Gene Symbol: SUMO-1
Description: small ubiquitin-like modifier 1
Alias: DAP1, GMP1, OFC10, PIC1, SENP2, SMT3, SMT3C, SMT3H3, UBL1, small ubiquitin-related modifier 1, GAP modifying protein 1, SMT3 homolog 3, SMT3 suppressor of mif two 3 homolog 1, sentrin, ubiquitin-homology domain protein PIC1, ubiquitin-like protein SMT3C, ubiquitin-like protein UBL1
Species: human
Products:     SUMO-1

Top Publications

  1. Song J, Zhang Z, Hu W, Chen Y. Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) recognition of a SUMO binding motif: a reversal of the bound orientation. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:40122-9 pubmed
    ..This study provides a clear mechanism of the SBM sequence variations and its recognition of the SUMO moiety in sumoylated proteins. ..
  2. Shen L, Dong C, Liu H, Naismith J, Hay R. The structure of SENP1-SUMO-2 complex suggests a structural basis for discrimination between SUMO paralogues during processing. Biochem J. 2006;397:279-88 pubmed
    The SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier)-specific protease SENP1 (sentrin-specific protease 1) can process the three forms of SUMO to their mature forms and deconjugate SUMO from modified substrates...
  3. Morris J, Boutell C, Keppler M, Densham R, Weekes D, Alamshah A, et al. The SUMO modification pathway is involved in the BRCA1 response to genotoxic stress. Nature. 2009;462:886-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that the SUMOylation pathway plays a significant role in mammalian DNA damage response. ..
  4. Saether T, Pattabiraman D, Alm Kristiansen A, Vogt Kielland L, Gonda T, Gabrielsen O. A functional SUMO-interacting motif in the transactivation domain of c-Myb regulates its myeloid transforming ability. Oncogene. 2011;30:212-22 pubmed publisher
    ..This establishes SUMO binding as a mechanism involved in modulating the transactivation activity of c-Myb, and responsible for keeping the transforming potential of the oncoprotein in check. ..
  5. Escobar Cabrera E, Okon M, Lau D, Dart C, Bonvin A, McIntosh L. Characterizing the N- and C-terminal Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)-interacting motifs of the scaffold protein DAXX. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:19816-29 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide insights into the binding mechanisms and hence biological roles of the DAXX SUMO-interacting motifs. ..
  6. Martin S, Tatham M, Hay R, Samuel I. Quantitative analysis of multi-protein interactions using FRET: application to the SUMO pathway. Protein Sci. 2008;17:777-84 pubmed publisher
    ..These assays provide powerful tools for the study of competitive biochemical cascades and the extent to which drug candidates modify protein interactions. ..
  7. Mohideen F, Capili A, Bilimoria P, Yamada T, Bonni A, Lima C. A molecular basis for phosphorylation-dependent SUMO conjugation by the E2 UBC9. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2009;16:945-52 pubmed publisher
    ..These data support an E2-dependent mechanism that underlies phosphorylation-dependent SUMO conjugation in pathways that range from the heat-shock response to nuclear hormone signaling to brain development. ..
  8. Martin N, Schwamborn K, Schreiber V, Werner A, Guillier C, Zhang X, et al. PARP-1 transcriptional activity is regulated by sumoylation upon heat shock. EMBO J. 2009;28:3534-48 pubmed publisher
    ..These results, thus, point to a novel mechanism for regulating PARP-1 transcription function, and suggest crosstalk between sumoylation and RNF4-mediated ubiquitination in regulating gene expression in response to heat shock. ..
  9. Cai Q, Verma S, Kumar P, Ma M, Robertson E. Hypoxia inactivates the VHL tumor suppressor through PIASy-mediated SUMO modification. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9720 pubmed publisher
    ..Knockdown of PIASy by small interfering RNA leads to reduction of VHL oligomerization and increases HIF1alpha degradation. These findings reveal a unique molecular strategy for inactivation of VHL under hypoxic stress. ..

More Information

Publications101 found, 100 shown here

  1. Fu J, Xiong Y, Xu Y, Cheng G, Tang H. MDA5 is SUMOylated by PIAS2? in the upregulation of type I interferon signaling. Mol Immunol. 2011;48:415-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these findings suggest that SUMO-1 modification of MDA5 possibly via PIAS2? may play a role in the MDA5-mediated IFN response to viral infections. ..
  2. Lois L, Lima C. Structures of the SUMO E1 provide mechanistic insights into SUMO activation and E2 recruitment to E1. EMBO J. 2005;24:439-51 pubmed
    ..A mechanism for E2 recruitment to E1 is suggested by biochemical and genetic data, each of which supports a direct role for the E1 C-terminal ubiquitin-like domain for E2 recruitment during conjugation. ..
  3. Wei F, Scholer H, Atchison M. Sumoylation of Oct4 enhances its stability, DNA binding, and transactivation. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:21551-60 pubmed
    ..Therefore, sumoylation of Oct4 results in increased stability, DNA binding, and transactivation and provides an important mechanism to regulate Oct4 activity. ..
  4. Costa M, Lee S, Furtado M, Xin L, Sparrow D, Martinez C, et al. Complex SUMO-1 regulation of cardiac transcription factor Nkx2-5. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24812 pubmed publisher
    ..We also observe SUMOylation of Nkx2-5 cofactors, which may be critical to Nkx2-5 regulation. Our data reveal highly complex regulatory mechanisms driven by SUMOylation to modulate Nkx2-5 activity. ..
  5. Aillet F, Lopitz Otsoa F, Egaña I, Hjerpe R, Fraser P, Hay R, et al. Heterologous SUMO-2/3-ubiquitin chains optimize I?B? degradation and NF-?B activity. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e51672 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, hybrid SUMO-2/3-ubiquitin chains increase the susceptibility of modified I?B? to the action of 26S proteasome, contributing to the optimal control of NF-?B activity after TNF?-stimulation. ..
  6. Liu X, Liu Z, Jang S, Ma Z, Shinmura K, Kang S, et al. Sumoylation of nucleophosmin/B23 regulates its subcellular localization, mediating cell proliferation and survival. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:9679-84 pubmed
    ..Surprisingly, K230R mutant strongly binds to phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate and suppresses DNA fragmentation. Thus, B23 sumoylation regulates its subcellular localization, cell proliferation, and survival activities. ..
  7. Plant L, Dementieva I, Kollewe A, Olikara S, Marks J, Goldstein S. One SUMO is sufficient to silence the dimeric potassium channel K2P1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:10743-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Although channels engineered with one Lys274 site carry just one SUMO1 they are activated and silenced by SENP1 and SUMO1 like wild-type channels. ..
  8. Burrage P, Schmucker A, Ren Y, Sporn M, Brinckerhoff C. Retinoid X receptor and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonists cooperate to inhibit matrix metalloproteinase gene expression. Arthritis Res Ther. 2008;10:R139 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the efficacy of combined treatment with lower doses of each drug may minimize potential side effects of treatment with these compounds. ..
  9. Keusekotten K, Bade V, Meyer Teschendorf K, Sriramachandran A, Fischer Schrader K, Krause A, et al. Multivalent interactions of the SUMO-interaction motifs in RING finger protein 4 determine the specificity for chains of the SUMO. Biochem J. 2014;457:207-14 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present paper, we describe that the sequence and spacing of the SIMs (SUMO-interaction motifs) in RNF4 regulate the avidity-driven recognition of substrate proteins carrying SUMO chains of variable length. ..
  10. Rosas Acosta G, Russell W, Deyrieux A, Russell D, Wilson V. A universal strategy for proteomic studies of SUMO and other ubiquitin-like modifiers. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2005;4:56-72 pubmed
  11. Vertegaal A, Andersen J, Ogg S, Hay R, Mann M, Lamond A. Distinct and overlapping sets of SUMO-1 and SUMO-2 target proteins revealed by quantitative proteomics. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2006;5:2298-310 pubmed
  12. Lee J, Lee Y, Lee M, Park E, Kang S, Chung C, et al. Dual modification of BMAL1 by SUMO2/3 and ubiquitin promotes circadian activation of the CLOCK/BMAL1 complex. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:6056-65 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that dual modification of BMAL1 by SUMO2/3 and ubiquitin is essential for circadian activation and degradation of the CLOCK/BMAL1 complex. ..
  13. Vigodner M, Ishikawa T, Schlegel P, Morris P. SUMO-1, human male germ cell development, and the androgen receptor in the testis of men with normal and abnormal spermatogenesis. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006;290:E1022-33 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that human testicular SUMO-1 has specific functions in heterochromatin organization, meiotic centromere function, and gene expression. ..
  14. Guzzo C, Berndsen C, Zhu J, Gupta V, Datta A, Greenberg R, et al. RNF4-dependent hybrid SUMO-ubiquitin chains are signals for RAP80 and thereby mediate the recruitment of BRCA1 to sites of DNA damage. Sci Signal. 2012;5:ra88 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings, therefore, connect ubiquitin- and SUMO-dependent DSB recognition, revealing that RNF4-synthesized hybrid SUMO-ubiquitin chains are recognized by RAP80 to promote BRCA1 recruitment and DNA repair. ..
  15. Matic I, van Hagen M, Schimmel J, Macek B, Ogg S, Tatham M, et al. In vivo identification of human small ubiquitin-like modifier polymerization sites by high accuracy mass spectrometry and an in vitro to in vivo strategy. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2008;7:132-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The developed methodology is generic and can be adapted for the identification of other sumoylation sites in complex samples. ..
  16. Boggio R, Colombo R, Hay R, Draetta G, Chiocca S. A mechanism for inhibiting the SUMO pathway. Mol Cell. 2004;16:549-61 pubmed
    ..They also point out once again to the extraordinary ability of eukaryotic viruses to interfere with the biology of host cells by targeting fundamental biochemical processes. ..
  17. Lin D, Huang Y, Jeng J, Kuo H, Chang C, Chao T, et al. Role of SUMO-interacting motif in Daxx SUMO modification, subnuclear localization, and repression of sumoylated transcription factors. Mol Cell. 2006;24:341-54 pubmed
    ..Our results provide mechanistic insights into Daxx in SUMO-dependent transcriptional control and subnuclear compartmentalization. ..
  18. Braschi E, Zunino R, McBride H. MAPL is a new mitochondrial SUMO E3 ligase that regulates mitochondrial fission. EMBO Rep. 2009;10:748-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, the large number of unidentified mitochondrial SUMO targets suggests a global role for SUMOylation in mitochondrial function, placing MAPL as a crucial component in the regulation of multiple conjugation events. ..
  19. Sung K, Go Y, Ahn J, Kim Y, Kim Y, Choi C. Differential interactions of the homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) by phosphorylation-dependent sumoylation. FEBS Lett. 2005;579:3001-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that phosphorylation-dependent sumoylation enables HIPK2 to drive different target gene transcription by means of differential interactions with its binding partners. ..
  20. Kuo M, den Besten W, Thomas M, Sherr C. Arf-induced turnover of the nucleolar nucleophosmin-associated SUMO-2/3 protease Senp3. Cell Cycle. 2008;7:3378-87 pubmed
  21. Janer A, Werner A, Takahashi Fujigasaki J, Daret A, Fujigasaki H, Takada K, et al. SUMOylation attenuates the aggregation propensity and cellular toxicity of the polyglutamine expanded ataxin-7. Hum Mol Genet. 2010;19:181-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate an influence of SUMOylation on the multistep aggregation process of ATXN7 and implicate a role for ATXN7 SUMOylation in SCA7 pathogenesis...
  22. Chu Y, Yang X. SUMO E3 ligase activity of TRIM proteins. Oncogene. 2011;30:1108-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the large number of TRIM proteins, our results may greatly expand the identified SUMO E3s. Furthermore, TRIM E3 activity may be an important contributor to SUMOylation specificity and the versatile functions of TRIM proteins. ..
  23. Moldovan G, Dejsuphong D, Petalcorin M, Hofmann K, Takeda S, Boulton S, et al. Inhibition of homologous recombination by the PCNA-interacting protein PARI. Mol Cell. 2012;45:75-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we propose that PARI is a long sought-after factor that suppresses inappropriate recombination events at mammalian replication forks...
  24. Ohbayashi N, Kawakami S, Muromoto R, Togi S, Ikeda O, Kamitani S, et al. The IL-6 family of cytokines modulates STAT3 activation by desumoylation of PML through SENP1 induction. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;371:823-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the IL-6 family of cytokines modulates STAT3 activation by desumoylation and inactivation PML through SENP1 induction. ..
  25. MacPherson M, Beatty L, Zhou W, Du M, Sadowski P. The CTCF insulator protein is posttranslationally modified by SUMO. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:714-25 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies expand the repertoire of posttranslational modifications of CTCF and suggest roles for such modifications in its regulation of epigenetic states. ..
  26. Cuchet Lourenço D, Boutell C, Lukashchuk V, Grant K, Sykes A, Murray J, et al. SUMO pathway dependent recruitment of cellular repressors to herpes simplex virus type 1 genomes. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002123 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that recruitment of ND10 components to sites associated with HSV-1 genomes reflects a cellular defence against invading pathogen DNA that is regulated through the SUMO modification pathway. ..
  27. Yang M, Hsu C, Ting C, Liu L, Hwang J. Assembly of a polymeric chain of SUMO1 on human topoisomerase I in vitro. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:8264-74 pubmed
    ..These results offer new insight into hTOP1 polysumoylation in response to TOP1-mediated DNA damage and may have general implications in protein polysumoylation. ..
  28. Guo B, Sharrocks A. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling initiates a dynamic interplay between sumoylation and ubiquitination to regulate the activity of the transcriptional activator PEA3. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:3204-18 pubmed publisher
  29. Brunet Simioni M, de Thonel A, Hammann A, Joly A, Bossis G, Fourmaux E, et al. Heat shock protein 27 is involved in SUMO-2/3 modification of heat shock factor 1 and thereby modulates the transcription factor activity. Oncogene. 2009;28:3332-44 pubmed publisher
    ..As we also show that HSP27 binds to the SUMO-E2-conjugating enzyme, Ubc9, our study raises the possibility that HSP27 may act as a SUMO-E3 ligase specific for SUMO-2/3. ..
  30. Castillo Lluva S, Tatham M, Jones R, Jaffray E, Edmondson R, Hay R, et al. SUMOylation of the GTPase Rac1 is required for optimal cell migration. Nat Cell Biol. 2010;12:1078-85 pubmed publisher
    ..The finding that a Ras superfamily member can be SUMOylated provides an insight into the regulation of these critical mediators of cell behaviour. Our data reveal a role for SUMO in the regulation of cell migration and invasion. ..
  31. Hong Y, Xing X, Li S, Bi H, Yang C, Zhao F, et al. SUMOylation of DEC1 protein regulates its transcriptional activity and enhances its stability. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23046 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggested that posttranslational modification of DEC1 in the form of SUMOylation may serve as a key factor that regulates the function of DEC1 in vivo. ..
  32. Shalizi A, Gaudilliere B, Yuan Z, Stegmuller J, Shirogane T, Ge Q, et al. A calcium-regulated MEF2 sumoylation switch controls postsynaptic differentiation. Science. 2006;311:1012-7 pubmed
    ..Our findings define a mechanism underlying postsynaptic differentiation that may modulate activity-dependent synapse development and plasticity in the brain. ..
  33. Shen T, Lin H, Scaglioni P, Yung T, Pandolfi P. The mechanisms of PML-nuclear body formation. Mol Cell. 2006;24:331-9 pubmed
  34. Knipscheer P, van Dijk W, Olsen J, Mann M, Sixma T. Noncovalent interaction between Ubc9 and SUMO promotes SUMO chain formation. EMBO J. 2007;26:2797-807 pubmed
    ..Structural comparison suggests a model for poly-sumoylation involving a mechanism analogous to Mms2-Ubc13-mediated ubiquitin chain formation. ..
  35. Goodarzi A, Kurka T, Jeggo P. KAP-1 phosphorylation regulates CHD3 nucleosome remodeling during the DNA double-strand break response. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2011;18:831-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that KAP-1(Ser824) phosphorylation generates a motif that directly perturbs interactions between CHD3's SUMO-interacting motif and SUMO1, dispersing CHD3 from heterochromatin DSBs and enabling repair. ..
  36. Yin Y, Seifert A, Chua J, Maure J, Golebiowski F, Hay R. SUMO-targeted ubiquitin E3 ligase RNF4 is required for the response of human cells to DNA damage. Genes Dev. 2012;26:1196-208 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, RNF4 is a novel DNA damage-responsive protein that plays a role in homologous recombination and integrates SUMO modification and ubiquitin signaling in the cellular response to genotoxic stress. ..
  37. Gurer C, Berthoux L, Luban J. Covalent modification of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 p6 by SUMO-1. J Virol. 2005;79:910-7 pubmed
    ..HIV-1 bearing the p6-K27R mutation was insensitive to SUMO-1 overexpression, suggesting that covalent attachment of SUMO-1 to p6 is detrimental to HIV-1 replication. ..
  38. Shen L, Tang J, Tang B, Jiang H, Zhao G, Xia K, et al. Research on screening and identification of proteins interacting with ataxin-3. Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi. 2005;22:242-7 pubmed
  39. Cheng T, Chang L, Howng S, Lu P, Lee C, Hong Y. SUMO-1 modification of centrosomal protein hNinein promotes hNinein nuclear localization. Life Sci. 2006;78:1114-20 pubmed
  40. Dorval V, Fraser P. Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) modification of natively unfolded proteins tau and alpha-synuclein. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:9919-24 pubmed
    ..These findings revealed a new, possibly regulatory, modification of tau and alpha-synuclein that may also have implications for their pathogenic roles in neurodegenerative diseases. ..
  41. Riquelme C, Barthel K, Liu X. SUMO-1 modification of MEF2A regulates its transcriptional activity. J Cell Mol Med. 2006;10:132-44 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that protein sumoylation could play a pivotal role in controlling MEF2 transcriptional activity. ..
  42. Mohan R, Rao A, Gagliardi J, Tini M. SUMO-1-dependent allosteric regulation of thymine DNA glycosylase alters subnuclear localization and CBP/p300 recruitment. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:229-43 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that TDG sumoylation promotes intramolecular interactions with amino- and carboxy-terminal SUMO-1 binding motifs that dramatically alter the biochemical properties and subcellular localization of TDG. ..
  43. Tsuruzoe S, Ishihara K, Uchimura Y, Watanabe S, Sekita Y, Aoto T, et al. Inhibition of DNA binding of Sox2 by the SUMO conjugation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;351:920-6 pubmed
    ..These indicate that Sox2 sumoylation negatively regulates its transcriptional role through impairing the DNA binding. ..
  44. Liu Q, Li J, Khoury J, Colgan S, Ibla J. Adenosine signaling mediates SUMO-1 modification of IkappaBalpha during hypoxia and reoxygenation. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:13686-95 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, we present an endogenous mechanism by which cells and tissues acquire anti-inflammatory properties by recruiting a nondegradable form of IkappaBalpha, a major control point for NFkappaB activation via Ado signaling. ..
  45. Tseng C, Cheng T, Shu C, Jeng K, Lai M. Modification of small hepatitis delta virus antigen by SUMO protein. J Virol. 2010;84:918-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Sumoylation represents a new type of modification for HDAg...
  46. Galanty Y, Belotserkovskaya R, Coates J, Polo S, Miller K, Jackson S. Mammalian SUMO E3-ligases PIAS1 and PIAS4 promote responses to DNA double-strand breaks. Nature. 2009;462:935-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings thus identify PIAS1 and PIAS4 as components of the DDR and reveal how protein recruitment to DSB sites is controlled by coordinated SUMOylation and ubiquitylation. ..
  47. Olsen S, Capili A, Lu X, Tan D, Lima C. Active site remodelling accompanies thioester bond formation in the SUMO E1. Nature. 2010;463:906-12 pubmed publisher
    ..These changes displace side chains required for adenylation with side chains required for thioester bond formation. Mutational and biochemical analyses indicate these mechanisms are conserved in other E1s. ..
  48. Ribet D, Hamon M, Gouin E, Nahori M, Impens F, Neyret Kahn H, et al. Listeria monocytogenes impairs SUMOylation for efficient infection. Nature. 2010;464:1192-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results reveal that Listeria, and probably other pathogens, dampen the host response by decreasing the SUMOylation level of proteins critical for infection. ..
  49. Du J, McConnell B, Yang V. A small ubiquitin-related modifier-interacting motif functions as the transcriptional activation domain of Krüppel-like factor 4. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:28298-308 pubmed publisher
    ..These results, therefore, illustrate a novel mechanism by which SUMO interaction modulates the activity of transcription factors. ..
  50. Matic I, Schimmel J, Hendriks I, van Santen M, van de Rijke F, van Dam H, et al. Site-specific identification of SUMO-2 targets in cells reveals an inverted SUMOylation motif and a hydrophobic cluster SUMOylation motif. Mol Cell. 2010;39:641-52 pubmed publisher
    ..In 16 proteins we identified a hydrophobic cluster SUMOylation motif (HCSM). SUMO conjugation of RanGAP1 and ZBTB1 via HCSMs is remarkably efficient. ..
  51. Chang C, Naik M, Huang Y, Jeng J, Liao P, Kuo H, et al. Structural and functional roles of Daxx SIM phosphorylation in SUMO paralog-selective binding and apoptosis modulation. Mol Cell. 2011;42:62-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide structural insights into the Daxx-SIM:SUMO-1 complex, a model of SIM phosphorylation-enhanced SUMO paralog-selective modification and interaction, and phosphorylation-regulated Daxx function in apoptosis. ..
  52. Bossis G, Malnou C, Farras R, Andermarcher E, Hipskind R, Rodriguez M, et al. Down-regulation of c-Fos/c-Jun AP-1 dimer activity by sumoylation. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:6964-79 pubmed
    ..This supports the idea that this modification does not constitute a final inactivation step that necessarily precedes protein degradation. ..
  53. Kunapuli P, Kasyapa C, Chin S, Caldas C, Cowell J. ZNF198, a zinc finger protein rearranged in myeloproliferative disease, localizes to the PML nuclear bodies and interacts with SUMO-1 and PML. Exp Cell Res. 2006;312:3739-51 pubmed
    ..Overall our results suggest that the sumoylation of ZNF198 is important for PML body formation and that the abrogation of sumoylation of ZNF198 in ZNF198/FGFR1 expressing cells may be an important mechanism in cellular transformation. ..
  54. Reverter D, Lima C. Structural basis for SENP2 protease interactions with SUMO precursors and conjugated substrates. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2006;13:1060-8 pubmed
    ..SUMO isoform processing and SUMO isoform interactions, X-ray structures were determined for a catalytically inert SENP2 protease domain in complex with conjugated RanGAP1-SUMO-1 or RanGAP1-SUMO-2, or in complex with SUMO-2 or SUMO-3 ..
  55. Tatham M, Geoffroy M, Shen L, Plechanovova A, Hattersley N, Jaffray E, et al. RNF4 is a poly-SUMO-specific E3 ubiquitin ligase required for arsenic-induced PML degradation. Nat Cell Biol. 2008;10:538-46 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that poly-SUMO chains can act as discrete signals from mono-SUMOylation, in this case targeting a poly-SUMOylated substrate for ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. ..
  56. Fukuda I, Ito A, Hirai G, Nishimura S, Kawasaki H, Saitoh H, et al. Ginkgolic acid inhibits protein SUMOylation by blocking formation of the E1-SUMO intermediate. Chem Biol. 2009;16:133-40 pubmed publisher
  57. Luciani A, Villella V, Vasaturo A, Giardino I, Raia V, Pettoello Mantovani M, et al. SUMOylation of tissue transglutaminase as link between oxidative stress and inflammation. J Immunol. 2009;183:2775-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Targeting TG2-SUMO interactions might represent a new option to control disease evolution in CF patients as well as in other chronic inflammatory diseases, neurodegenerative pathologies, and cancer. ..
  58. Boutell C, Cuchet Louren o D, Vanni E, Orr A, Glass M, McFarlane S, et al. A viral ubiquitin ligase has substrate preferential SUMO targeted ubiquitin ligase activity that counteracts intrinsic antiviral defence. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002245 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that ICP0 has dual targeting mechanisms involving both SUMO- and substrate-dependent targeting specificities in order to counteract intrinsic antiviral resistance to HSV-1 infection...
  59. Rabellino A, Carter B, Konstantinidou G, Wu S, Rimessi A, Byers L, et al. The SUMO E3-ligase PIAS1 regulates the tumor suppressor PML and its oncogenic counterpart PML-RARA. Cancer Res. 2012;72:2275-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our findings reveal novel roles for PIAS1 and the SUMOylation machinery in regulating oncogenic networks and the response to leukemia therapy. ..
  60. Maroui M, Kheddache Atmane S, El Asmi F, Dianoux L, Aubry M, Chelbi Alix M. Requirement of PML SUMO interacting motif for RNF4- or arsenic trioxide-induced degradation of nuclear PML isoforms. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e44949 pubmed publisher
  61. Sun H, Hunter T. Poly-small ubiquitin-like modifier (PolySUMO)-binding proteins identified through a string search. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:42071-83 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that the clustered SIMs in these proteins form distinct SUMO binding domains to recognize diverse forms of protein sumoylation. ..
  62. Kang J, Gocke C, Yu H. Phosphorylation-facilitated sumoylation of MEF2C negatively regulates its transcriptional activity. BMC Biochem. 2006;7:5 pubmed
    ..Our studies further suggest that sumoylation motifs containing a phosphorylated serine or an acidic residue at the +5 position might be more efficiently sumoylated. ..
  63. Hecker C, Rabiller M, Haglund K, Bayer P, Dikic I. Specification of SUMO1- and SUMO2-interacting motifs. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:16117-27 pubmed
  64. Wu H, Sun L, Zhang Y, Chen Y, Shi B, Li R, et al. Coordinated regulation of AIB1 transcriptional activity by sumoylation and phosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:21848-56 pubmed
  65. Alkuraya F, Saadi I, Lund J, Turbe Doan A, Morton C, Maas R. SUMO1 haploinsufficiency leads to cleft lip and palate. Science. 2006;313:1751 pubmed
    ..Thus, sumoylation defines a network of genes important for palatogenesis. ..
  66. Knipscheer P, Flotho A, Klug H, Olsen J, van Dijk W, Fish A, et al. Ubc9 sumoylation regulates SUMO target discrimination. Mol Cell. 2008;31:371-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The crystal structure of sumoylated Ubc9 demonstrates how the newly created binding interface can provide a gain in affinity otherwise provided by E3 ligases. ..
  67. Stehmeier P, Muller S. Phospho-regulated SUMO interaction modules connect the SUMO system to CK2 signaling. Mol Cell. 2009;33:400-9 pubmed publisher
    ..CK2-regulated phosphoSIM modules were also dissected in the tumor suppressor PML and the exosome component PMSCL1, indicating that these modules serve as general platforms that integrate CK2- and SUMO-regulated signaling networks. ..
  68. Cho G, Lim Y, Golden J. SUMO interaction motifs in Sizn1 are required for promyelocytic leukemia protein nuclear body localization and for transcriptional activation. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:19592-600 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data indicate that the SIMs in Sizn1 are required for its PML-NB localization and for the full transcriptional co-activation function in BMP signaling...
  69. Mukherjee S, Thomas M, Dadgar N, Lieberman A, INIGUEZ LLUHI J. Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) modification of the androgen receptor attenuates polyglutamine-mediated aggregation. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:21296-306 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings therefore reveal a novel function of SUMOylation and suggest that approaches that enhance AR SUMOylation may be of clinical use in polyglutamine expansion diseases. ..
  70. Hattersley N, Shen L, Jaffray E, Hay R. The SUMO protease SENP6 is a direct regulator of PML nuclear bodies. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:78-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutation of the catalytic cysteine of SENP6 results in its accumulation in PML NBs, and biochemical analysis indicates that SUMO-modified PML is a substrate of SENP6. ..
  71. Sung K, Lee Y, Kim E, Lee S, Ahn J, Choi C. Role of the SUMO-interacting motif in HIPK2 targeting to the PML nuclear bodies and regulation of p53. Exp Cell Res. 2011;317:1060-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that SIM-mediated HIPK2 targeting to PML-NBs is crucial for HIPK2-mediated p53 activation and induction of apoptosis. ..
  72. Arriagada G, Muntean L, Goff S. SUMO-interacting motifs of human TRIM5? are important for antiviral activity. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002019 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that at least a portion of the antiviral activity of TRIM5? is mediated through the binding of its SIMs to SUMO-conjugated CA. ..
  73. Kho C, Lee A, Jeong D, Oh J, Chaanine A, Kizana E, et al. SUMO1-dependent modulation of SERCA2a in heart failure. Nature. 2011;477:601-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data show that SUMOylation is a critical post-translational modification that regulates SERCA2a function, and provide a platform for the design of novel therapeutic strategies for heart failure. ..
  74. Yang W, Wang L, Roehn G, Pearlstein R, Ali Osman F, Pan H, et al. Small ubiquitin-like modifier 1-3 conjugation [corrected] is activated in human astrocytic brain tumors and is required for glioblastoma cell survival. Cancer Sci. 2013;104:70-7 pubmed publisher
  75. Boyer Guittaut M, Birsoy K, Potel C, Elliott G, Jaffray E, Desterro J, et al. SUMO-1 modification of human transcription factor (TF) IID complex subunits: inhibition of TFIID promoter-binding activity through SUMO-1 modification of hsTAF5. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:9937-45 pubmed
    ..Our observations suggest that reversible SUMO modification at hsTAF5 contributes to the dynamic regulation of TFIID promoter-binding activity in human cells. ..
  76. Pichler A, Knipscheer P, Oberhofer E, van Dijk W, Körner R, Olsen J, et al. SUMO modification of the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2-25K. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2005;12:264-9 pubmed
    ..In contrast, adjacent SUMO consensus sites are modified only when in unstructured peptides. The demonstration that secondary structure elements are part of SUMO attachment signals could contribute to a better prediction of SUMO targets. ..
  77. Steinacher R, Schär P. Functionality of human thymine DNA glycosylase requires SUMO-regulated changes in protein conformation. Curr Biol. 2005;15:616-23 pubmed
    ..SUMOylation then reverses this structural change in the product bound TDG. ..
  78. Baba D, Maita N, Jee J, Uchimura Y, Saitoh H, Sugasawa K, et al. Crystal structure of thymine DNA glycosylase conjugated to SUMO-1. Nature. 2005;435:979-82 pubmed
    ..This helix is formed by covalent and non-covalent contacts between TDG and SUMO-1. The non-covalent contacts are also essential for release from the product DNA, as verified by mutagenesis. ..
  79. Baba D, Maita N, Jee J, Uchimura Y, Saitoh H, Sugasawa K, et al. Crystal structure of SUMO-3-modified thymine-DNA glycosylase. J Mol Biol. 2006;359:137-47 pubmed
    ..Structural comparison with the canonical SBM shows that this SBM-like sequence of TDG retains all of the characteristic interactions of the SBM, indicating sequence diversity in the SBM. ..
  80. Sacher M, Pfander B, Hoege C, Jentsch S. Control of Rad52 recombination activity by double-strand break-induced SUMO modification. Nat Cell Biol. 2006;8:1284-90 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, our data indicate that sumoylation becomes particularly relevant for those Rad52 molecules that are engaged in recombination. ..
  81. Carbia Nagashima A, Gerez J, Perez Castro C, Paez Pereda M, Silberstein S, Stalla G, et al. RSUME, a small RWD-containing protein, enhances SUMO conjugation and stabilizes HIF-1alpha during hypoxia. Cell. 2007;131:309-23 pubmed
    ..Together, these findings point to a central role of RSUME in the regulation of sumoylation and, hence, several critical regulatory pathways in mammalian cells. ..
  82. Meulmeester E, Kunze M, Hsiao H, Urlaub H, Melchior F. Mechanism and consequences for paralog-specific sumoylation of ubiquitin-specific protease 25. Mol Cell. 2008;30:610-9 pubmed publisher
    ..One mechanism for paralog-specific sumoylation may, thus, involve SIM-dependent recruitment of SUMO1 or SUMO2/3 thioester-charged Ubc9 to targets. ..
  83. Vatsyayan J, Qing G, Xiao G, Hu J. SUMO1 modification of NF-kappaB2/p100 is essential for stimuli-induced p100 phosphorylation and processing. EMBO Rep. 2008;9:885-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings show the crucial role of SUMO1 modification in p100 processing and provide mechanistic insights into the participation of SUMO1 modification in the regulation of signal transduction. ..
  84. Gocke C, Yu H. ZNF198 stabilizes the LSD1-CoREST-HDAC1 complex on chromatin through its MYM-type zinc fingers. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3255 pubmed publisher
  85. Kuo F, Bentsi Barnes I, Barlow G, Bae J, Pisarska M. Sumoylation of forkhead L2 by Ubc9 is required for its activity as a transcriptional repressor of the Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory gene. Cell Signal. 2009;21:1935-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, we propose that Ubc9-mediated sumoylation at lysine 25 of FOXL2 is required for transcriptional repression of the StAR gene and may be responsible for controlling the development of ovarian follicles. ..
  86. Danielsen J, Povlsen L, Villumsen B, Streicher W, Nilsson J, Wikström M, et al. DNA damage-inducible SUMOylation of HERC2 promotes RNF8 binding via a novel SUMO-binding Zinc finger. J Cell Biol. 2012;197:179-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide novel insight into the regulatory complexity of how ubiquitylation and SUMOylation cooperate to orchestrate protein interactions with DSB repair foci. ..
  87. Yunus A, Lima C. Lysine activation and functional analysis of E2-mediated conjugation in the SUMO pathway. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2006;13:491-9 pubmed
    ..It seems that Ubc9 uses an indirect mechanism to activate lysine for conjugation that may be conserved among E2 family members. ..
  88. Carter S, Bischof O, Dejean A, Vousden K. C-terminal modifications regulate MDM2 dissociation and nuclear export of p53. Nat Cell Biol. 2007;9:428-35 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that modifications such as sumoylation can regulate the strength of the p53-MDM2 interaction and participate in driving the export of p53. ..
  89. Xie Y, Kerscher O, Kroetz M, McConchie H, Sung P, Hochstrasser M. The yeast Hex3.Slx8 heterodimer is a ubiquitin ligase stimulated by substrate sumoylation. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:34176-84 pubmed
    ..Our data reveal a novel mechanism of substrate targeting in which sumoylation of a protein can help trigger its subsequent ubiquitination by recruiting a SUMO-binding ubiquitin ligase. ..
  90. Kim M, Chia I, Costantini F. SUMOylation target sites at the C terminus protect Axin from ubiquitination and confer protein stability. FASEB J. 2008;22:3785-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, some other specific property of the C6 motif seems to reduce the interaction of Axin with Dvl-1. ..
  91. Rytinki M, Palvimo J. SUMOylation attenuates the function of PGC-1alpha. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:26184-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our findings showing that reversible SUMOylation can adjust the activity of PGC-1alpha add a novel layer to the regulation of the coactivator. ..
  92. de La Vega L, Fröbius K, Moreno R, Calzado M, Geng H, Schmitz M. Control of nuclear HIPK2 localization and function by a SUMO interaction motif. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1813:283-97 pubmed publisher
    ..HIPK2 mutants with an inactive SIM showed changed activities, thus revealing that non-covalent binding of SUMO to the kinase is important for the regulation of its function. ..