. 1994;179:1725-9 pubmed
    ..two classes of tyrosine kinase: Src-family kinase (Src-protein-tyrosine kinase [PTK]; Lyn, Fyn, Blk, or Lck) and Syk kinase. We have investigated the interaction between the Src-PTK and the Syk kinase in the BCR signaling...
  28. Miller Y, Choi S, Wiesner P, Bae Y. The SYK side of TLR4: signalling mechanisms in response to LPS and minimally oxidized LDL. Br J Pharmacol. 2012;167:990-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) is the best known for its involvement in immune receptor signalling, mediated by binding of SYK tandem Src-homology 2 domains to tandem phosphotyrosine in immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs)..
  29. Maruyama S, Kurosaki T, Sada K, Yamanashi Y, Yamamoto T, Yamamura H. Physical and functional association of cortactin with Syk in human leukemic cell line K562. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:6631-5 pubmed
    ..Since tyrosine kinase Syk was activated by TPA stimulation, we examined the possibility that cortactin is a potential substrate of Syk in ..
  30. Grossmann A, Kolibaba K, Willis S, Corbin A, Langdon W, Deininger M, et al. Catalytic domains of tyrosine kinases determine the phosphorylation sites within c-Cbl. FEBS Lett. 2004;577:555-62 pubmed
    ..Using purified proteins, we studied the ability of Syk, Fyn, and Abl to differentiate between tyrosines in a common PTK substrate, c-Cbl...
  31. Deckert M, Tartare Deckert S, Couture C, Mustelin T, Altman A. Functional and physical interactions of Syk family kinases with the Vav proto-oncogene product. Immunity. 1996;5:591-604 pubmed
    b>Syk family kinases are essential for lymphocyte development and activation. Therefore the identification of their direct effectors is of critical importance...
  32. Dong S, Ma L, Xu N, Yan H, Liu H, Li Y, et al. Research on the reactivation of Syk expression caused by the inhibition of DNA promoter methylation in the lung cancer. Neoplasma. 2011;58:89-95 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to study the expression of Syk gene and methylation in its promoter region in the lung cancer and to investigate the relationship between silencing of the Syk gene and DNA methylation of the Syk promoter region ..
  33. Kawakami Y, Kitaura J, Yao L, McHenry R, Kawakami Y, Newton A, et al. A Ras activation pathway dependent on Syk phosphorylation of protein kinase C. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:9470-5 pubmed
    Protein kinase C (PKC) and Syk protein tyrosine kinase play critical roles in immune cell activation including that through the high-affinity IgE receptor, FcepsilonRI...
  34. Brdicka T, Pavlistová D, Leo A, Bruyns E, Korinek V, Angelisova P, et al. Phosphoprotein associated with glycosphingolipid-enriched microdomains (PAG), a novel ubiquitously expressed transmembrane adaptor protein, binds the protein tyrosine kinase csk and is involved in regulation of T cell activation. J Exp Med. 2000;191:1591-604 pubmed
    ..These findings collectively suggest that in the absence of external stimuli, the PAG-Csk complex transmits negative regulatory signals and thus may help to keep resting T cells in a quiescent state. ..
  35. Obergfell A, Eto K, Mocsai A, Buensuceso C, Moores S, Brugge J, et al. Coordinate interactions of Csk, Src, and Syk kinases with [alpha]IIb[beta]3 initiate integrin signaling to the cytoskeleton. J Cell Biol. 2002;157:265-75 pubmed
    ..In contrast to the behavior of Src and Csk, Syk was associated with alphaIIbbeta3 only after fibrinogen binding...
  36. Mun S, Kim J, Nah S, Ko N, Lee J, Kim J, et al. Tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced interleukin-32 is positively regulated via the Syk/protein kinase Cdelta/JNK pathway in rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts. Arthritis Rheum. 2009;60:678-85 pubmed publisher
    ..TNFalpha-induced expression of IL-32 was significantly suppressed, in a dose-dependent manner, by inhibitors of Syk, protein kinase Cdelta (PKCdelta), and JNK and by knockdown of these kinases and c-Jun with siRNA...
  37. Muthusamy V, Duraisamy S, Bradbury C, Hobbs C, Curley D, Nelson B, et al. Epigenetic silencing of novel tumor suppressors in malignant melanoma. Cancer Res. 2006;66:11187-93 pubmed
    ..Reexpression of either of two of the silenced genes, HOXB13 and SYK, resulted in reduced colony formation in vitro and diminished tumor formation in vivo, indicating that these genes ..
  38. Mócsai A, Ruland J, Tybulewicz V. The SYK tyrosine kinase: a crucial player in diverse biological functions. Nat Rev Immunol. 2010;10:387-402 pubmed publisher
    b>Spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) is known to have a crucial role in adaptive immune receptor signalling...
  39. Röck J, Schneider E, Grün J, Grützkau A, Kuppers R, Schmitz J, et al. CD303 (BDCA-2) signals in plasmacytoid dendritic cells via a BCR-like signalosome involving Syk, Slp65 and PLCgamma2. Eur J Immunol. 2007;37:3564-75 pubmed
    ..Here, we demonstrate that PDC express a signalosome similar to the BCR signalosome, consisting of Lyn, Syk, Btk, Slp65 (Blnk) and PLCgamma2. CD303 associates with the signaling adapter FcR gamma-chain...
  40. Lau C, Wang X, Song L, North M, Wiehler S, Proud D, et al. Syk associates with clathrin and mediates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation during human rhinovirus internalization. J Immunol. 2008;180:870-80 pubmed
    ..We recently demonstrated the Syk tyrosine kinase to be an important mediator of HRV-ICAM-1 signaling: Syk regulates replication-independent p38 MAPK ..
  41. Choi S, Wiesner P, Almazan F, Kim J, Miller Y. Spleen tyrosine kinase regulates AP-1 dependent transcriptional response to minimally oxidized LDL. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32378 pubmed publisher
    ..We have also demonstrated that the mmLDL activation leads to recruitment of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) to TLR4 and TLR4 and Syk phosphorylation...
  42. Turner M, Mee P, Costello P, Williams O, Price A, Duddy L, et al. Perinatal lethality and blocked B-cell development in mice lacking the tyrosine kinase Syk. Nature. 1995;378:298-302 pubmed
    The tyrosine kinase Syk (relative molecular mass 72,000), which is widely expressed in haematopoietic cells, becomes associated with and activated by engagement of the B-cell antigen receptor...
  43. Zhang X, Shrikhande U, Alicie B, Zhou Q, Geahlen R. Role of the protein tyrosine kinase Syk in regulating cell-cell adhesion and motility in breast cancer cells. Mol Cancer Res. 2009;7:634-44 pubmed publisher
    The expression of the Syk protein tyrosine kinase in breast cancer cells is inversely correlated with invasive growth and metastasis...
  44. Fargnoli J, Burkhardt A, Laverty M, Kut S, van Oers N, Weiss A, et al. Syk mutation in Jurkat E6-derived clones results in lack of p72syk expression. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:26533-7 pubmed
    ..CaM1, we observed that the 72-kilodalton Syk protein tyrosine kinase previously found in other Jurkat cells was not detected...
  45. Peters J, Furlong M, Asai D, Harrison M, Geahlen R. Syk, activated by cross-linking the B-cell antigen receptor, localizes to the cytosol where it interacts with and phosphorylates alpha-tubulin on tyrosine. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:4755-62 pubmed
    b>Syk (p72syk) is a 72-kDa, nonreceptor, protein-tyrosine kinase that becomes tyrosine-phosphorylated and activated in B lymphocytes following aggregation of the B-cell antigen receptor...
  46. Underhill D, Rossnagle E, Lowell C, Simmons R. Dectin-1 activates Syk tyrosine kinase in a dynamic subset of macrophages for reactive oxygen production. Blood. 2005;106:2543-50 pubmed
    ..The mechanisms by which Dectin-1 mediates intracellular signaling are just beginning to be defined. Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) is a protein tyrosine kinase that is critical for adaptive immune responses where it mediates ..
  47. Wang L, Duke L, Zhang P, Arlinghaus R, Symmans W, Sahin A, et al. Alternative splicing disrupts a nuclear localization signal in spleen tyrosine kinase that is required for invasion suppression in breast cancer. Cancer Res. 2003;63:4724-30 pubmed
    b>Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) is a candidate tumor (metastasis) suppressor that is highly expressed in mammary epithelial cells...
  48. Chen L, Juszczynski P, Takeyama K, Aguiar R, Shipp M. Protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor-type O truncated (PTPROt) regulates SYK phosphorylation, proximal B-cell-receptor signaling, and cellular proliferation. Blood. 2006;108:3428-33 pubmed
    ..BCR-dependent activation of the SYK PTK initiates downstream signaling events and amplifies the original BCR signal...
  49. Kanwal S, Kayani M, Faryal R. Identification of novel SNPs in SYK gene of breast cancer patients: computational analysis of SNPs in the 5'UTR. Mol Biol Rep. 2012;39:8345-51 pubmed publisher
    b>Spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) is a non receptor type tyrosine kinase and a known candidate tumor suppressor gene in breast carcinoma. Loss of Syk is associated with breast cancer invasion and increased cell mortality...
  50. Law C, Chandran K, Sidorenko S, Clark E. Phospholipase C-gamma1 interacts with conserved phosphotyrosyl residues in the linker region of Syk and is a substrate for Syk. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:1305-15 pubmed
    ..proteins containing the C-terminal Src-homology 2 [SH2(C)] domain of PLC-gamma1 bound to tyrosyl phosphorylated Syk. Syk isolated from antigen receptor-activated B cells phosphorylated PLC-gamma1 on Tyr-771 and the key regulatory ..
  51. Yankee T, Keshvara L, Sawasdikosol S, Harrison M, Geahlen R. Inhibition of signaling through the B cell antigen receptor by the protooncogene product, c-Cbl, requires Syk tyrosine 317 and the c-Cbl phosphotyrosine-binding domain. J Immunol. 1999;163:5827-35 pubmed
    The Syk protein-tyrosine kinase couples the B cell Ag receptor (BCR) to intracellular biochemical pathways. Syk becomes phosphorylated on multiple tyrosine residues upon receptor cross-linking...
  52. Song Z, Lu P, Furman R, Leonard J, Martin P, Tyrell L, et al. Activities of SYK and PLCgamma2 predict apoptotic response of CLL cells to SRC tyrosine kinase inhibitor dasatinib. Clin Cancer Res. 2010;16:587-99 pubmed publisher
    ..As opposed to SRC family kinases, activities of two downstream molecules, SYK and phospholipase Cgamma2, correlate well with the apoptotic response of CLL cells to dasatinib...
  53. Fruman D, Satterthwaite A, Witte O. Xid-like phenotypes: a B cell signalosome takes shape. Immunity. 2000;13:1-3 pubmed
  54. Sung Y, Xu X, Sun J, Mueller D, Sentissi K, Johnson P, et al. Tumor suppressor function of Syk in human MCF10A in vitro and normal mouse mammary epithelium in vivo. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7445 pubmed publisher
    The normal function of Syk in epithelium of the developing or adult breast is not known, however, Syk suppresses tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis in breast cancer cells...
  55. Hahn C, Berchuck J, Ross K, Kakoza R, Clauser K, Schinzel A, et al. Proteomic and genetic approaches identify Syk as an AML target. Cancer Cell. 2009;16:281-94 pubmed publisher
    ..These orthogonal approaches identified Syk as a target in AML...
  56. Ennaciri J, Girard D. IL-4R(alpha), a new member that associates with Syk kinase: implication in IL-4-induced human neutrophil functions. J Immunol. 2009;183:5261-9 pubmed publisher
    Although Syk has been reported to be associated with IL-2R beta [corrected] and IL-15R alpha in some hematopoietic cells, its association has never been investigated in the IL-4/IL-4R system...
  57. Larive R, Urbach S, Poncet J, Jouin P, Mascre G, Sahuquet A, et al. Phosphoproteomic analysis of Syk kinase signaling in human cancer cells reveals its role in cell-cell adhesion. Oncogene. 2009;28:2337-47 pubmed publisher
    The spleen tyrosine kinase Syk has predominantly been studied in hematopoietic cells in which it is involved in immunoreceptor-mediated signaling...
  58. Gringhuis S, den Dunnen J, Litjens M, van der Vlist M, Wevers B, Bruijns S, et al. Dectin-1 directs T helper cell differentiation by controlling noncanonical NF-kappaB activation through Raf-1 and Syk. Nat Immunol. 2009;10:203-13 pubmed publisher
    The C-type lectin dectin-1 activates the transcription factor NF-kappaB through a Syk kinase-dependent signaling pathway to induce antifungal immunity...
  59. Kunze E, Wendt M, Schlott T. Promoter hypermethylation of the 14-3-3 sigma, SYK and CAGE-1 genes is related to the various phenotypes of urinary bladder carcinomas and associated with progression of transitional cell carcinomas. Int J Mol Med. 2006;18:547-57 pubmed
    ..of different genes in transitional cell carcinomas (TCC) and nonurothelial cancers, among which the 14-3-3 sigma, SYK and CAGE-1 genes were recognised as promising target genes...
  60. Tan S, Liao C, Lucas M, Stevenson C, Demartino J. Targeting the SYK-BTK axis for the treatment of immunological and hematological disorders: recent progress and therapeutic perspectives. Pharmacol Ther. 2013;138:294-309 pubmed publisher
    b>Spleen Tyrosine Kinase (SYK) and Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase (BTK) are non-receptor cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases that are primarily expressed in cells of hematopoietic lineage...
  61. Hutchcroft J, Harrison M, Geahlen R. Association of the 72-kDa protein-tyrosine kinase PTK72 with the B cell antigen receptor. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:8613-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the signaling cascade initiated by engagement of the B cell antigen receptor involves the increased enzymatic activity of PTK72, which is already present in a preformed antigen receptor complex. ..
  62. Inayat U, Kayani M, Faryal R. Sporadic mutations and expression analysis of spleen tyrosine kinase gene in breast cancer: a preliminary report. Pol J Pathol. 2012;63:106-11 pubmed
    b>Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) is an intracellular receptor protein kinase involved in cell proliferation, differentiation and phagocytosis. Syk expression has been reported in cell lines of epithelial origin...
  63. Zyss D, Montcourrier P, Vidal B, Anguille C, Merezegue F, Sahuquet A, et al. The Syk tyrosine kinase localizes to the centrosomes and negatively affects mitotic progression. Cancer Res. 2005;65:10872-80 pubmed
    We showed previously that the spleen tyrosine kinase Syk is expressed by mammary epithelial cells and that it suppresses malignant growth of breast cancer cells...
  64. Hatton O, Phillips L, Vaysberg M, Hurwich J, Krams S, Martinez O. Syk activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt prevents HtrA2-dependent loss of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) to promote survival of Epstein-Barr virus+ (EBV+) B cell lymphomas. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:37368-78 pubmed publisher
    B cell lymphoma survival requires tonic or ligand-independent signals through activation of Syk by the B cell receptor...
  65. Kerrigan A, Brown G. Syk-coupled C-type lectins in immunity. Trends Immunol. 2011;32:151-6 pubmed publisher
    ..It subsequently emerged that Dectin-1 is one of a number of spleen tyrosine kinase-coupled C-type lectin receptors that have been implicated not just in fungal immunity, but also in viral, ..
  66. Eliopoulos A, Das S, Tsichlis P. The tyrosine kinase Syk regulates TPL2 activation signals. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:1371-80 pubmed
    ..Based on both genetic and biochemical evidence, we concluded that in a variety of cell types, Syk is the tyrosine kinase that plays an important role in the activation of Tpl2 upstream of ERK...
  67. Asazuma N, Ozaki Y, Satoh K, Yatomi Y, Handa M, Fujimura Y, et al. Glycoprotein Ib-von Willebrand factor interactions activate tyrosine kinases in human platelets. Blood. 1997;90:4789-98 pubmed
    von Willebrand factor (vWF ) in the presence of botrocetin induces p72(syk) activation, assessed as its autophosphorylated level and in vitro kinase assays, the transient association of p72(syk) with p60(c-src), and the translocation of ..
  68. Wang L, Devarajan E, He J, Reddy S, Dai J. Transcription repressor activity of spleen tyrosine kinase mediates breast tumor suppression. Cancer Res. 2005;65:10289-97 pubmed
    b>Spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) is a candidate tumor suppressor gene in breast...
  69. Hughes C, Pollitt A, Mori J, Eble J, Tomlinson M, Hartwig J, et al. CLEC-2 activates Syk through dimerization. Blood. 2010;115:2947-55 pubmed publisher
    The C-type lectin receptor CLEC-2 activates platelets through Src and Syk tyrosine kinases, leading to tyrosine phosphorylation of downstream adapter proteins and effector enzymes, including phospholipase-C gamma2...
  70. Baudot A, Jeandel P, Mouska X, Maurer U, Tartare Deckert S, Raynaud S, et al. The tyrosine kinase Syk regulates the survival of chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells through PKCdelta and proteasome-dependent regulation of Mcl-1 expression. Oncogene. 2009;28:3261-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent evidence pointing to a critical role of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) in ligand-independent BCR signaling prompted us to examine its role in primary B-CLL cell survival...
  71. Vines C, Potter J, Xu Y, Geahlen R, Costello P, Tybulewicz V, et al. Inhibition of beta 2 integrin receptor and Syk kinase signaling in monocytes by the Src family kinase Fgr. Immunity. 2001;15:507-19 pubmed
    ..We have identified critical positive and negative regulatory components of this cascade in monocytes. Whereas the Syk tyrosine kinase is essential for beta 2 integrin signaling and cell spreading, the Src family kinase Fgr is a ..
  72. Rigby S, Huang Y, Streubel B, Chott A, Du M, Turner S, et al. The lymphoma-associated fusion tyrosine kinase ITK-SYK requires pleckstrin homology domain-mediated membrane localization for activation and cellular transformation. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:26871-81 pubmed publisher
    ITK-SYK, a novel fusion tyrosine kinase (FTK) resulting from a recurrent t(5;9)(q33;q22), was recently identified in a poorly understood subset of peripheral T-cell lymphomas...
  73. Yanagi S, Inatome R, Takano T, Yamamura H. Syk expression and novel function in a wide variety of tissues. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;288:495-8 pubmed
    b>Syk protein-tyrosine kinase has been implicated in a variety of hematopoietic cell responses, in particular immunoreceptor signaling events that mediate diverse cellular responses including proliferation, differentiation, and ..
  74. Faruki S, Geahlen R, Asai D. Syk-dependent phosphorylation of microtubules in activated B-lymphocytes. J Cell Sci. 2000;113 ( Pt 14):2557-65 pubmed
    b>Syk is a protein-tyrosine kinase that is essential for B-lymphocyte development and B-cell signaling. Syk phosphorylates tubulin on tyrosine both in vitro and in intact lymphocytes...
  75. Hoeller C, Thallinger C, Pratscher B, Bister M, Schicher N, Loewe R, et al. The non-receptor-associated tyrosine kinase Syk is a regulator of metastatic behavior in human melanoma cells. J Invest Dermatol. 2005;124:1293-9 pubmed
    ..The current study was performed to assess the impact of "spleen tyrosine kinase" (Syk), a non-receptor-associated tyrosine kinase, on growth and metastatic behavior of melanoma ..
  76. MacGlashan D, Miura K. Loss of syk kinase during IgE-mediated stimulation of human basophils. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004;114:1317-24 pubmed
    ..To determine the long-term effects of FcepsilonRI aggregation on expression of syk kinase...
  77. Yamanashi Y, Fukuda T, Nishizumi H, Inazu T, Higashi K, Kitamura D, et al. Role of tyrosine phosphorylation of HS1 in B cell antigen receptor-mediated apoptosis. J Exp Med. 1997;185:1387-92 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that BCR-associated tyrosine kinases Lyn and Syk synergistically phosphorylate HS1, and that Tyr-378 and Tyr-397 of HS1 are the critical residues for its BCR-..
  78. Moon K, Post C, Durden D, Zhou Q, De P, Harrison M, et al. Molecular basis for a direct interaction between the Syk protein-tyrosine kinase and phosphoinositide 3-kinase. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:1543-51 pubmed
    After engagement of the B cell receptor for antigen, the Syk protein-tyrosine kinase becomes phosphorylated on multiple tyrosines, some of which serve as docking sites for downstream effectors with SH2 or other phosphotyrosine binding ..
  79. Wang S, Ding Y, Chen G, Xia J, Wu Z. Hypermethylation of Syk gene in promoter region associated with oncogenesis and metastasis of gastric carcinoma. World J Gastroenterol. 2004;10:1815-8 pubmed
    To investigate the relationship between methylation of Syk (spleen tyrosine kinase) gene in promoter region and oncogenesis, metastasis of gastric carcinoma...
  80. Miller C, Burkhardt A, Lee J, Stealey B, Longnecker R, Bolen J, et al. Integral membrane protein 2 of Epstein-Barr virus regulates reactivation from latency through dominant negative effects on protein-tyrosine kinases. Immunity. 1995;2:155-66 pubmed
    ..In wild-type EBV-transformed cells, LMP2 is constitutively tyrosine phosphorylated and is associated with Lyn and Syk protein-tyrosine kinases (PTKs)...
  81. Lauvrak S, Walchli S, Iversen T, Slagsvold H, Torgersen M, Spilsberg B, et al. Shiga toxin regulates its entry in a Syk-dependent manner. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:1096-109 pubmed
    ..Stx was found to activate Syk and induce rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins, one protein being clathrin heavy chain...