surfactant protein D


Gene Symbol: surfactant protein D
Description: surfactant protein D
Alias: COLEC7, PSP-D, SFTP4, SP-D, pulmonary surfactant-associated protein D, collectin-7, lung surfactant protein D, pulmonary surfactant apoprotein, surfactant-associated protein, pulmonary 4
Species: human
Products:     surfactant protein D

Top Publications

  1. Hoegh S, Lindegaard H, Sorensen G, Høj A, Bendixen C, Junker P, et al. Circulating surfactant protein D is decreased in early rheumatoid arthritis: a 1-year prospective study. Scand J Immunol. 2008;67:71-6 pubmed
    ..b>Surfactant protein D (SP-D) shares important structural and functional properties with MBL suggesting that SP-D may be an ..
  2. Liu C, Rivere M, Huang H, Puzo G, Wang J. Surfactant protein D inhibits mite-induced alveolar macrophage and dendritic cell activations through TLR signalling and DC-SIGN expression. Clin Exp Allergy. 2010;40:111-22 pubmed publisher
    b>Surfactant protein D (SP-D), a secreted pattern recognition molecule associated with pulmonary innate immunity, has been shown to mediate the clearance of pathogens in multiple ways...
  3. Nadesalingam J, Bernal A, Dodds A, Willis A, Mahoney D, Day A, et al. Identification and characterization of a novel interaction between pulmonary surfactant protein D and decorin. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:25678-87 pubmed
  4. Ishii T, Hagiwara K, Kamio K, Ikeda S, Arai T, Mieno M, et al. Involvement of surfactant protein D in emphysema revealed by genetic association study. Eur J Hum Genet. 2012;20:230-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Surfactant protein D (SFTPD) induces emphysema in knockout mice, but the association of SFTPD with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and emphysema in humans is unclear...
  5. Crouch E, McDonald B, Smith K, Cafarella T, Seaton B, Head J. Contributions of phenylalanine 335 to ligand recognition by human surfactant protein D: ring interactions with SP-D ligands. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:18008-14 pubmed
    b>Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is an innate immune effector that contributes to antimicrobial host defense and immune regulation...
  6. Ohya M, Nishitani C, Sano H, Yamada C, Mitsuzawa H, Shimizu T, et al. Human pulmonary surfactant protein D binds the extracellular domains of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 through the carbohydrate recognition domain by a mechanism different from its binding to phosphatidylinositol and lipopolysaccharide. Biochemistry. 2006;45:8657-64 pubmed
    Pulmonary surfactant protein D (SP-D), a member of the collectin group of innate immune proteins, plays important roles in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) recognition...
  7. Heidinger K, Konig I, Bohnert A, Kleinsteiber A, Hilgendorff A, Gortner L, et al. Polymorphisms in the human surfactant protein-D (SFTPD) gene: strong evidence that serum levels of surfactant protein-D (SP-D) are genetically influenced. Immunogenetics. 2005;57:1-7 pubmed
    ..0034). The discovery of a frequent negative variant of the SFTPD gene provides a basis for genetic analysis of the function of SP-D in the resistance against pulmonary infections and inflammatory disorders in humans. ..
  8. Madsen J, Gaiha G, Palaniyar N, Dong T, Mitchell D, Clark H. Surfactant Protein D modulates HIV infection of both T-cells and dendritic cells. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e59047 pubmed publisher
    b>Surfactant Protein D (SP-D) is an oligomerized C-type lectin molecule with immunomodulatory properties and involvement in lung surfactant homeostasis in the respiratory tract...
  9. Kankavi O, Ata A, Celik Ozenci C, Sati L, Ciftcioglu M, Demir R, et al. Presence and subcellular localizations of surfactant proteins A and D in human spermatozoa. Fertil Steril. 2008;90:1904-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the presence of surfactant protein-A (SP-A); molecular weight 34 kDa and surfactant protein-D (SP-D); and molecular weight 43 kDa in human spermatozoa...

More Information


  1. Mahajan L, Pandit H, Madan T, Gautam P, Yadav A, Warke H, et al. Human surfactant protein D alters oxidative stress and HMGA1 expression to induce p53 apoptotic pathway in eosinophil leukemic cell line. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e85046 pubmed publisher
    b>Surfactant protein D (SP-D), an innate immune molecule, has an indispensable role in host defense and regulation of inflammation...
  2. Sin D, Man S, McWilliams A, Lam S. Surfactant protein D and bronchial dysplasia in smokers at high risk of lung cancer. Chest. 2008;134:582-588 pubmed publisher
    ..This study evaluated the relationship between surfactant protein D (SP-D) and the progression of bronchial dysplasia in heavy smokers...
  3. Vandivier R, Ogden C, Fadok V, Hoffmann P, Brown K, Botto M, et al. Role of surfactant proteins A, D, and C1q in the clearance of apoptotic cells in vivo and in vitro: calreticulin and CD91 as a common collectin receptor complex. J Immunol. 2002;169:3978-86 pubmed
    ..Surfactant protein A (SP-A) and surfactant protein D (SP-D) are high abundance pulmonary collectins recently implicated in apoptotic cell clearance in vitro...
  4. Olesen H, Holmskov U, Schiøtz P, Sørensen G. Serum-surfactant SP-D correlates inversely to lung function in cystic fibrosis. J Cyst Fibros. 2010;9:257-62 pubmed publisher
    Cystic fibrosis (CF) affects the lungs causing infections and inflammation. Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is an innate defense lectin primarily secreted in the lungs...
  5. Foreman M, Kong X, DeMeo D, Pillai S, Hersh C, Bakke P, et al. Polymorphisms in surfactant protein-D are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2011;44:316-22 pubmed publisher
    ..We genotyped six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in surfactant protein D in 389 patients with COPD in the National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT) and 472 smoking control subjects ..
  6. Rust K, Bingle L, Mariencheck W, Persson A, Crouch E. Characterization of the human surfactant protein D promoter: transcriptional regulation of SP-D gene expression by glucocorticoids. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 1996;14:121-30 pubmed
    ..described the characterization of genomic clones encoding the entire translated sequence of human pulmonary surfactant protein D (SP-D)...
  7. Cooley J, McDonald B, Accurso F, Crouch E, REMOLD O DONNELL E. Patterns of neutrophil serine protease-dependent cleavage of surfactant protein D in inflammatory lung disease. J Leukoc Biol. 2008;83:946-55 pubmed publisher
    The manuscript presents definitive studies of surfactant protein D (SP-D) in the context of inflammatory lung fluids...
  8. Garcia Laorden M, Rodriguez de Castro F, Sole Violan J, Rajas O, Blanquer J, Borderias L, et al. Influence of genetic variability at the surfactant proteins A and D in community-acquired pneumonia: a prospective, observational, genetic study. Crit Care. 2011;15:R57 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study indicates that missense single nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes of SFTPA1, SFTPA2 and SFTPD are associated with susceptibility to CAP, and that several haplotypes also influence severity and outcome of CAP. ..
  9. Jack D, Cole J, Naylor S, Borrow R, Kaczmarski E, Klein N, et al. Genetic polymorphism of the binding domain of surfactant protein-A2 increases susceptibility to meningococcal disease. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;43:1426-33 pubmed
    ..Gene polymorphism resulting in the substitution of glutamine with lysine at residue 223 in the carbohydrate recognition domain of SP-A2 increases susceptibility to meningococcal disease, as well as the risk of death. ..
  10. Holmskov U, Lawson P, Teisner B, Tornoe I, Willis A, Morgan C, et al. Isolation and characterization of a new member of the scavenger receptor superfamily, glycoprotein-340 (gp-340), as a lung surfactant protein-D binding molecule. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:13743-9 pubmed was identified by its calcium-dependent binding to lung surfactant protein D (SP-D) and by its molecular mass of 340 kDa in the reduced state on SDS-polyacrylamide gel ..
  11. Alcorn J, Wright J. Degradation of pulmonary surfactant protein D by Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase abrogates innate immune function. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:30871-9 pubmed
    ..These data show that degradation of SP-D occurs in the BAL environment and that degradation eliminates many normal immune functions of SP-D. ..
  12. Sims M, Tal Singer R, Kierstein S, Musani A, Beers M, Panettieri R, et al. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and inhaled steroids alter surfactant protein D (SP-D) levels: a cross-sectional study. Respir Res. 2008;9:13 pubmed publisher
    b>Surfactant protein D (SP-D), an innate immune molecule, plays an important protective role during airway inflammation...
  13. Tino M, Wright J. Glycoprotein-340 binds surfactant protein-A (SP-A) and stimulates alveolar macrophage migration in an SP-A-independent manner. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 1999;20:759-68 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that gp-340 is not a cell-surface receptor necessary for SP-A stimulation of chemotaxis, and show that gp-340 can directly affect macrophage function. ..
  14. Griese M, Wiesener A, Lottspeich F, von Bredow C. Limited proteolysis of surfactant protein D causes a loss of its calcium-dependent lectin functions. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2003;1638:157-63 pubmed
    b>Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a multimeric collagenous lectin that mediates the clearance of pathogens and modulates immune cell functions via its C-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD)...
  15. Fernandez Real J, Valdes S, Manco M, Chico B, Botas P, Campo A, et al. Surfactant protein d, a marker of lung innate immunity, is positively associated with insulin sensitivity. Diabetes Care. 2010;33:847-53 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to evaluate whether surfactant protein D (SP-D), a lung-derived innate immune protein, was behind these associations...
  16. Ishii T, Hagiwara K, Ikeda S, Arai T, Mieno M, Kumasaka T, et al. Association between genetic variations in surfactant protein d and emphysema, interstitial pneumonia, and lung cancer in a Japanese population. COPD. 2012;9:409-16 pubmed publisher
    b>Surfactant protein D (SFTPD) is a lung-specific anti-inflammatory factor that antagonizes inflammation by inhibiting oxidative stress and stimulating innate immunity...
  17. Shiels M, Chaturvedi A, Katki H, Gochuico B, Caporaso N, Engels E. Circulating markers of interstitial lung disease and subsequent risk of lung cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011;20:2262-72 pubmed publisher
    ..99). Circulating levels of SP-D and KL-6 are associated with subsequent lung cancer risk. Our findings support a potential role for interstitial lung disease in lung cancer etiology or early detection, but additional research is needed. ..
  18. Crouch E, Hartshorn K, Horlacher T, McDonald B, Smith K, Cafarella T, et al. Recognition of mannosylated ligands and influenza A virus by human surfactant protein D: contributions of an extended site and residue 343. Biochemistry. 2009;48:3335-45 pubmed publisher
    b>Surfactant protein D (SP-D) plays important roles in antiviral host defense. Although SP-D shows a preference for glucose/maltose, the protein also recognizes d-mannose and a variety of mannose-rich microbial ligands...
  19. White M, Crouch E, Vesona J, Tacken P, Batenburg J, Leth Larsen R, et al. Respiratory innate immune proteins differentially modulate the neutrophil respiratory burst response to influenza A virus. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2005;289:L606-16 pubmed
    ..As a result, the net effect of bronchoalveolar lavage fluids is to increase neutrophil uptake of IAV while reducing the respiratory burst response to virus. ..
  20. Yamazoe M, Nishitani C, Takahashi M, Katoh T, Ariki S, Shimizu T, et al. Pulmonary surfactant protein D inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory cell responses by altering LPS binding to its receptors. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:35878-88 pubmed publisher
    Pulmonary surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a member of the collectin family that plays an important role in regulating innate immunity of the lung...
  21. Lomas D, Silverman E, Edwards L, Locantore N, Miller B, Horstman D, et al. Serum surfactant protein D is steroid sensitive and associated with exacerbations of COPD. Eur Respir J. 2009;34:95-102 pubmed publisher
    ..It may represent an intermediate measure for the development of novel anti-inflammatory agents. ..
  22. Crouch E, Persson A, Chang D, Heuser J. Molecular structure of pulmonary surfactant protein D (SP-D). J Biol Chem. 1994;269:17311-9 pubmed
    Previous studies have shown that pulmonary surfactant protein D (SP-D) is composed of a 43-kDa polypeptide with a short NH2-terminal domain, a collagen sequence, and a COOH-terminal C-type lectin domain...
  23. Crouch E, Persson A, Chang D. Accumulation of surfactant protein D in human pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Am J Pathol. 1993;142:241-8 pubmed
    b>Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a collagenous calcium-dependent carbohydrate-binding protein that is structurally related to the serum mannose-binding proteins and pulmonary surfactant protein A...
  24. Crouch E, Tu Y, Briner D, McDonald B, Smith K, Holmskov U, et al. Ligand specificity of human surfactant protein D: expression of a mutant trimeric collectin that shows enhanced interactions with influenza A virus. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:17046-56 pubmed
    b>Surfactant protein D is a pattern recognition molecule that plays diverse roles in immune regulation and anti-microbial host defense...
  25. Stahlman M, Gray M, Hull W, Whitsett J. Immunolocalization of surfactant protein-D (SP-D) in human fetal, newborn, and adult tissues. J Histochem Cytochem. 2002;50:651-60 pubmed
    ..SP-D is a widely distributed member of the "collectin" family of polypeptides secreted onto luminal surfaces by epithelial cells lining ducts of many organs, where it likely plays a role in innate host defense. ..
  26. Sørensen G, Hjelmborg J, Kyvik K, Fenger M, Høj A, Bendixen C, et al. Genetic and environmental influences of surfactant protein D serum levels. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2006;290:L1010-7 pubmed
    The collectin surfactant protein D (SP-D) is an important component of the pulmonary innate immune system, but SP-D is also present on extrapulmonary epithelial surfaces and in serum, where it has been used as a biomarker for pulmonary ..
  27. Ogasawara Y, Kuroki Y, Akino T. Pulmonary surfactant protein D specifically binds to phosphatidylinositol. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:21244-9 pubmed
    ..However, whether surfactant protein D (SP-D) interacts with phospholipids is unknown...
  28. Pantelidis P, Lagan A, Davies J, Welsh K, du Bois R. A single round PCR method for genotyping human surfactant protein (SP)-A1, SP-A2 and SP-D gene alleles. Tissue Antigens. 2003;61:317-21 pubmed
    ..In this manuscript, we report the primers and conditions of a sequence specific primer-PCR methodology that enables the identification of SP-A1, SP-A2 and SP-D gene allelic variants directly on genomic DNA material. ..
  29. Botas C, Poulain F, Akiyama J, Brown C, Allen L, Goerke J, et al. Altered surfactant homeostasis and alveolar type II cell morphology in mice lacking surfactant protein D. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:11869-74 pubmed
    b>Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is one of two collectins found in the pulmonary alveolus. On the basis of homology with other collectins, potential functions for SP-D include roles in innate immunity and surfactant metabolism...
  30. Hoegh S, Sorensen G, Tornoe I, Lottenburger T, Ytting H, Nielsen H, et al. Long-term stability and circadian variation in circulating levels of surfactant protein D. Immunobiology. 2010;215:314-20 pubmed publisher
    b>Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is an oligomeric calcium-dependent lectin with important roles in innate host defence against infectious microorganisms...
  31. Lahti M, Lofgren J, Marttila R, Renko M, Klaavuniemi T, Haataja R, et al. Surfactant protein D gene polymorphism associated with severe respiratory syncytial virus infection. Pediatr Res. 2002;51:696-9 pubmed
    ..In this study, a candidate-gene approach was used to study whether the surfactant protein D (SP-D) gene polymorphism associates with severe RSV infection...
  32. Leth Larsen R, Garred P, Jensenius H, Meschi J, Hartshorn K, Madsen J, et al. A common polymorphism in the SFTPD gene influences assembly, function, and concentration of surfactant protein D. J Immunol. 2005;174:1532-8 pubmed
    b>Surfactant protein D (SP-D) plays important roles in the host defense against infectious microorganisms and in regulating the innate immune response to a variety of pathogen-associated molecular pattern...
  33. Meschi J, Crouch E, Skolnik P, Yahya K, Holmskov U, Leth Larsen R, et al. Surfactant protein D binds to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope protein gp120 and inhibits HIV replication. J Gen Virol. 2005;86:3097-107 pubmed
    ..In this study it is demonstrated that surfactant protein D (SP-D) binds to gp120 and inhibits HIV infectivity at significantly lower concentrations than MBL...
  34. Selman M, Lin H, Montaño M, Jenkins A, Estrada A, Lin Z, et al. Surfactant protein A and B genetic variants predispose to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Hum Genet. 2003;113:542-50 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that surfactant protein variants may serve as markers to identify subgroups of patients at risk, and we speculate that these contribute to IPF pathogenesis. ..
  35. Shrive A, Tharia H, Strong P, Kishore U, Burns I, Rizkallah P, et al. High-resolution structural insights into ligand binding and immune cell recognition by human lung surfactant protein D. J Mol Biol. 2003;331:509-23 pubmed
    b>Lung surfactant protein D (SP-D) can directly interact with carbohydrate residues on pulmonary pathogens and allergens, stimulate immune cells, and manipulate cytokine and chemokine profiles during the immune response in the lungs...
  36. Clark H, Palaniyar N, Strong P, Edmondson J, Hawgood S, Reid K. Surfactant protein D reduces alveolar macrophage apoptosis in vivo. J Immunol. 2002;169:2892-9 pubmed
    b>Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a molecule of the innate immune system that recognizes the patterns of surface carbohydrate on pathogens and targets them for phagocytosis and killing...
  37. Wang H, Head J, Kosma P, Brade H, Muller Loennies S, Sheikh S, et al. Recognition of heptoses and the inner core of bacterial lipopolysaccharides by surfactant protein d. Biochemistry. 2008;47:710-20 pubmed
    ..b>Surfactant protein D (SP-D) shows specific interactions with LPS, both in vitro and in vivo...
  38. Thomas N, Diangelo S, Hess J, Fan R, Ball M, Geskey J, et al. Transmission of surfactant protein variants and haplotypes in children hospitalized with respiratory syncytial virus. Pediatr Res. 2009;66:70-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Further study is required to determine whether these variants can be used to target a high-risk patient population in clinical trials aimed at reducing either the symptoms of acute infection or long-term pulmonary sequelae. ..
  39. Palaniyar N, Nadesalingam J, Clark H, Shih M, Dodds A, Reid K. Nucleic acid is a novel ligand for innate, immune pattern recognition collectins surfactant proteins A and D and mannose-binding lectin. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:32728-36 pubmed
    ..Collectins may therefore play an important role in decreasing the inflammation caused by DNA in lungs and other tissues. ..
  40. Madsen J, Kliem A, Tornoe I, Skjodt K, Koch C, Holmskov U. Localization of lung surfactant protein D on mucosal surfaces in human tissues. J Immunol. 2000;164:5866-70 pubmed
    ..The localization and functions of SP-D indicate that this collectin is the counterpart in the innate immune system of IgA in the adaptive immune system. ..
  41. Crouch E, Smith K, McDonald B, Briner D, Linders B, McDonald J, et al. Species differences in the carbohydrate binding preferences of surfactant protein D. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2006;35:84-94 pubmed
    Interactions of surfactant protein D (SP-D) with micro-organisms and organic antigens involve binding to the trimeric neck plus carbohydrate recognition domain (neck+CRD)...
  42. Sato S, Hanibuchi M, Fukuya A, Yabuki Y, Bando H, Yoshijima T, et al. Idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis is characterized by an elevated serum level of surfactant protein-D, but Not Krebs von den Lungen-6. Lung. 2014;192:711-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In IPPFE, SP-D might tend to be elevated, while KL-6 was within a normal range. Further study is required to determine the pathogenesis and clinical significance of the elevated SP-D in IPPFE. ..
  43. Djiadeu P, Farmakovski N, Azzouz D, Kotra L, Sweezey N, Palaniyar N. Surfactant protein D regulates caspase-8-mediated cascade of the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis while promoting bleb formation. Mol Immunol. 2017;92:190-198 pubmed publisher
    ..This novel regulatory aspect of SP-D could help to regulate intrinsic pathway of apoptosis to promote effective blebbing and breakdown of dying cells. ..
  44. Karjalainen M, Huusko J, Tuohimaa A, Luukkonen A, Haataja R, Hallman M. A study of collectin genes in spontaneous preterm birth reveals an association with a common surfactant protein D gene polymorphism. Pediatr Res. 2012;71:93-9 pubmed publisher
  45. Fournier B, Andargachew R, Robin A, Laur O, Voelker D, Lee W, et al. Surfactant protein D (Sp-D) binds to membrane-proximal domain (D3) of signal regulatory protein ? (SIRP?), a site distant from binding domain of CD47, while also binding to analogous region on signal regulatory protein ? (SIRP?). J Biol Chem. 2012;287:19386-98 pubmed publisher
  46. Ampuero S, Luchsinger V, Tapia L, Palomino M, Larrañaga C. SP-A1, SP-A2 and SP-D gene polymorphisms in severe acute respiratory syncytial infection in Chilean infants. Infect Genet Evol. 2011;11:1368-77 pubmed publisher
    ..00000034) and moderate disease (p=0.000009). Differences were also found among severe and mild disease (p=0.026). Differences found with other authors, indicate the need for local studies to identify genetic biomarkers of severity...
  47. Thomas N, Fan R, Diangelo S, Hess J, Floros J. Haplotypes of the surfactant protein genes A and D as susceptibility factors for the development of respiratory distress syndrome. Acta Paediatr. 2007;96:985-9 pubmed
    ..Study of haplotypes in complex diseases with both genetic and environmental risk factors may lead to better understanding of these types of diseases. ..
  48. Tacken P, Hartshorn K, White M, van Kooten C, van de Winkel J, Reid K, et al. Effective targeting of pathogens to neutrophils via chimeric surfactant protein D/anti-CD89 protein. J Immunol. 2004;172:4934-40 pubmed
    ..pathogen to an FcR, we assessed whether a broad spectrum of pathogens can be targeted to an FcR using surfactant protein D (SP-D). SP-D is a collectin that binds a great variety of pathogens via its carbohydrate recognition domain...
  49. Goh B, Rynkiewicz M, Cafarella T, White M, Hartshorn K, Allen K, et al. Molecular mechanisms of inhibition of influenza by surfactant protein D revealed by large-scale molecular dynamics simulation. Biochemistry. 2013;52:8527-38 pubmed publisher
    b>Surfactant protein D (SP-D), a mammalian C-type lectin, is the primary innate inhibitor of influenza A virus (IAV) in the lung...
  50. Faure K, Leberre R, Guery B. [Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Surfactant-associated Proteins A and D]. Med Mal Infect. 2006;36:63-71 pubmed
    ..However, further investigations are necessary to examine whether these deficiencies facilitate P. aeruginosa infections or stand as consequences. ..
  51. Fakih D, Pilecki B, Schlosser A, Jepsen C, Thomsen L, Ormhøj M, et al. Protective effects of surfactant protein D treatment in 1,3-β-glucan-modulated allergic inflammation. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2015;309:L1333-43 pubmed publisher
    b>Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a pulmonary collectin important in lung immunity...
  52. Rust K, Grosso L, Zhang V, Chang D, Persson A, Longmore W, et al. Human surfactant protein D: SP-D contains a C-type lectin carbohydrate recognition domain. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1991;290:116-26 pubmed
    b>Lung surfactant protein D (SP-D) shows calcium-dependent binding to specific saccharides, and is similar in domain structure to certain members of the calcium-dependent (C-type) lectin family...
  53. Rova M, Haataja R, Marttila R, Ollikainen V, Tammela O, Hallman M. Data mining and multiparameter analysis of lung surfactant protein genes in bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Hum Mol Genet. 2004;13:1095-104 pubmed
  54. Yong S, Vuk Pavlovic Z, Standing J, Crouch E, Limper A. Surfactant protein D-mediated aggregation of Pneumocystis carinii impairs phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages. Infect Immun. 2003;71:1662-71 pubmed
    ..Animal studies reveal that substantial quantities of surfactant protein D (SP-D) accumulate in the airspaces during P...
  55. Bowler R. Surfactant protein D as a biomarker for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. COPD. 2012;9:651-3 pubmed publisher
    ..One such candidate is the lung specific protein surfactant protein D (SP-D). In this review, we discuss the evidence supporting SP-D as a COPD biomarker.
  56. Lingappa J, Dumitrescu L, Zimmer S, Lynfield R, McNicholl J, Messonnier N, et al. Identifying host genetic risk factors in the context of public health surveillance for invasive pneumococcal disease. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23413 pubmed publisher
    ..cases and 361 controls), and 166 African Americans (AA) (53 cases and 113 controls), common variants in surfactant protein D (SFTPD) are consistently underrepresented in IPD...
  57. Shakoori T, Sin D, Ghafoor F, Bashir S, Bokhari S. Serum surfactant protein D during acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Dis Markers. 2009;27:287-94 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a pulmonary collectin regulating the innate immunity of the lung and its serum expression is ..
  58. Olde Nordkamp M, van Eijk M, Urbanus R, Bont L, Haagsman H, Meyaard L. Leukocyte-associated Ig-like receptor-1 is a novel inhibitory receptor for surfactant protein D. J Leukoc Biol. 2014;96:105-11 pubmed publisher
    ..This may provide a mechanism for the unexplained immunomodulatory function of the collagenous domains of SP-D. ..
  59. Yamaguchi R, Sakamoto A, Yamamoto T, Ishimaru Y, Narahara S, Sugiuchi H, et al. Surfactant Protein D Inhibits Interleukin-12p40 Production by Macrophages Through the SIRPα/ROCK/ERK Signaling Pathway. Am J Med Sci. 2017;353:559-567 pubmed publisher
    ..Medical research trials based on IPF registry databases have actively recruited patients. Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a useful biomarker in patients with IPF...
  60. He Y, Crouch E. Surfactant protein D gene regulation. Interactions among the conserved CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein elements. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:19530-7 pubmed
    b>Surfactant protein D (SP-D) plays roles in pulmonary host defense and surfactant homeostasis and is increased following acute lung injury...
  61. Obeidat M, Li X, Burgess S, Zhou G, Fishbane N, Hansel N, et al. Surfactant protein D is a causal risk factor for COPD: results of Mendelian randomisation. Eur Respir J. 2017;50: pubmed publisher
    b>Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is produced primarily in the lung and is involved in regulating pulmonary surfactants, lipid homeostasis and innate immunity...
  62. Tecle T, White M, Sorensen G, Gantz D, Kacak N, Holmskov U, et al. Critical role for cross-linking of trimeric lectin domains of surfactant protein D in antiviral activity against influenza A virus. Biochem J. 2008;412:323-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The lung collectin SP-D (surfactant protein D) has strong neutralizing activity for IAVs (influenza A viruses) in vitro and in vivo, however, the NCRD ..
  63. Sarashina Kida H, Negishi H, Nishio J, Suda W, Nakajima Y, Yasui Kato M, et al. Gallbladder-derived surfactant protein D regulates gut commensal bacteria for maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:10178-10183 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we provide evidence that surfactant protein D (SP-D) synthesized in the gallbladder and delivered into intestinal lumen binds selectively to species of ..