substance P


Gene Symbol: substance P
Description: tachykinin precursor 1
Alias: Hs.2563, NK2, NKNA, NPK, TAC2, protachykinin-1, PPT, neurokinin 1, neurokinin 2, neurokinin A, neurokinin alpha, neuromedin L, neuropeptide K, neuropeptide gamma, preprotachykinin, protachykinin, substance K, substance P, tachykinin 2, tachykinin, precursor 1 (substance K, substance P, neurokinin 1, neurokinin 2, neuromedin L, neurokinin alpha, neuropeptide K, neuropeptide gamma)
Species: human
Products:     substance P

Top Publications

  1. Zimmer A, Zimmer A, Baffi J, Usdin T, Reynolds K, Konig M, et al. Hypoalgesia in mice with a targeted deletion of the tachykinin 1 gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:2630-5 pubmed
    The tachykinin neuropeptides, substance P and substance K, are produced in nociceptive primary sensory neurons and in many brain regions involved in pain signaling...
  2. Millward Sadler S, Mackenzie A, Wright M, Lee H, Elliot K, Gerrard L, et al. Tachykinin expression in cartilage and function in human articular chondrocyte mechanotransduction. Arthritis Rheum. 2003;48:146-56 pubmed
    ..blotting, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction were used to assess the expression of the preprotachykinin (PPT) gene, substance P, and NK1 in developing mice, in adult human articular cartilage, and in human ..
  3. Marui T, Funatogawa I, Koishi S, Yamamoto K, Matsumoto H, Hashimoto O, et al. Tachykinin 1 (TAC1) gene SNPs and haplotypes with autism: a case-control study. Brain Dev. 2007;29:510-3 pubmed
    ..Tachykinin 1 gene (TAC1) and autism, because TAC1 is located in the candidate region for autism and produces substance P and neurokinins...
  4. Lang U, Borgwardt S. Molecular mechanisms of depression: perspectives on new treatment strategies. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2013;31:761-77 pubmed publisher
    ..phase proteins, haptoglobin, toll like receptor 4, interleukin-1beta, mammalian target of rapamycin pathway, substance P, cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin-E2, lipid peroxidation levels and acid sphingomyelinase...
  5. Gleason N, Gallos G, Zhang Y, Emala C. Propofol preferentially relaxes neurokinin receptor-2-induced airway smooth muscle contraction in guinea pig trachea. Anesthesiology. 2010;112:1335-44 pubmed publisher exogenous contractile agonists (acetylcholine, histamine, endothelin-1, substance P, acetyl-substance P, and neurokinin A) or to electrical field stimulation (EFS) to differentiate cholinergic or nonadrenergic, noncholinergic nerve-..
  6. de Croft S, Boehm U, Herbison A. Neurokinin B activates arcuate kisspeptin neurons through multiple tachykinin receptors in the male mouse. Endocrinology. 2013;154:2750-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Studies with selective neurokinin 1 receptor (SDZ-NKT343) and neurokinin 2 receptor (GR94800) antagonists revealed that the activation of kisspeptin neurons by NKB was only blocked ..
  7. Masliukov P, Budnik A, Nozdrachev A. [Developmental changes of neurotransmitter properties in sympathetic neurons]. Adv Gerontol. 2017;30:347-355 pubmed
    ..gastrin-releasing peptide (bombesin in mammals), neuropeptide Y, neurotensin, somatostatin, tachykinins, neurokinin A, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and calcitonin gene related peptide...
  8. Le D, Schmit D, Heck S, Omlor A, Sester M, Herr C, et al. Increase of Mast Cell-Nerve Association and Neuropeptide Receptor Expression on Mast Cells in Perennial Allergic Rhinitis. Neuroimmunomodulation. 2016;23:261-270 pubmed publisher
    ..The association between MCs and nerves, the expression of neuropeptide receptors (neurokinin 1 receptor [NK1R], neurokinin 2 receptor [NK2R], calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor [CGRPR], and MrgX2) on ..
  9. Martinez A, Burmeister A, Ramesh G, Doyle Meyers L, Marriott I, Philipp M. Aprepitant limits in vivo neuroinflammatory responses in a rhesus model of Lyme neuroborreliosis. J Neuroinflammation. 2017;14:37 pubmed publisher
    Substance P (SP) is produced at high levels in the central nervous system (CNS), and its target receptor, neurokinin 1 receptor (NK-1R), is expressed by glia and leukocytes...

More Information

Publications152 found, 100 shown here

  1. Wang G, Wang X, Liu S, Qu M, Xia Y, Needleman B, et al. Innervation of enteric mast cells by primary spinal afferents in guinea pig and human small intestine. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2014;307:G719-31 pubmed publisher
    Mast cells express the substance P (SP) neurokinin 1 receptor and the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor in guinea pig and human small intestine...
  2. Ebner K, Sartori S, Singewald N. Tachykinin receptors as therapeutic targets in stress-related disorders. Curr Pharm Des. 2009;15:1647-74 pubmed
    ..and behavioral studies demonstrating the localization of tachykinin neuropeptides including substance P (SP), neurokinin A, neurokinin B and their receptors (NK1, NK2, NK3) in brain areas known to be implicated in stress-mechanisms, ..
  3. Delvalle N, Dharshika C, Morales Soto W, Fried D, Gaudette L, Gulbransen B. Communication Between Enteric Neurons, Glia, and Nociceptors Underlies the Effects of Tachykinins on Neuroinflammation. Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018;6:321-344 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Neurokinin A-induced neurodegeneration requires glial connexin-43 hemichannel activity...
  4. Zhang Y, Li X, Yuan G, Hu H, Song X, Li J, et al. ?-Arrestin 1 has an essential role in neurokinin-1 receptor-mediated glioblastoma cell proliferation and G2/M phase transition. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:8933-8947 pubmed publisher
    ..Interference with ARRB1-mediated signaling via NK1R may have potential significance for therapeutic strategies targeting glioblastoma. ..
  5. Ruiz Pino F, Garcia Galiano D, Manfredi Lozano M, Leon S, Sánchez Garrido M, Roa J, et al. Effects and interactions of tachykinins and dynorphin on FSH and LH secretion in developing and adult rats. Endocrinology. 2015;156:576-88 pubmed publisher
    ..postnatal development in male and female rats; gonadotropin responses to agonists of NK1R substance P and NK2R [neurokinin A (NKA)] were also monitored...
  6. Barson J, Poon K, Ho H, Alam M, Sanzalone L, Leibowitz S. Substance P in the anterior thalamic paraventricular nucleus: promotion of ethanol drinking in response to orexin from the hypothalamus. Addict Biol. 2017;22:58-69 pubmed publisher
    ..P (SP) in the aPVT can stimulate intermittent-access ethanol drinking, similar to OX, and that SP receptor [neurokinin 1 receptor/tachykinin receptor 1 (NK1R)] antagonists in this subregion reduce ethanol drinking...
  7. Wang S, Huang Y, Yin H, Gao X, Ouyang J, Liu X. [Experimental study on the impact of photodynamic therapy on the tissue structure of normal nasal mucosa in rabbit]. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2014;49:937-42 pubmed
    ..The damage of three tachykinins: substance P (SP), neurokinin A (NKA) and neurokinin B (NKB) of nerve fibers was observed after immunohistochemical staining...
  8. Sekizawa S, Joad J, Pinkerton K, Bonham A. Distinct tachykinin NK(1) receptor function in primate nucleus tractus solitarius neurons is dysregulated after second-hand tobacco smoke exposure. Br J Pharmacol. 2011;163:782-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Epidemiological and experimental data have suggested SHS can alter neuroplasticity in the CNS, associated with substance P. We hypothesized that exposure to SHS in young primates changed the effect of substance P on the plasticity of ..
  9. Borbély E, Sandor K, Markovics A, Kemeny A, Pinter E, Szolcsanyi J, et al. Role of capsaicin-sensitive nerves and tachykinins in mast cell tryptase-induced inflammation of murine knees. Inflamm Res. 2016;65:725-36 pubmed publisher
    ..capsaicin-sensitive afferents, transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptor (TRPV1), substance P (SP), neurokinin A (NKA) and their NK1 tachykinin receptor were studied using gene-deleted mice compared to C57Bl/6 wildtypes (n =..
  10. Misawa K, Misawa Y, Kondo H, Mochizuki D, Imai A, Fukushima H, et al. Aberrant methylation inactivates somatostatin and somatostatin receptor type 1 in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0118588 pubmed publisher
    ..CpG hypermethylation is a likely mechanism of SST and SSTR1 gene inactivation, supporting the hypothesis that SST and SSTR1 play a role in the tumorigenesis of HNSCC and that this hypermethylation may serve as an important biomarker. ..
  11. Grobman M, Krumme S, Outi H, Dodam J, Reinero C. Acute neurokinin-1 receptor antagonism fails to dampen airflow limitation or airway eosinophilia in an experimental model of feline asthma. J Feline Med Surg. 2016;18:176-81 pubmed publisher
    ..A single injection of maropitant given immediately post-allergen challenge was ineffective at blunting clinical signs, AHR and airway eosinophilia, and cannot be recommended as treatment for feline status asthmaticus. ..
  12. Saidi M, Kamali S, Ruiz A, Beaudry F. Tachykinins Processing is Significantly Impaired in PC1 and PC2 Mutant Mouse Spinal Cord S9 Fractions. Neurochem Res. 2015;40:2304-16 pubmed publisher
    ..SP is a major proteolytic product of the protachykinin-1 primarily synthesized in neurons...
  13. Jobling P, Messenger J, Gibbins I. Differential expression of functionally identified and immunohistochemically identified NK(1) receptors on sympathetic neurons. J Neurophysiol. 2001;85:1888-98 pubmed
    ..and intracellular microelectrode recordings to characterize the distribution of tachykinin receptors and substance P boutons on subpopulations of neurons within the guinea pig celiac ganglion...
  14. Grobman M, Graham A, Outi H, Dodam J, Reinero C. Chronic neurokinin-1 receptor antagonism fails to ameliorate clinical signs, airway hyper-responsiveness or airway eosinophilia in an experimental model of feline asthma. J Feline Med Surg. 2016;18:273-9 pubmed publisher
    ..669) compared with placebo. Chronic administration of maropitant was ineffective at blunting clinical signs, AHR and airway eosinophilia in experimental feline asthma and thus cannot be recommended as a novel treatment for this disorder. ..
  15. Fergani C, Navarro V. Expanding the Role of Tachykinins in the Neuroendocrine Control of Reproduction. Reproduction. 2016;153:R1-R14 pubmed
    ..In this aspect, attention to other members of the tachykinin family, namely substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA), has recently been rekindled...
  16. Hewitt M, Adams G, Mazzone S, Mori N, Yu L, Canning B. Pharmacology of Bradykinin-Evoked Coughing in Guinea Pigs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2016;357:620-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Also implicating the jugular C-fibers was the observation that simultaneous blockade of neurokinin2 (NK2; SR48968) and NK3 (SR142801 or SB223412) receptors nearly abolished the bradykinin-evoked cough responses...
  17. Navarro V, Bosch M, Leon S, Simavli S, True C, Pinilla L, et al. The integrated hypothalamic tachykinin-kisspeptin system as a central coordinator for reproduction. Endocrinology. 2015;156:627-37 pubmed publisher
    Tachykinins are comprised of the family of related peptides, substance P (SP), neurokinin A (NKA), and neurokinin B (NKB)...
  18. Kong L, Liu J, Wang J, Luo Q, Zhang H, Liu B, et al. Icariin inhibits TNF-α/IFN-γ induced inflammatory response via inhibition of the substance P and p38-MAPK signaling pathway in human keratinocytes. Int Immunopharmacol. 2015;29:401-407 pubmed publisher
    ..These effects were mediated, at least partially, via the inhibition of substance P and the p38-MAPK signaling pathway, as well as by the regulation of the TNF-α-R1 and IFN-γ-R1 signals.
  19. Goswami S, Thierry Mieg D, Thierry Mieg J, Mishra S, Hoon M, Mannes A, et al. Itch-associated peptides: RNA-Seq and bioinformatic analysis of natriuretic precursor peptide B and gastrin releasing peptide in dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia, and the spinal cord. Mol Pain. 2014;10:44 pubmed publisher
    ..used to produce GRP-antibodies with proteome databases revealed that the C-terminal primary sequence of NMB and Substance P can potentially account for results from previous studies which showed GRP-immunostaining in the DRG...
  20. Lorente L, Martín M, Almeida T, Hernandez M, Ramos L, Argüeso M, et al. Serum substance P levels are associated with severity and mortality in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Crit Care. 2015;19:192 pubmed publisher
    b>Substance P (SP) is a member of the tachykinin family of neuropeptides, which are widely distributed throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and actively involved in inflammatory processes...
  21. Munoz M, Recio S, Rosso M, Redondo M, Covenas R. The antiproliferative action of [D-Arg(1), D-Phe(5), D-Trp(7,9), LEU(11)] substance P analogue antagonist against small-cell- and non-small-cell lung cancer cells could be due to the pharmacological profile of its tachykinin receptor antagonist. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2015;66:421-6 pubmed
    ..NSCLC) cells express the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor; that after binding to the NK-1 receptor the peptide substance P (SP) elicits tumour cell proliferation and an antiapoptotic effect...
  22. Morris J, Stanek J, Gianutsos G. Sensory nerve-mediated immediate nasal responses to inspired acrolein. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1999;87:1877-86 pubmed
    ..nasal sensory C-fiber involvement, but were not influenced by N-acetyltrifluoromethyl tryptophan benzyl ester, phosphoramidon, or captopril, suggesting the involvement of a mediator other than the tachykinins substance P and neurokinin A.
  23. Fontán J, Cortright D, Krause J, Velloff C, Karpitskyi V, Carver T, et al. Substance P and neurokinin-1 receptor expression by intrinsic airway neurons in the rat. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2000;278:L344-55 pubmed
    ..We analyzed the expression of preprotachykinin-A (PPT-A) and neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor genes by intrinsic airway neurons in the rat...
  24. Yunker A, Krause J, Roth K. Neurokinin B- and substance P-like immunoreactivity are co-localized in enteric nerves of rat ileum. Regul Pept. 1999;80:67-74 pubmed
    ..Many enteric nerves express preprotachykinin A (PPT A) mRNA and synthesize SP and NKA...
  25. Zieglgansberger W. Substance P and pain chronicity. Cell Tissue Res. 2019;375:227-241 pubmed publisher
    b>Substance P (SP) is a highly conserved member of the tachykinin peptide family that is widely expressed throughout the animal kingdom...
  26. Gajjar S, Patel B. Neuromedin: An insight into its types, receptors and therapeutic opportunities. Pharmacol Rep. 2017;69:438-447 pubmed publisher
    ..Neuromedin K and neuromedin L are of kanassin class which belong to tachykinin family...
  27. Choi H, Kim D, Nam S, Lim S, Hwang J, Park K, et al. Substance P restores normal skin architecture and reduces epidermal infiltration of sensory nerve fiber in TNCB-induced atopic dermatitis-like lesions in NC/Nga mice. J Dermatol Sci. 2018;89:248-257 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Substance P (SP) is an 11-amino-acid endogenous neuropeptide that belongs to the tachykinin family and several reports ..
  28. Bright F, Byard R, Vink R, Paterson D. Normative distribution of substance P and its tachykinin neurokinin-1 receptor in the medullary serotonergic network of the human infant during postnatal development. Brain Res Bull. 2018;137:319-328 pubmed publisher
    b>Substance P (SP) and its tachykinin NK1 receptor (NK1R) function within key medullary nuclei to regulate cardiorespiratory and autonomic control...
  29. Zhao X, Sun P, Li G, Yi R, Qian Y, Park K. Polyphenols in Kuding tea help prevent HCl/ethanol-induced gastric injury in mice. Food Funct. 2018;9:1713-1725 pubmed publisher
    ..levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interferon-? (IFN-?), motilin (MOT), substance P (SP), and endothelin-1 (ET-1), and higher serum levels of somatostatin (SS) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (..
  30. Liu X, Liu H, Xiong Y, Yang L, Wang C, Zhang R, et al. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is associated with the regulation of SP, CGRP, VIP, and NPY. Biomed Pharmacother. 2018;104:742-750 pubmed publisher
    ..investigate the gene expression and protein levels of a range of neuropeptides and their receptors, including substance P (SP) and tachykinin receptor 1 (TACR1), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and calcitonin receptor-like (..
  31. Tian Y, Wu L, Oxender D, Chung F. The unpredicted high affinities of a large number of naturally occurring tachykinins for chimeric NK1/NK3 receptors suggest a role for an inhibitory domain in determining receptor specificity. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:20250-7 pubmed
    ..high affinities for other naturally occurring tachykinins including neurokinin A, neuropeptide K, neuropeptide gamma, eledoisin, kassinin, physalaemin, and phyllomedusin...
  32. Sahin Y, Ozkaya E, Kayatas Eser S, Kutlu T, Sanverdi I, Tunali G, et al. Serum substance P concentrations to predict oocyte maturation index and clinical pregnancy. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2017;33:203-207 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of serum substance P (SP) concentrations on oocyte maturation and clinical pregnancy...
  33. Takezawa K, Townsend G, Manavis J, Ghabriel M. Aberrant distribution of the trochlear nerve: A cadaveric study supported by immunohistochemistry. Ann Anat. 2017;213:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Staining for substance P, a marker for nociceptive fibres, showed intense staining in a subset of fibres in the lateral branch, but no ..
  34. Ostrin E, Little D, Gerner Mauro K, Sumner E, Ríos Corzo R, Ambrosio E, et al. β-Catenin maintains lung epithelial progenitors after lung specification. Development. 2018;145: pubmed publisher promoting a hierarchical lung progenitor gene signature, suppressing gastrointestinal (GI) genes, and regulating NK2 homeobox 1 (NKX2.1) and SRY box 2 (SOX2) in a developmental stage-dependent manner...
  35. White S, Vyas D, Bieger D, Samathanam G. Monoamine-containing fiber plexuses in the spinal cord of guinea pigs during paralysis, recovery and relapse stages of chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. J Neuroimmunol. 1989;22:211-21 pubmed
    Immunohistochemical techniques were used to examine the morphology and distribution of monoamine- and substance P-containing fibers in the spinal cords of guinea pigs in acute paralytic, remission and relapse stages of chronic relapsing ..
  36. Tobe M, Tsuboi K, Hasegawa F, Fujiwara N, Inoue Y, Isobe M, et al. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel orally available 1-phenyl-6-aminouracils containing dimethyldihydrobenzofuranol structure for the treatment of allergic skin diseases. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2016;26:1292-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, compound 13d, having potent hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity, showed more potent suppressive effect on substance P-induced pruritus in mice than oxatomide.
  37. Zhang W, Tao S, Li T, Li Y, Li X, Tang H, et al. Nutmeg oil alleviates chronic inflammatory pain through inhibition of COX-2 expression and substance P release in vivo. Food Nutr Res. 2016;60:30849 pubmed publisher
    ..induced joint swelling, mechanical allodynia and heat hyperanalgesia of rats through inhibition of COX-2 expression and blood substance P level, which made it possible for nutmeg oil to be a potential chronic pain reliever.
  38. Wan F, Bai Y, Kou Z, Zhang T, Li H, Wang Y, et al. Endomorphin-2 Inhibition of Substance P Signaling within Lamina I of the Spinal Cord Is Impaired in Diabetic Neuropathic Pain Rats. Front Mol Neurosci. 2016;9:167 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that it resulted from a decreased inhibition of substance P (SP) signaling within the dorsal horn of the spinal cord...
  39. Komiya E, Hatano R, Otsuka H, Itoh T, Yamazaki H, Yamada T, et al. A possible role for CD26/DPPIV enzyme activity in the regulation of psoriatic pruritus. J Dermatol Sci. 2017;86:212-221 pubmed publisher
    ..On the other hand, scratching induced by imiquimod was increased in DPPIV overexpressing-mice. These results suggest that inhibition of DPPIV enzyme activity regulates pruritus in PSO. ..
  40. Fang K, Law I, Padua D, Sideri A, Huang V, Kevil C, et al. MicroRNA-31-3p Is Involved in Substance P (SP)-Associated Inflammation in Human Colonic Epithelial Cells and Experimental Colitis. Am J Pathol. 2018;188:586-599 pubmed publisher
    b>Substance P (SP) mediates colitis. SP signaling regulates the expression of several miRNAs, including miR-31-3p, in human colonocytes. However, the role of miR-31-3p in colitis and the underlying mechanisms has not been elucidated...
  41. Douglas S, Leeman S. Neurokinin-1 receptor: functional significance in the immune system in reference to selected infections and inflammation. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2011;1217:83-95 pubmed publisher
    The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R), and its preferred ligand, substance P (SP), are reviewed in relationship to the immune system and selected infections...
  42. Yu Y, Pan Y, Jin M, Zhang M, Zhang S, Li Q, et al. Association of genetic variants in tachykinins pathway genes with colorectal cancer risk. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2012;27:1429-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study suggests that tachykinins pathway genes may participate in the development of CRC and the potential interactions among the three genes on CRC may exist, which has to be confirmed in future larger studies. ..
  43. Ramonda R, Oliviero F, Galozzi P, Frallonardo P, Lorenzin M, Ortolan A, et al. Molecular mechanisms of pain in crystal-induced arthritis. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2015;29:98-110 pubmed publisher
    ..and the spinal cord, are prostaglandins, bradykinin, cytokines (in particular, interleukin (IL)-1β), and substance P. The pharmacological treatment of pain in CIA is strictly associated with the treatment of acute phases and ..
  44. Øvsthus I, Breland T, Hagen S, Brandt K, Wold A, Bengtsson G, et al. Effects of Organic and Waste-Derived Fertilizers on Yield, Nitrogen and Glucosinolate Contents, and Sensory Quality of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica). J Agric Food Chem. 2015;63:10757-67 pubmed publisher
    ..However, extruded shrimp shell and mineral NPK fertilizer gave higher glucosinolate contents than sheep manure and no fertilizer...
  45. Schytz H, Hargreaves R, Ashina M. Challenges in developing drugs for primary headaches. Prog Neurobiol. 2017;152:70-88 pubmed publisher
    ..whilst efficacious has central side effects and some approaches such as nitric oxide synthase inhibition, substance P antagonism and cortical spreading depression blockade, despite having promising effects in basic pain models, ..
  46. Pillidge K, Porter A, Young J, Stanford S. Perseveration by NK1R-/- ('knockout') mice is blunted by doses of methylphenidate that affect neither other aspects of their cognitive performance nor the behaviour of wild-type mice in the 5-Choice Continuous Performance Test. J Psychopharmacol. 2016;30:837-47 pubmed publisher
    ..increased vulnerability to ADHD is polymorphism(s) of TACR1, which is the human equivalent of the rodent NK1 (substance P-preferring) receptor gene (Nk1r)...
  47. Mungunsukh O, Lee Y, Bottaro D, Day R. The hepatocyte growth factor isoform NK2 activates motogenesis and survival but not proliferation due to lack of Akt activation. Cell Signal. 2016;28:1114-23 pubmed publisher
    ..HGF has two naturally occurring human isoforms as a result of alternative splicing, NK1 and NK2. While NK1 has been defined as an agonist for HGF receptor, Met, NK2 is defined as a partial Met antagonist...
  48. Abdel Malek R, Abbas N, Shohdy K, Ismail M, Fawzy R, Salem D, et al. Addition of 3-day aprepitant to ondansetron and dexamethasone for prophylaxis of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting among patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma receiving 5-day cisplatin-based chemotherapy. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst. 2017;29:155-158 pubmed publisher
    ..Further randomized controlled trials are needed to compare between 3-day and 7-day aprepitant for multi-day cisplatin regimens. ..
  49. Pinto F, Pintado C, Pennefather J, Patak E, Candenas L. Ovarian steroids regulate tachykinin and tachykinin receptor gene expression in the mouse uterus. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2009;7:77 pubmed publisher
    ..All genes encoding tachykinins (Tac1, Tac2 and Tac4) and tachykinin receptors (Tacr1, Tacr2 and Tacr3) were expressed in uteri from ovariectomized mice...
  50. Gulyas B, Sovago J, Gomez Mancilla B, Jia Z, Szigeti C, Gulya K, et al. Decrease of mGluR5 receptor density goes parallel with changes in enkephalin and substance P immunoreactivity in Huntington's disease: a preliminary investigation in the postmortem human brain. Brain Struct Funct. 2015;220:3043-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The density of enkephalin (Enk)- or substance P (SP)-containing neurons was assessed using immunohistochemical and cell-counting methods...
  51. Devos F, Boonen B, Alpizar Y, Maes T, Hox V, Seys S, et al. Neuro-immune interactions in chemical-induced airway hyperreactivity. Eur Respir J. 2016;48:380-92 pubmed publisher
    ..sensitisation, in Trpa1 and Trpv1 knockout mice, and wild-type mice pretreated with a TRPA1 blocker or a substance P receptor antagonist...
  52. Andero R, Daniel S, Guo J, Bruner R, Seth S, Marvar P, et al. Amygdala-Dependent Molecular Mechanisms of the Tac2 Pathway in Fear Learning. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2016;41:2714-22 pubmed publisher
    Recently we determined that activation of the tachykinin 2 (Tac2) pathway in the central amygdala (CeA) is necessary and sufficient for the modulation of fear memories...
  53. Francischi J, Frade T, Almeida M, Queiroz B, Bakhle Y. Ketamine-xylazine anaesthesia and orofacial administration of substance P: A lethal combination in rats. Neuropeptides. 2017;62:21-26 pubmed publisher
    ..A likely mediator of this oedema is substance P (SP), a major transmitter of sensory nerves in orofacial tissue...
  54. Sui P, Watanabe H, Artemenko K, Sun W, Bakalkin G, Andersson M, et al. Neuropeptide imaging in rat spinal cord with MALDI-TOF MS: Method development for the application in pain-related disease studies. Eur J Mass Spectrom (Chichester). 2017;23:105-115 pubmed publisher
    ..Three groups of pain-related neuropeptides, which are cleaved from prodynorphin, proenkephalin and protachykinin-1 proteins were detected...
  55. Yin J, Liang Y, Wang D, Yan Z, Yin H, Wu D, et al. Naringenin induces laxative effects by upregulating the expression levels of c-Kit and SCF, as well as those of aquaporin 3 in mice with loperamide-induced constipation. Int J Mol Med. 2018;41:649-658 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, NAR may be effective as a candidate in patients suffering from lifestyle-induced constipation. ..
  56. Rupniak N, Katofiasc M, Marson L, Thor K. NK2 and NK1 receptor-mediated effects of NKA and analogs on colon, bladder, and arterial pressure in anesthetized dogs. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2018;391:299-308 pubmed publisher
    Tachykinin NK2 receptor (NK2R) agonists have potential to alleviate clinical conditions associated with bladder and gastrointestinal under activity...
  57. Lu P, Luo H, Quan X, Fan H, Tang Q, Yu G, et al. The role of substance P in the maintenance of colonic hypermotility induced by repeated stress in rats. Neuropeptides. 2016;56:75-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Our objective was to study the possible role of substance P (SP) in the colonic hypermotility induced by repeated water avoidance stress (WAS) which mimics irritable bowel ..
  58. Tellechea F, Martins M, da Silva A, da Gama Rodrigues E, Martins M. Use of sugarcane filter cake and nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilization in the process of bioremediation of soil contaminated with diesel. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2016;23:18027-33 pubmed publisher
    This study evaluated the use of sugarcane filter cake and nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) fertilization in the bioremediation of a soil contaminated with diesel fuel using a completely randomized design...
  59. Eshragh J, Dhruva A, Paul S, Cooper B, Mastick J, Hamolsky D, et al. Associations Between Neurotransmitter Genes and Fatigue and Energy Levels in Women After Breast Cancer Surgery. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2017;53:67-84.e7 pubmed publisher
    ..Results suggest that a large number of neurotransmitters play a role in the development and maintenance of fatigue and energy levels in breast cancer patients. ..
  60. Thompson P, Bhushan A. β Cells led astray by transcription factors and the company they keep. J Clin Invest. 2017;127:94-97 pubmed publisher
    ..In this issue, three different studies provide complementary perspectives on how the transcription factors NK2 homeobox 2 (NKX2...
  61. Lyczko M, Pruszyński M, Majkowska Pilip A, Lyczko K, Wąs B, Meczyńska Wielgosz S, et al. 211At labeled substance P (5-11) as potential radiopharmaceutical for glioma treatment. Nucl Med Biol. 2017;53:1-8 pubmed publisher
    The purposes of the present work were to label substance P (5-11) with 211At using a rhodium(III) complex with a bifunctional ligand-2-(1,5,9,13-tetrathiacyclohexadecan-3-yloxy)acetic acid ([16aneS4]-COOH) and to ..
  62. Da Silva J, Evangelista B, Venega R, Oliveira M, Chacur M. Early and late behavioral changes in sciatic nerve injury may be modulated by nerve growth factor and substance P in rats: a chronic constriction injury long-term evaluation. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2017;31:309-319 pubmed
    ..and transported in retrograde fashion to the dorsal root ganglion (DRG), resulting in increased synthesis of Substance P (SP) and the triggering of neuropathic pain...
  63. Nourinezhad J, Podlasz P, Wasowicz K. Immunohistochemical characteristics of neurons in the ganglia of the greater splanchnic nerve of the pig. Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2017;55:221-229 pubmed publisher
    ..somatostatin (SOM), galanin (GAL), methionine-enkephalin (MET), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and substance P (SP) were used for immunohistochemical detection of classical neurotransmitters marker enzymes and ..
  64. Berkow E, Manigaba K, Parker J, Barker K, Kelly S, Rogers P. Multidrug Transporters and Alterations in Sterol Biosynthesis Contribute to Azole Antifungal Resistance in Candida parapsilosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015;59:5942-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, sterol analysis of these isolates suggests that other changes in sterol biosynthesis may contribute to azole resistance in C. parapsilosis. ..
  65. Porter A, Pillidge K, Stanford S, Young J. Differences in the performance of NK1R-/- ('knockout') and wildtype mice in the 5‑Choice Continuous Performance Test. Behav Brain Res. 2016;298:268-77 pubmed publisher
    Mice lacking functional NK1 (substance P-preferring) receptors typically display excessive inattentiveness (omission errors) and impulsivity (premature responses) when compared with wildtypes in the 5-Choice Serial Reaction-Time Test (5-..
  66. Krustev E, Muley M, McDougall J. Endocannabinoids inhibit neurogenic inflammation in murine joints by a non-canonical cannabinoid receptor mechanism. Neuropeptides. 2017;64:131-135 pubmed publisher
    ..intestinal peptide antagonist VIP6-28; however, neither calcitonin gene related peptide nor substance P antagonism had an effect on this neurogenic inflammatory response...
  67. Henssen A, Odersky A, Szymansky A, Seiler M, Althoff K, Beckers A, et al. Targeting tachykinin receptors in neuroblastoma. Oncotarget. 2017;8:430-443 pubmed publisher
    ..TACR1 activation by substance P has been reported to be mitogenic in cancer cell lines...
  68. He J, Shao G, Wei X, Huang F, Sheng Z, Tang S, et al. Fine mapping and candidate gene analysis of qTAC8, a major quantitative trait locus controlling tiller angle in rice (Oryza sativa L.). PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0178177 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide a foundation for the cloning of qTAC8 and genetic improvement of the rice plant architecture. ..
  69. Yamaguchi R, Sakamoto A, Yamaguchi R, Haraguchi M, Narahara S, Sugiuchi H, et al. Transcription factor specificity protein 1 modulates TGFβ1/Smad signaling to negatively regulate SIGIRR expression by human M1 macrophages stimulated with substance P. Cytokine. 2018;108:24-36 pubmed publisher
    ..the effect of TGFβ1 on SIGIRR protein production by human M1 macrophages in response to stimulation with substance P (SP)...
  70. Tratnjek L, Glavan G, Višnjar T, Živin M. Upregulation and axonal transport of synaptotagmin-IV in the direct-pathway medium spiny neurons in hemi-parkinsonian rats induced by dopamine D1 receptor stimulation. Eur J Neurosci. 2016;43:885-98 pubmed publisher
    ..It was therefore suggested that Syt-IV may regulate the hypersensitive striatal synaptic transmission, although via a SP-independent mechanism. ..
  71. Bellucci F, Buéno L, Bugianesi R, Crea A, D Aranno V, Meini S, et al. Gender-related differential effect of tachykinin NK2 receptor-mediated visceral hyperalgesia in guinea pig colon. Br J Pharmacol. 2016;173:1329-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Ibodutant (0.33 , 0.65, 1.9 and 6.5 mg·kg(-1) ) was given s.c., 30 min before CRD. Release of neurokinin A and substance P from isolated mucosal and smooth muscle tissues following treatment with KCl (80 mM) or ..
  72. Lorente L, Martín M, Almeida T, Pérez Cejas A, Ramos L, Argüeso M, et al. Serum Levels of Substance P and Mortality in Patients with a Severe Acute Ischemic Stroke. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17: pubmed publisher
    b>Substance P (SP), a member of tachykinin family, is involved in the inflammation of the central nervous system and in the appearance of cerebral edema...
  73. Takazawa T, Choudhury P, Tong C, Conway C, Scherrer G, Flood P, et al. Inhibition Mediated by Glycinergic and GABAergic Receptors on Excitatory Neurons in Mouse Superficial Dorsal Horn Is Location-Specific but Modified by Inflammation. J Neurosci. 2017;37:2336-2348 pubmed publisher
    ..This was true of identified neuronal subpopulations: neurokinin 1 receptor-expressing (NK1R+) neurons in lamina I were GABA-dominant while protein kinase C gamma-expressing (PKC?..
  74. Lin Y, Liu H, Day Y, Chang C, Hsu P, Chen J. Activation of NPFFR2 leads to hyperalgesia through the spinal inflammatory mediator CGRP in mice. Exp Neurol. 2017;291:62-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Inflammatory mediators within the spinal cord, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP), were up-regulated in NPFFR2-Tg and chronic NPFFR2 agonist-treated mice...
  75. Du J, Ba L, Li B, Liu F, Hu X, Zhang J, et al. Distinct expression of NK2 homeobox 1 (NKX2-1) and goblet cell hyperplasia in nasal polyps with different endotypes. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2017;7:690-698 pubmed publisher
    Decreased expression of airway epithelial-specific transcription factor NK2 homeobox 1 (NKX2-1) was associated with allergic inflammation in asthma patients...
  76. Zuo Z, Wang J, Zhang H, Zheng W, Zhang Z, He S. [Increased expressions of substance P and neurokinin/tachykinin receptor 1 in eosinophils of patients with psoriasis]. Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2017;33:966-970 pubmed
    Objective To investigate the expressions of substance P (SP) and its receptor neurokinin/tachykinin receptor 1 (NK1R) in peripheral blood eosinophils of patients with psoriasis...
  77. Marti S, Meléndez D, Pajor E, Moya D, Heuston C, Gellatly D, et al. Effect of band and knife castration of beef calves on welfare indicators of pain at three relevant industry ages: II. Chronic pain. J Anim Sci. 2017;95:4367-4380 pubmed publisher
    ..Animal BW and rectal temperature were recorded weekly over the experimental period. Salivary cortisol, substance P, haptoglobin, scrotal area temperature using infrared thermography, visual evaluation of swelling (5-point ..
  78. Nair P, Yamamoto T, Cowell S, Kulkarni V, Moye S, Navratilova E, et al. Discovery of tripeptide-derived multifunctional ligands possessing delta/mu opioid receptor agonist and neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist activities. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2015;25:3716-20 pubmed publisher
  79. Keating G. Netupitant/Palonosetron: A Review in the Prevention of Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting. Drugs. 2015;75:2131-41 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, netupitant/palonosetron is an important option to consider in the prevention of acute and delayed CINV in patients receiving MEC or HEC. ..
  80. Brito H, Barbosa F, Reis R, Fraga D, Borges B, Franco C, et al. Evidence of substance P autocrine circuitry that involves TNF-?, IL-6, and PGE2 in endogenous pyrogen-induced fever. J Neuroimmunol. 2016;293:1-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Substance P (SP) is involved in fever that is induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) but not by interleukin-1? or macrophage inflammatory protein-1?. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v...
  81. Hennessy M, Corcoran A, Brust R, Chang Y, Nattie E, Dymecki S. Activity of Tachykinin1-Expressing Pet1 Raphe Neurons Modulates the Respiratory Chemoreflex. J Neurosci. 2017;37:1807-1819 pubmed publisher
    ..the capacity to coexpress other neurotransmitters such as glutamate, GABA, thyrotropin releasing hormone, and substance P encoded by the Tachykinin-1 (Tac1) gene...
  82. Bassi G, Carvalho M, Almada R, Brandao M. Inhibition of substance P-induced defensive behavior via neurokinin-1 receptor antagonism in the central and medial but not basolateral nuclei of the amygdala in male Wistar rats. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2017;77:146-154 pubmed publisher
    ..Microinjection of the neuropeptide substance P (SP) in the amygdala elicits defensive behaviors via the activation of type 1 neurokinin (NK-1) receptors...
  83. Carletti R, Tacconi S, Mugnaini M, Gerrard P. Receptor distribution studies. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2017;35:94-100 pubmed publisher
    ..g. GABAB, NMDA (GluNRs), and Neurokinin 1) and in generating hypotheses to exploit these systems as potential therapeutic targets...
  84. Körsgen M, Pelster A, Dreisewerd K, Arlinghaus H. 3D ToF-SIMS Analysis of Peptide Incorporation into MALDI Matrix Crystals with Sub-micrometer Resolution. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 2016;27:277-84 pubmed publisher
    ..ToF-SIMS) to visualize the incorporation of three peptides with different hydrophobicities, bradykinin, Substance P, and vasopressin, into two classic MALDI matrices, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) and α-cyano-4-..
  85. Ni T, Liu Y, Peng Y, Li M, Fang Y, Yao M. Substance P induces inflammatory responses involving NF-?B in genetically diabetic mice skin fibroblasts co-cultured with macrophages. Am J Transl Res. 2016;8:2179-88 pubmed
    Delayed wound healing is an intractable complex of diabetes and substance P (SP) is proved to benefit wound healing, whose functioning mechanism remains elusive...
  86. Colombo R, Pisano F, Delconte C, Mazzone A, Grioni G, Castagna M, et al. Comparison of exercise training effect with different robotic devices for upper limb rehabilitation: a retrospective study. Eur J Phys Rehabil Med. 2017;53:240-248 pubmed publisher
    ..005) and movement smoothness parameters (nPK, P<0.001 and SM, P<0.02)...
  87. Monaco Shawver L, Schwartz L, Tuluc F, Guo C, Lai J, Gunnam S, et al. Substance P inhibits natural killer cell cytotoxicity through the neurokinin-1 receptor. J Leukoc Biol. 2011;89:113-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Antagonism of this system may present an opportunity to augment NK cell function therapeutically in selected human diseases. ..
  88. Miegueu P, St Pierre D, Lapointe M, Poursharifi P, Lu H, Gupta A, et al. Substance P decreases fat storage and increases adipocytokine production in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2013;304:G420-7 pubmed publisher
    Obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance are closely linked. Substance P (SP), via its neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R), mediates inflammatory and, possibly, neuroendocrine processes...
  89. Li X, Ma G, Ma Q, Li W, Liu J, Han L, et al. Neurotransmitter substance P mediates pancreatic cancer perineural invasion via NK-1R in cancer cells. Mol Cancer Res. 2013;11:294-302 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the underlying mechanism is not clear. This study aimed to determine the relationship between Substance P (SP) and pancreatic cancer perineural invasion (PNI) as well as the mechanism of SP mediating pancreatic cancer ..
  90. Maguire C, Song Y, Wu M, Leon S, Carroll R, Alreja M, et al. Tac1 Signaling Is Required for Sexual Maturation and Responsiveness of GnRH Neurons to Kisspeptin in the Male Mouse. Endocrinology. 2017;158:2319-2329 pubmed publisher
    The tachykinins substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (Tac1) have emerged as novel regulators of kisspeptin/GnRH release. Recently, we documented that SP modulates reproductive function in the female mouse...
  91. Singh U, Bernstein J, Lorentz H, Sadoway T, Nelson V, Patel P, et al. A Pilot Study Investigating Clinical Responses and Biological Pathways of Azelastine/Fluticasone in Nonallergic Vasomotor Rhinitis before and after Cold Dry Air Provocation. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2017;173:153-164 pubmed publisher
    ..At both visits, nasal lavage fluid (NLF) and nasal scrapings (NS) were collected pre- and post-CDA challenge. Substance P, neurokinin-A, and calcitonin gene-related peptide concentrations in NLF were analyzed pre- and postchallenge ..
  92. Spartinou A, Nyktari V, Papaioannou A. Granisetron: a review of pharmacokinetics and clinical experience in chemotherapy induced - nausea and vomiting. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2017;:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Serotonin and substance P are the major neurotransmitters involved in the pathophysiology of CINV, but in spite of new antiemetics no ..