Gene Symbol: SUPT16H
Description: SPT16 homolog, facilitates chromatin remodeling subunit
Alias: CDC68, FACTP140, SPT16, SPT16/CDC68, FACT complex subunit SPT16, FACT 140 kDa subunit, chromatin-specific transcription elongation factor 140 kDa subunit, facilitates chromatin remodeling 140 kDa subunit, facilitates chromatin transcription complex subunit SPT16, hSPT16, suppressor of Ty 16 homolog
Species: human
Products:     SUPT16H

Top Publications

  1. Orphanides G, LeRoy G, Chang C, Luse D, Reinberg D. FACT, a factor that facilitates transcript elongation through nucleosomes. Cell. 1998;92:105-16 pubmed
    ..The biochemical properties and polypeptide composition of FACT suggest that it is a novel protein factor that facilitates transcript elongation through nucleosomes. ..
  2. Keller D, Zeng X, Wang Y, Zhang Q, Kapoor M, Shu H, et al. A DNA damage-induced p53 serine 392 kinase complex contains CK2, hSpt16, and SSRP1. Mol Cell. 2001;7:283-92 pubmed
    ..complex contains casein kinase 2 (CK2) and the chromatin transcriptional elongation factor FACT (a heterodimer of hSpt16 and SSRP1)...
  3. Heo K, Kim H, Choi S, Choi J, Kim K, Gu J, et al. FACT-mediated exchange of histone variant H2AX regulated by phosphorylation of H2AX and ADP-ribosylation of Spt16. Mol Cell. 2008;30:86-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we isolate the H2AX-associated factors, which include FACT (Spt16/SSRP1), DNA-PK, and PARP1 from a human cell line...
  4. Belotserkovskaya R, Oh S, Bondarenko V, Orphanides G, Studitsky V, Reinberg D. FACT facilitates transcription-dependent nucleosome alteration. Science. 2003;301:1090-3 pubmed
    ..requires both of its constituent subunits and is dependent on the highly acidic C terminus of its larger subunit, Spt16. These findings define the mechanism by which Pol II can transcribe through chromatin without disrupting its ..
  5. Zhou W, Zhu P, Wang J, Pascual G, Ohgi K, Lozach J, et al. Histone H2A monoubiquitination represses transcription by inhibiting RNA polymerase II transcriptional elongation. Mol Cell. 2008;29:69-80 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that distinct H2A ubiquitinases, each recruited based on interactions with different corepressor complexes, contribute to distinct transcriptional repression programs. ..
  6. Pavri R, Zhu B, Li G, Trojer P, Mandal S, Shilatifard A, et al. Histone H2B monoubiquitination functions cooperatively with FACT to regulate elongation by RNA polymerase II. Cell. 2006;125:703-17 pubmed
  7. Orphanides G, Wu W, Lane W, Hampsey M, Reinberg D. The chromatin-specific transcription elongation factor FACT comprises human SPT16 and SSRP1 proteins. Nature. 1999;400:284-8 pubmed
    ..Here we show that FACT comprises a new human homologue of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Spt16/Cdc68 protein and the high-mobility group-1-like protein structure-specific recognition protein-1...
  8. Tan B, Lee S. Nek9, a novel FACT-associated protein, modulates interphase progression. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:9321-30 pubmed
    The heterodimeric Spt16-Pob3/DUF/FACT complex is a class of chromatin structure modulators with important roles in replication and transcription...
  9. Tan B, Chien C, Hirose S, Lee S. Functional cooperation between FACT and MCM helicase facilitates initiation of chromatin DNA replication. EMBO J. 2006;25:3975-85 pubmed

More Information


  1. Yasin H, Gibson W, Langlois S, Stowe R, Tsang E, Lee L, et al. A distinct neurodevelopmental syndrome with intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, characteristic facies, and macrocephaly is caused by defects in CHD8. J Hum Genet. 2019;64:271-280 pubmed publisher
    ..this constituted a new multiple congenital anomaly-intellectual disability syndrome due to defects in CHD8 and/or SUPT16H. The three patients in our original cohort were between 2 years and 3 years of age at the time...
  2. Prontera P, Ottaviani V, Toccaceli D, Rogaia D, Ardisia C, Romani R, et al. Recurrent ∼100 Kb microdeletion in the chromosomal region 14q11.2, involving CHD8 gene, is associated with autism and macrocephaly. Am J Med Genet A. 2014;164A:3137-41 pubmed publisher
    ..2 chromosomal region, involving the SUPT16H, CHD8, and RAB2B genes...
  3. Krüger A, Jelier R, Dzyubachyk O, Zimmerman T, Meijering E, Lehner B. Comprehensive single cell-resolution analysis of the role of chromatin regulators in early C. elegans embryogenesis. Dev Biol. 2015;398:153-62 pubmed publisher
    ..3 (encoding FACT subunit SUPT16H), lin-53 (RBBP4/7), rba-1 (RBBP4/7), set-16 (MLL2/3), hda-1 (HDAC1/2), swsn-7 (ARID2), and let-526 (ARID1A/1B) ..
  4. Drabova J, Seemanova E, Hancarova M, Pourova R, Horacek M, Jancuskova T, et al. Long term follow-up in a patient with a de novo microdeletion of 14q11.2 involving CHD8. Am J Med Genet A. 2015;167A:837-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Two of the protein-coding genes, SUPT16H and CHD8, have been proposed as candidate genes for a new microdeletion syndrome...
  5. Breckpot J, Vercruyssen M, Weyts E, Vandevoort S, D Haenens G, Van Buggenhout G, et al. Copy number variation analysis in adults with catatonia confirms haploinsufficiency of SHANK3 as a predisposing factor. Eur J Med Genet. 2016;59:436-43 pubmed publisher
    ..2, harboring the gene SUPT16H. Three remaining variants respectively on 2q36.1, 16p13.13 and 17p13...
  6. Biswas D, Dutta Biswas R, Mitra D, Shibata Y, Strahl B, Formosa T, et al. Opposing roles for Set2 and yFACT in regulating TBP binding at promoters. EMBO J. 2006;25:4479-89 pubmed
    Previous work links histone methylation by Set2 with transcriptional elongation. yFACT (Spt16-Pob3 and Nhp6) reorganizes nucleosomes and functions in both transcriptional initiation and elongation...
  7. Kari V, Shchebet A, Neumann H, Johnsen S. The H2B ubiquitin ligase RNF40 cooperates with SUPT16H to induce dynamic changes in chromatin structure during DNA double-strand break repair. Cell Cycle. 2011;10:3495-504 pubmed publisher
    ..Knockdown of the FACT component suppressor of Ty homolog-16 (SUPT16H) phenocopied the effects of RNF40 knockdown on both ?H2AX and H3K56ac following DSB induction...
  8. Gottschalk A, Timinszky G, Kong S, Jin J, Cai Y, Swanson S, et al. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation directs recruitment and activation of an ATP-dependent chromatin remodeler. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:13770-4 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of chromatin-associated Parp1 serves as a mechanism for targeting a SNF2 family remodeler to chromatin. ..
  9. Easley R, Carpio L, Dannenberg L, Choi S, Alani D, Van Duyne R, et al. Transcription through the HIV-1 nucleosomes: effects of the PBAF complex in Tat activated transcription. Virology. 2010;405:322-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, the BAF complex may play an important role in regulating splicing of the HIV-1 genome. ..
  10. Huang J, Chen W, Chang Y, Wang H, Chuang W, Lee S. Modulation of nucleosome-binding activity of FACT by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34:2398-407 pubmed
    ..The FACT (facilitates chromatin transcription) complex, a heterodimer of hSpt16 and SSRP1, is a chromatin structure modulator whose involvement in transcription and DNA replication has been ..
  11. Fryer C, White J, Jones K. Mastermind recruits CycC:CDK8 to phosphorylate the Notch ICD and coordinate activation with turnover. Mol Cell. 2004;16:509-20 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest a role for MAM and CycC:CDK8 in the turnover of the Notch enhancer complex at target genes. ..
  12. Wada T, Orphanides G, Hasegawa J, Kim D, Shima D, Yamaguchi Y, et al. FACT relieves DSIF/NELF-mediated inhibition of transcriptional elongation and reveals functional differences between P-TEFb and TFIIH. Mol Cell. 2000;5:1067-72 pubmed
    ..In addition, this study reveals functional differences between P-TEFb and TFIIH in the regulation of transcription. ..
  13. Hautbergue G, Hung M, Walsh M, Snijders A, Chang C, Jones R, et al. UIF, a New mRNA export adaptor that works together with REF/ALY, requires FACT for recruitment to mRNA. Curr Biol. 2009;19:1918-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Together the results indicate that REF and UIF represent key human adaptors for the export of cellular mRNAs via the UAP56-NXF1 pathway. ..
  14. Du Y, Gu S, Zhou J, Wang T, Cai H, Macinnes M, et al. The dynamic alterations of H2AX complex during DNA repair detected by a proteomic approach reveal the critical roles of Ca(2+)/calmodulin in the ionizing radiation-induced cell cycle arrest. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2006;5:1033-44 pubmed
    ..The dataset presented here demonstrates that sensitive profiling of the dynamics of functional cellular protein-protein interactions can successfully lead to the dissection of important metabolic or signaling pathways. ..
  15. Kang S, Kuzuhara T, Horikoshi M. Functional interaction of general transcription initiation factor TFIIE with general chromatin factor SPT16/CDC68. Genes Cells. 2000;5:251-63 pubmed
    ..The C-terminal part of human SPT16/CDC68 directly interacts with TFIIE, and ySpt16p/Cdc68p also interacts with yTFIIE (Tfa1p/Tfa2p), thus indicating ..
  16. Piwko W, Olma M, Held M, Bianco J, Pedrioli P, Hofmann K, et al. RNAi-based screening identifies the Mms22L-Nfkbil2 complex as a novel regulator of DNA replication in human cells. EMBO J. 2010;29:4210-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results strongly suggest that the Mms22L-Nfkbil2 complex contributes to genome stability by regulating the chromatin state at stalled replication forks. ..
  17. O Connell B, Adamson B, Lydeard J, Sowa M, Ciccia A, Bredemeyer A, et al. A genome-wide camptothecin sensitivity screen identifies a mammalian MMS22L-NFKBIL2 complex required for genomic stability. Mol Cell. 2010;40:645-57 pubmed publisher
    ..This study identifies MMS22L-NFKBIL2 as components of the replication stress control pathway and provides a resource for discovery of additional components of this pathway. ..
  18. Kihara T, Kano F, Murata M. Modulation of SRF-dependent gene expression by association of SPT16 with MKL1. Exp Cell Res. 2008;314:629-37 pubmed
    ..b>SPT16, ATP citrate lyase, nucleolin and radixin were identified, and the physical and functional interactions between ..
  19. Huang H, Santoso N, Power D, Simpson S, Dieringer M, Miao H, et al. FACT Proteins, SUPT16H and SSRP1, Are Transcriptional Suppressors of HIV-1 and HTLV-1 That Facilitate Viral Latency. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:27297-310 pubmed publisher
    ..RNAi screens have identified the protein components of the FACT (facilitates chromatin transcription) complex, SUPT16H and SSRP1, as top host factors that negatively regulate HIV-1 replication...
  20. Sand Dejmek J, Adelmant G, Sobhian B, Calkins A, Marto J, Iglehart D, et al. Concordant and opposite roles of DNA-PK and the "facilitator of chromatin transcription" (FACT) in DNA repair, apoptosis and necrosis after cisplatin. Mol Cancer. 2011;10:74 pubmed publisher
    ..The structure specific recognition protein 1 (SSRP1), Spt16 and ?H2AX appeared in the Ku86 complex 5 hours after cisplatin treatment...
  21. Oliveira D, Kato A, Nakamura K, Ikura T, Okada M, Kobayashi J, et al. Histone chaperone FACT regulates homologous recombination by chromatin remodeling through interaction with RNF20. J Cell Sci. 2014;127:763-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we identified the histone chaperone FACT as a key protein in the early steps of HRR. Depletion of SUPT16H, a component of FACT, caused pronounced defects in accumulations of repair proteins and, consequently, decreased ..
  22. Smyk M, Poluha A, Jaszczuk I, Bartnik M, Bernaciak J, Nowakowska B. Novel 14q11.2 microduplication including the CHD8 and SUPT16H genes associated with developmental delay. Am J Med Genet A. 2016;170A:1325-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Submicroscopic 14q11.2 deletions involving the CHD8 and SUPT16H genes have been reported in patients with developmental delay (DD)/intellectual disability (ID) or autism ..
  23. Birch J, Tan B, Panov K, Panova T, Andersen J, Owen Hughes T, et al. FACT facilitates chromatin transcription by RNA polymerases I and III. EMBO J. 2009;28:854-65 pubmed publisher
    ..The subunits of the histone chaperone FACT (facilitates chromatin transcription), SSRP1 and Spt16, co-purify and co-immunoprecipitate with mammalian Pol I complexes...
  24. Li Y, Zeng S, Landais I, Lu H. Human SSRP1 has Spt16-dependent and -independent roles in gene transcription. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:6936-45 pubmed
    The facilitating chromatin transcription (FACT) complex, a heterodimer of SSRP1 and Spt16, has been shown to regulate transcription elongation through a chromatin template in vitro and on specific genes in cells...
  25. Kouskouti A, Talianidis I. Histone modifications defining active genes persist after transcriptional and mitotic inactivation. EMBO J. 2005;24:347-57 pubmed
    ..The findings suggest that histone modifications may function as molecular memory bookmarks for previously active locations of the genome, thus contributing to the maintenance of active chromatin states through cell division. ..
  26. LeRoy G, Orphanides G, Lane W, Reinberg D. Requirement of RSF and FACT for transcription of chromatin templates in vitro. Science. 1998;282:1900-4 pubmed
    ..Thus, the minimal factor requirements for activator-dependent transcription on chromatin templates in vitro have been defined. ..
  27. Safina A, Garcia H, Commane M, Guryanova O, Degan S, Kolesnikova K, et al. Complex mutual regulation of facilitates chromatin transcription (FACT) subunits on both mRNA and protein levels in human cells. Cell Cycle. 2013;12:2423-34 pubmed publisher
    Facilitates chromatin transcription (FACT) is a chromatin remodeling complex with two subunits: SSRP1 and SPT16. Mechanisms controlling FACT levels are of interest, since the complex is not expressed in most differentiated cells, but is ..
  28. Leung J, Ghosal G, Wang W, Shen X, Wang J, Li L, et al. Alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked gene product ATRX is required for proper replication restart and cellular resistance to replication stress. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:6342-50 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we identified ATRX as a binding partner of MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) complex. Together, these results suggest a non-canonical function of ATRX in guarding genomic stability. ..
  29. Husain A, Begum N, Taniguchi T, Taniguchi H, Kobayashi M, Honjo T. Chromatin remodeller SMARCA4 recruits topoisomerase 1 and suppresses transcription-associated genomic instability. Nat Commun. 2016;7:10549 pubmed publisher
    ..We thus propose that SMARCA4 is involved in the TOP1 recruitment to general chromatin, whereas FACT is required for TOP1 binding to H3K4me3 at non-B DNA containing chromatin for the site-specific cleavage. ..
  30. Keller D, Lu H. p53 serine 392 phosphorylation increases after UV through induction of the assembly of the CK2.hSPT16.SSRP1 complex. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:50206-13 pubmed
    ..molecular weight protein complex containing the protein kinase CK2, along with the chromatin-associated factors hSPT16 and SSRP1...
  31. Sanchez A, De Vivo A, Uprety N, Kim J, Stevens S, Kee Y. BMI1-UBR5 axis regulates transcriptional repression at damaged chromatin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:11243-11248 pubmed
    ..Mass spectrometry (MS) analysis revealed that UBR5 associates with BMI1 as well as FACT components SPT16 and SSRP1. We found that UBR5 localizes to the UV-induced lesions along with SPT16...